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Córdoba, Argentina
CóRDOBA (Spanish pronunciation: ) is a city in the geographical center of Argentina
Argentina
, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía
Suquía
River
River
, about 700 km (435 mi) northwest of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
. It is the capital of Córdoba Province and the second most populous city in Argentina
Argentina
after Buenos Aires, with about 1,330,023 inhabitants according to the 2010 census. It was founded on 6 July 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera , who named it after Córdoba, Spain
Córdoba, Spain
. It was one of the first Spanish colonial capitals of the region that is now Argentina
Argentina
(the oldest city is Santiago
Santiago
del Estero , founded in 1553)
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Roman Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian Church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See , is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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University Of Buenos Aires
The UNIVERSITY OF BUENOS AIRES (Spanish : Universidad de Buenos Aires, UBA) is the largest university in Argentina
Argentina
and the second largest university by enrollment in Latin
Latin
America . Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
, it consists of 13 departments, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini , Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria. Entry to any of the available programmes of study in the university is open to anyone with a secondary school degree; in most cases, students who have successfully completed high school must pass a first year called CBC, which stands for Ciclo Básico Común (Common Basic Cycle)
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Francisco De Toledo
FRANCISCO ÁLVAREZ DE TOLEDO (10 July 1515 – 21 April 1582) was an aristocrat and soldier of the Kingdom of Spain
Spain
and the fifth Viceroy of Peru
Peru
. He is often considered the "best of Peru's viceroys," albeit controversial for the deleterious impact of some of his actions on the Native American (Indian) population. He brought stability to a tumultuous colony of Spain
Spain
and enacted administrative reforms which changed the character of Spanish rule and the relationship between the indigenous Native Americans of the Andes
Andes
and their Spanish overlords. With a policy called reductions , Toledo forcibly relocated much of the Indian population of Peru
Peru
and Bolivia
Bolivia
into new settlements to facilitate Christianization, to collect tribute and taxes, and to gather Indian labor to work in mines and other Spanish enterprises
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Spanish Colonization Of The Americas
The Colonial expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Catholic
Catholic
faith through indigenous conversions. Beginning with the 1492 arrival of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
and continuing for over three centuries, the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
would expand across the Caribbean
Caribbean
Islands, half of South America
South America
, most of Central America and much of North America
North America
(including present day Mexico
Mexico
, Florida
Florida
and the Southwestern and Pacific Coastal regions of the United States )
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Society Of Jesus
The SOCIETY OF JESUS (S.J. – from Latin
Latin
: Societas Iesu) is a male religious congregation of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which originated in Spain. The members are called JESUITS. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities, and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries , and promote ecumenical dialogue . Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona . He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ
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Punilla Valley
The PUNILLA VALLEY (Spanish : Valle de Punilla) is a broad fluvial valley in the province of Córdoba , Argentina
Argentina
. It is located in the center-northwest of the province, bordered by the Sierras Chicas in the east and the Sierras Grandes and the Pampa Achala in the west, oriented from north to south. In the southern part of the valley lies the San Roque Lake , fed mainly by the San Antonio River and the Cosquín River . The most important tourist location in Córdoba, the city of Villa Carlos Paz , is located on the southern shore of San Roque lake, though the valley is known for a number of other scenic towns, including Cruz del Eje , Capilla del Monte , La Cumbre , La Falda , Valle Hermoso , and Cosquín
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Cityscape
In the visual arts a CITYSCAPE (urban landscape) is an artistic representation, such as a painting , drawing , print or photograph , of the physical aspects of a city or urban area. It is the urban equivalent of a landscape . Townscape is roughly synonymous with cityscape, though it implies the same difference in urban size and density (and even modernity) implicit in the difference between the words city and town. In urban design the terms refer to the configuration of built forms and interstitial space. CONTENTS * 1 History of cityscapes in art * 2 Selected cityscape painters * 3 See also * 4 External links * 5 References HISTORY OF CITYSCAPES IN ARTFrom the first century A.D. dates a fresco at the Baths of Trajan in Rome
Rome
depicting a bird's eye view of an ancient city. In the Middle Ages, cityscapes appeared as a background for portraits and biblical themes
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Comechingones
COMECHINGóN (plural COMECHINGONES) is the common name for a group of people indigenous to the Argentine provinces of Córdoba and San Luis . They were thoroughly displaced or exterminated by the Spanish conquistadores by the end of the 17th century. The two main Comechingón groups called themselves HENIA (in the north) and KAMIARE (in the south), each subdivided into a dozen or so tribes. The name comechingón is a deformation of the pejorative term kamichingan—"cave dwellers"—used by the Sanavirón tribe. They were sedentary, practiced agriculture yet gathered wild fruits, and raised animals for wool, meat and eggs. Their culture was heavily influenced by that of the Andes
