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Byzantine-Mongol Alliance
A BYZANTINE–MONGOL ALLIANCE occurred during the end of the 13th and the beginning of the 14th century between the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Mongol Empire . Byzantium actually tried to maintain friendly relations with both the Golden Horde and the Ilkhanate realms, who were often at war with each other. The alliance involved numerous exchanges of presents, military collaboration and marital links, but dissolved in the middle of the 14th century. CONTENTS * 1 Diplomatic overtures * 2 Alliance under Michael VIII (1263–1282) * 3 Alliance under Andronikos II (1282–1328) * 4 End of friendly relations * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Sources DIPLOMATIC OVERTURESSoon after the Battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, the Empire of Trebizond surrendered to the Mongol Empire while the court of Nicaea put its fortresses in order. In the early 1250s, the Latin emperor of Constantinople
Constantinople
Baldwin II sent an embassy to Mongolia in the person of the knight Baudoin de Hainaut, who, following his return, met in Constantinople
Constantinople
with the departing William of Rubruck . William of Rubruck also noted that he met an envoy of John III Doukas Vatatzes , emperor of Nicaea , at the court of Möngke Khan in circa 1253
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Mongol Empire
The MONGOL EMPIRE (Mongolian : _Mongolyn Ezent Güren_ listen (help ·info ); Mongolian Cyrillic : Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; ; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles ) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in the steppes of Central Asia , the Mongol Empire
Empire
eventually stretched from Central Europe
Central Europe
to the Sea of Japan , extending northwards into Siberia
Siberia
, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent , Indochina
Indochina
, and the Iranian plateau , and westwards as far as the Levant
Levant
and Arabia . The Mongol
Mongol
Empire
Empire
emerged from the unification of nomadic tribes in the Mongol
Mongol
homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
, whom a council proclaimed ruler of all the Mongols
Mongols
in 1206. The empire grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction. The vast transcontinental empire connected the east with the west with an enforced _ Pax Mongolica _, allowing the dissemination and exchange of trade, technologies, commodities, and ideologies across Eurasia
Eurasia

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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe
. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the _Roman Empire_ (Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. _Basileia tôn Rhōmaiōn_; Latin : _Imperium Romanum_), or _Romania_ (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans". Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I
Constantine I
(r
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Mongol Invasions And Conquests
MONGOL INVASIONS AND CONQUESTS took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire , which by 1300 covered much of Asia
Asia
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. Historians regard the destruction under the Mongol Empire as results of some of the deadliest conflicts in human history. In addition, Mongol expeditions brought the bubonic plague along with them, spreading it across much of Asia
Asia
and Europe and helping cause massive loss of life in the Black Death of the 14th century. The Mongol Empire developed in the course of the 13th century through a series of conquests and invasions throughout Asia, reaching Eastern Europe by the 1240s. In contrast with later empires such as the British, which can be defined as "empires of the sea" , the Mongol empire was an empire of the land, a tellurocracy, fuelled by the grass supporting Mongol cavalry and cattle. Thus most Mongol conquering and plundering took place during the warmer seasons, when there was sufficient grass for the herds. Tartar and Mongol raids against Russian states continued well beyond the start of the Mongol Empire\'s fragmentation around 1260. Elsewhere, the Mongols' territorial gains in China continued into the 14th century under the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
, while those in Persia persisted into the 15th century under the Timurid Empire
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First Mongol Invasion Of Burma
Decisive Yuan victory * Collapse of Pagan Empire * Rise of Shan states
Shan states
Territorial changes Northern Burma to Tagaung added to the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
BELLIGERENTS Yuan dynasty
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Battle Of Ngasaunggyan
