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CAS Registry Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including those described from at least 1957 through the present), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily. CONTENTS * 1 Use * 2 Format * 3 Granularity * 4 Search engines * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links USE _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES
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Identifier
An IDENTIFIER is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical object (or class thereof), or physical substance (or class thereof). The abbreviation ID often refers to identity, identification (the process of identifying), or an identifier (that is, an instance of identification). An identifier may be a word, number, letter, symbol, or any combination of those. The words, numbers, letters, or symbols may follow an encoding system (wherein letters, digits, words, or symbols stand for (represent) ideas or longer names) or they may simply be arbitrary. When an identifier follows an encoding system, it is often referred to as a CODE or ID CODE. Identifiers that do not follow any encoding scheme are often said to be ARBITRARY IDS; they are arbitrarily assigned and have no greater meaning
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Chemical Abstracts Service
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society . It is a source of chemical information. CAS is located in Columbus, Ohio
Columbus, Ohio
, United States
United States
. CONTENTS * 1 Print periodicals * 2 Databases * 2.1 CAplus * 2.2 Registry * 3 Products * 3.1 STN * 3.2 SciFinder * 3.3 CASSI * 4 History * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links PRINT PERIODICALS Chemical Abstracts ABBREVIATED TITLE ( ISO 4 ) Chem
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Organic Compounds
An ORGANIC COMPOUND is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon , although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds. The most basic petrochemicals are considered the building blocks of organic chemistry . CONTENTS * 1 Definitions of organic vs inorganic * 2 History * 2.1 Vitalism
Vitalism
* 2.2 Modern classification * 3 Classification * 3.1 Natural compounds * 3.2 Synthetic compounds * 3.3 Biotechnology
Biotechnology
* 4 Databases * 5 Structure determination * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DEFINITIONS OF ORGANIC VS INORGANICFor historical reasons discussed below, a few types of carbon-containing compounds, such as carbides , carbonates , simple oxides of carbon (for example, CO and CO2), and cyanides are considered inorganic
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Inorganic Compounds
A chemical compound is termed INORGANIC if it fulfills one or more of the following criteria: * There is an absence of carbon in its composition * It is of a non-biologic origin * It cannot be found or incorporated into a living organismThere is no clear or universally agreed-upon distinction between organic and inorganic compounds. Organic chemists traditionally and generally refer to any molecule containing carbon as an organic compound and by default this means that inorganic chemistry deals with molecules lacking carbon
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Mineral
A MINERAL is a naturally occurring chemical compound , usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition , whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids . The study of minerals is called mineralogy . There are over 5,300 known mineral species; as of March 2017 , over 5,230 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth\'s crust . The diversity and abundance of mineral species is controlled by the Earth's chemistry. Silicon
Silicon
and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth's crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties . Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed
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Isotope
ISOTOPES are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number . All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom . The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table . The number of protons within the atom\'s nucleus is called atomic number and is equal to the number of electrons in the neutral (non-ionized) atom. Each atomic number identifies a specific element, but not the isotope; an atom of a given element may have a wide range in its number of neutrons . The number of nucleons (both protons and neutrons) in the nucleus is the atom's mass number , and each isotope of a given element has a different mass number
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Alloys
An ALLOY is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element . Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character. An alloy may be a solid solution of metal elements (a single phase) or a mixture of metallic phases (two or more solutions). Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a defined stoichiometry and crystal structure. Zintl phases are also sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types (see also: Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle for information on classifying bonding in binary compounds). Alloys are used in a wide variety of applications. In some cases, a combination of metals may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the combination of metals imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength. Examples of alloys are steel , solder , brass , pewter , duralumin , bronze and amalgams
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Check Digit
A CHECK DIGIT is a form of redundancy check used for error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It is analogous to a binary parity bit used to check for errors in computer-generated data. It consists of one or more digits computed by an algorithm from the other digits (or letters) in the sequence input. With a check digit, one can detect simple errors in the input of a series of characters (usually digits) such as a single mistyped digit or some permutations of two successive digits