Andes
. Several aspects seem to differentiate the Henia-Kamiare from inhabitants of nearby areas. They had a rather Caucasian appearance, with beards and supposedly a minority with greenish eyes
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Indigenous People Of The Americas
The INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE AMERICAS are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas
Americas
and their descendants. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas ("indigenous peoples") is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries
Spanish-speaking countries
, and pueblos nativos or nativos (lit. "native peoples" in the sense of descendants of non-immigrants) may also be heard, while aborigen (aborigine) is used in Argentina
Argentina
, and pueblos aborígenes (aboriginal peoples) is common in Chile
Chile
. The term "Amerindian" (short for "'Indians of the Americas") is used in Quebec
Quebec
, the Guianas , and the English-speaking Caribbean
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King Carlos III
CHARLES III (Spanish : Carlos; Italian : Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain
King of Spain
and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples
Naples
as CHARLES VII and Sicily
Sicily
as CHARLES V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand . He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain
Spain
, and the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese . A proponent of enlightened absolutism , he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother King Ferdinand VI of Spain
Ferdinand VI of Spain
, who left no heirs. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma
Duke of Parma
and Piacenza , as CHARLES I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese
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La Rioja Province (Argentina)
LA RIOJA (Spanish pronunciation: ) is one of the provinces of Argentina
Argentina
and is located in the west of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise Catamarca , Córdoba , San Luis and San Juan . The dinosaur Riojasaurus is named after the province. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography and climate * 3 Economy * 4 Political division * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Facundo Quiroga , La Rioja's popular fighter for autonomy. Petroglyphs created by early indigenous peoples at the Talampaya National Park are dated around 10,000 years BC . Succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples developed here. The Diaguita , Capayan and the Olongasta peoples inhabited the territory of present-day La Rioja Province at the time of encounter with the Spanish colonists in the 16th century
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Franciscan
The FRANCISCANS are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi . These orders include the ORDER OF FRIARS MINOR , the ORDER OF SAINT CLARE , and the THIRD ORDER OF SAINT FRANCIS . These orders adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi
Clare of Assisi
, Anthony of Padua
Anthony of Padua
, and Elizabeth of Hungary , among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome
Rome
to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope
Pope
disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching
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Charles III Of Spain
CHARLES III (Spanish : Carlos; Italian : Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain
King of Spain
and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples
Naples
as CHARLES VII and Sicily
Sicily
as CHARLES V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand . He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain
Spain
, and the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese . A proponent of enlightened absolutism , he suceeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother King Ferdinand VI of Spain
Ferdinand VI of Spain
, who left no heirs. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma
Duke of Parma
and Piacenza , as CHARLES I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese
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Jesuits
The SOCIETY OF JESUS (S.J. – from Latin
Latin
: Societas Iesu) is a religious congregation of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which originated in Spain. The members are called JESUITS. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits
Jesuits
work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities, and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits
Jesuits
also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries , and promote ecumenical dialogue . Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona
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Novitiate
In the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Eastern Orthodox Church , the NOVITIATE, also called the NOVICIATE, is the period of training and preparation that a novice (or prospective) monastic , apostolic, or member of a religious institute undergoes prior to taking vows in order to discer n whether he or she is called to vowed religious life. It often includes times of intense study, prayer , living in community, studying the vowed life, deepening one's relationship with God, and deepening one's self-awareness. It is a time of creating a new way of being in the world. The novitiate stage in most communities is a two-year period of formation. These years are "Sabbath time" to deepen one's relationship with God, to intensify the living out of the community's mission and charism, and to foster human growth. The novitiate experience for many communities includes a concentrated program of prayer, study, reflection and limited ministerial engagement
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