Mongol Empire * Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Narathihapate Khudu STRENGTH 80,000 plus more than 120 war elephants 6,000–12,000 cavalry CASUALTIES AND LOSSES Heavy Unknown * v * t * e Mongol invasions and conquests ASIA BURMA* First * Ngasaunggyan * Pagan * Second CENTRAL ASIA * Qara Khitai * Khwarezm CHINA * Western Xia * Jin * Song * Dali * Ziqi JAPAN * Bun\'ei * Kōan VIETNAM * Bạch Đằng Other invasions * India * Java * Korea * Tibet EUROPE * Rus\' * Volga Bulgaria (Samara Bend , Bilär ) * Dzurdzuketia (Chechnya) * Poland (first) * Hungary (first) * Bulgaria and Serbia * Poland (second) * Thrace * Hungary (second) * Poland (third) * Serbia NEAR EAST * Khwarezmia * Armenia * Georgia * Anatolia (Köse Dağ , Byzantine–Mongol alliance ) * Baghdad * Levant * Palestine (Ain Jalut )The BATTLE OF NGASAUNGGYAN was fought in 1277 between Kublai Khan 's Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
, the principal khanate of the Mongol Empire , and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire (in present-day Burma
Burma
) led by Narathihapate . The battle was initiated by Narathihapate, who invaded the Yunnan
Yunnan
, a province of the Yuan dynasty
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Battle Of Pagan
Mongol Empire * Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Esen-temur STRENGTH unknown unknown CASUALTIES AND LOSSES Unknown Minimal * v * t * e Mongol invasions and conquests ASIA BURMA* First * Ngasaunggyan * Pagan * Second CENTRAL ASIA * Qara Khitai * Khwarezm CHINA * Western Xia * Jin * Song * Dali * Ziqi JAPAN * Bun\'ei * Kōan VIETNAM * Bạch Đằng Other invasions * India * Java * Korea * Tibet EUROPE * Rus\' * Volga Bulgaria (Samara Bend , Bilär ) * Dzurdzuketia (Chechnya) * Poland (first) * Hungary (first) * Bulgaria and Serbia * Poland (second) * Thrace * Hungary (second) * Poland (third) * Serbia NEAR EAST * Khwarezmia * Armenia * Georgia * Anatolia (Köse Dağ , Byzantine–Mongol alliance ) * Baghdad * Levant * Palestine (Ain Jalut )The BATTLE OF PAGAN was fought in 1287 between Kublai Khan 's Yuan dynasty , division of the Mongol Empire , and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire in Burma. The invasion ended the Pagan Empire, which disintegrated into several small kingdoms
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Second Mongol Invasion Of Burma
The SECOND MONGOL INVASION OF BURMA by the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
under Temür Khan was repulsed by the Burmese Myinsaing Kingdom in 1301. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Mongol invasion (1300–1301) * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading BACKGROUNDAfter the first Mongol invasion by the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
, Narathihapate fled Pagan, which subsequently was sacked by the invading Mongol forces. Already experienced commanders, the brothers strengthened their garrison at Myinsaing. After the Mongols
Mongols
left, Kyawswa succeeded his father Narathihapate. But he was just a nominal king of Pagan for he controlled no more than a few miles outside Pagan. Indeed, the Pagan Empire had ceased to exist. Instead, the real power in central Burma
Burma
rested with the brothers who through their small but well-disciplined army controlled the Kyaukse district, the most important granary of Pagan. Kyawswa had no choice but to recognize them as lords of Kyaukse. On 19 February 1293 (12th waxing of Tabaung 654 ME), the king appointed the eldest brother as viceroy of Myinsaing, the second brother as viceroy of Mekkara, and the third brother as viceroy of Pinle. The brothers already behaved like sovereign kings nonetheless
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Mongol Invasion Of Central Asia
The MONGOL INVASION OF CENTRAL ASIA occurred after the unification of the Mongol
Mongol
and Turkic tribes on the Mongolian plateau in 1206. It was finally complete when Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
conquered the Khwarizmian Empire in 1221. UYGHURS, QARLUQS AND QARA KHITAI Main article: Mongol conquest of the Qara Khitai The Uyghurs , Qarluqs and local Turkic and Tajik peoples submitted to the Mongolians. The Uyghur state of Kara-Khoja was a vassal of the Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
, but in 1210, the Uyghur ruler of Kara-Khoja, Idiqut Barchuq appeared before the Khan to declare his allegiance to the Mongolians. He was rewarded with the daughter of Genghis in marriage, and the Uyghurs served under the Mongols
Mongols
as bureaucrats. A leader of the Qarluq and Buzar, the warlord of Chuy Valley , followed the Uyghur example. The Qara Khitai
Qara Khitai
(Black Khitan) were Khitans of the Liao Dynasty (907–1125) who were driven out of China
China
by the Jurchens of the Jin dynasty . In 1124 some Khitans moved westward under Yeh-lü Ta-shih ’s leadership and created the Qara Khitai Khanate (Western Liao) between in the Semirechye and the Chu River
Chu River

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Mongol Conquest Of The Qara Khitai