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Modular Arithmetic
In mathematics , MODULAR ARITHMETIC is a system of arithmetic for integers , where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the MODULUS (plural MODULI). The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book _ Disquisitiones Arithmeticae _, published in 1801. A familiar use of modular arithmetic is in the 12-hour clock , in which the day is divided into two 12-hour periods. If the time is 7:00 now, then 8 hours later it will be 3:00. Usual addition would suggest that the later time should be 7 + 8 = 15, but this is not the answer because clock time "wraps around" every 12 hours. Because the hour number starts over after it reaches 12, this is arithmetic _modulo_ 12. According to the definition below, 12 is congruent not only to 12 itself, but also to 0, so the time called "12:00" could also be called "0:00", since 12 is congruent to 0 modulo 12
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Water
WATER is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams , lakes , and oceans , and the fluids of most living organisms . Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms , that are connected by covalent bonds . Water strictly refers to the liquid state of that substance, that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure ; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice ) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor ). It also occurs in nature as snow , glaciers , ice packs and icebergs , clouds , fog , dew , aquifers , and atmospheric humidity . Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It is vital for all known forms of life
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Stereoisomer
In stereochemistry , STEREOISOMERS are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space. This contrasts with structural isomers , which share the same molecular formula , but the bond connections or their order differs. By definition, molecules that are stereoisomers of each other represent the same structural isomer. CONTENTS * 1 Enantiomers * 2 Diastereomers * 2.1 Cis–trans and E-Z isomerism * 3 Conformers * 4 Anomers * 5 Atropisomers * 6 More definitions * 7 Le Bel-van\'t Hoff rule * 8 References ENANTIOMERS Main articles: Chirality (chemistry)
Chirality (chemistry)
and Enantiomer ENANTIOMERS, also known as OPTICAL ISOMERS, are two stereoisomers that are related to each other by a reflection: They are mirror images of each other that are non-superimposable
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Racemic Mixture
In chemistry , a RACEMIC MIXTURE, or RACEMATE /reɪˈsimeɪt/ , is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule. The first known racemic mixture was racemic acid , which Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found to be a mixture of the two enantiomeric isomers of tartaric acid . A sample with only a single enantiomer is an enantiomerically pure, enantiopure or homochiral compound. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Nomenclature * 3 Properties * 4 Crystallization * 5 Resolution * 6 Synthesis * 7 Racemic
Racemic
pharmaceuticals * 8 Wallach\'s rule * 9 See also * 10 References ETYMOLOGYFrom racemic acid found in grapes; from Latin racemus, meaning a bunch of grapes. NOMENCLATUREA racemic mixture is denoted by the prefix (±)- or DL- (for sugars the prefix DL- may be used), indicating an equal (1:1) mixture of dextro and levo isomers
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Epinephrine
EPINEPHRINE, also known as ADRENALIN or ADRENALINE, is a hormone , neurotransmitter and medication . Epinephrine
Epinephrine
is normally produced by both the adrenal glands and certain neurons . It plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow to muscles, output of the heart , pupil dilation , and blood sugar . It does this by binding to alpha and beta receptors . It is found in many animals and some single cell organisms . Napoleon Cybulski first isolated epinephrine in 1895. As a medication it is used to treat a number of conditions including anaphylaxis , cardiac arrest , and superficial bleeding. Inhaled epinephrine may be used to improve the symptoms of croup . It may also be used for asthma when other treatments are not effective. It is given intravenously , by injection into a muscle, by inhalation, or by injection just under the skin. Common side effects include shakiness, anxiety , and sweating
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Phase (matter)
In the physical sciences , a PHASE is a region of space (a thermodynamic system ), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform. :86 :3 Examples of physical properties include density , index of refraction , magnetization and chemical composition. A simple description is that a phase is a region of material that is chemically uniform, physically distinct, and (often) mechanically separable. In a system consisting of ice and water in a glass jar, the ice cubes are one phase, the water is a second phase, and the humid air over the water is a third phase. The glass of the jar is another separate phase. (See state of matter#Glass ) The term phase is sometimes used as a synonym for state of matter , but there can be several immiscible phases of the same state of matter
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Carbon
CARBON (from Latin : _carbo_ "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent —making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds . Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radioactive isotope , decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity . Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen , helium , and oxygen . Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds , and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life . It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen
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