Mongol Empire Uyghurs Karluks Badakhshani hunters Qara Khitai COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Jebe Kuchlug UNITS INVOLVED Two tumens unknown STRENGTH 20,000 total unknown, over 30,000 CASUALTIES AND LOSSES minimal unknown * v * t * e Mongol invasions and conquests ASIA BURMA* First * Ngasaunggyan * Pagan * Second CENTRAL ASIA * Qara Khitai * Khwarezm CHINA * Western Xia * Jin * Song * Dali * Ziqi JAPAN * Bun\'ei * Kōan VIETNAM * Bạch Đằng Other invasions * India * Java * Korea * Tibet EUROPE * Rus\' * Volga Bulgaria (Samara Bend , Bilär ) * Dzurdzuketia (Chechnya) * Poland (first) * Hungary (first) * Bulgaria and Serbia * Poland (second) * Thrace * Hungary (second) * Poland (third) * Serbia NEAR EAST * Khwarezmia * Armenia * Georgia * Anatolia (Köse Dağ , Byzantine–Mongol alliance ) * Baghdad * Levant * Palestine (Ain Jalut )The Mongol Empire conquered the Qara Khitai in the years 1216–1218 AD. Prior to the invasion, war with the Khwarazmian dynasty and the usurpation of power by the Naiman prince Kuchlug had weakened the Qara Khitai
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Mongol Conquest Of Khwarezmia
Disputed (see below). Estimates include: * 75,000 * 100,000–150,000 * 600,000 * 800,000 40,000–400,000 CASUALTIES AND LOSSES unknown 1.25 million killed including civilians (25% of the population) * v * t * e Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia * Parwan * Bamiyan * Indus * First invasion of Georgia * v * t * e Mongol invasions and conquests ASIA BURMA* First * Ngasaunggyan * Pagan * Second CENTRAL ASIA * Qara Khitai * Khwarezm CHINA * Western Xia * Jin * Song * Dali * Ziqi JAPAN * Bun\'ei * Kōan VIETNAM * Bạch Đằng Other invasions * India * Java * Korea * Tibet EUROPE * Rus\' * Volga Bulgaria (Samara Bend , Bilär ) * Dzurdzuketia (Chechnya) * Poland (first) * Hungary (first) * Bulgaria and Serbia * Poland (second) * Thrace * Hungary (second) * Poland (third) * Serbia NEAR EAST * Khwarezmia * Armenia * Georgia * Anatolia (Köse Dağ , Byzantine– Mongol alliance ) * Baghdad * Levant * Palestine (Ain Jalut )The MONGOL CONQUEST OF KHWAREZMIA from 1219 to 1221 marked the beginning of the Mongol conquest of the Islamic states
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Mongol Invasion Of China
Mongol Empire / Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
* Western Xia (1210–1219) * Han Chinese * Khitans * Jurchens * Alans ( Asud ) * Turkics Southern Song dynasty (1211–1234)
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Mongol Conquest Of Western Xia
Decisive Mongol victories: a) Subjugation of Western Xia b) Destruction of Western Xia Territorial changes Western Xia lands absorbed into Mongol Empire BELLIGERENTS Mongol Empire a) Western Xia ------------------------- b) Western Xia Jin dynasty COMMANDERS AND LEADERSa) Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
------------------------- b)
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Mongol Conquest Of The Jin Dynasty
Decisive Mongol–Song victory * Destruction of the Jin dynasty BELLIGERENTS Mongol Empire * Khitans (Eastern Liao ) * Western Xia (1210–1219) Song dynasty (1233–34) Jin dynasty Co-belligerents: Western Xia (1225–1227) COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Jebe Muqali † Boal (Bor) Doqolqu Tolui
Tolui
Ögedei
Ögedei
Subutai Shi Tianze Zhang Hongfan Zhang Rou Yan Shi Liu Heima (Liu Ni) Xiao Zhala Guo Kan Wanyan Yongji Emperor Xuanzong of Jin Li Ying Moran Jinzhong Emperor Aizong of Jin Wanyan
Wanyan
Heda Puxian Wannu Pucha Guannu Ma Yong Emperor Mo of Jin † STRENGTH Approx 90,000–120,000 horse archers 40,000 Northern Han Chinese defectors 30,000 Khitan defectors Song dynasty lent 300,000 soldiers to the Mongols in 1234 after the death of Genghis Khan
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Mongol Conquest Of The Song Dynasty
The MONGOL CONQUEST OF THE SONG DYNASTY under Kublai Khan (r. 1260–1294) was the final step for the Mongols
Mongols
to rule the whole of China under the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. It is also considered the Mongol
Mongol
Empire 's last great military achievement. CONTENTS* 1 Background * 1.1 Han defectors * 1.2 The 1227 incident * 1.3 Battles of Shukou * 2 First stage (1235–48) * 3 Second stage (1251–60) * 4 Prelude, and surrender of the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(1260–1276) * 5 Last stand of the Song loyalists (1276–79) * 6 Chinese resistance in Vietnam
Vietnam
against the Mongols
Mongols
* 7 References * 7.1 Citations * 7.2 Sources BACKGROUND See also: Jin–Song Wars and History of the Song dynasty Before the Mongol–Jin War escalated, an envoy from the Song dynasty arrived at the court of the Mongols, perhaps to negotiate a united offensive against the Jin dynasty , who the Song had previously fought during the Jin–Song Wars . Although Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
refused, on his death in 1227 he bequeathed a plan to attack the Jin capital by passing through Song territory. Subsequently, a Mongol
Mongol
ambassador was killed by the Song governor in uncertain circumstances
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Dali Kingdom
The DALI KINGDOM, known in Chinese as the DALI STATE (simplified Chinese: 大理国; traditional Chinese: 大理國; pinyin: Dàlǐ Guó; Bai language: Dablit Guaif), was a medieval kingdom centered in what is now Yunnan
Yunnan
province, China
China
, with Dali , in the valley boarding the Lake Erhai , and Kunming
Kunming
, the present capital of the province (on the shore of the Lake Dian
Lake Dian
), as its main cities. King Duan Siping established its capital at Dali in 937 and 22 kings of his dynasty ruled it until 1253, when it was conquered during the Mongol invasion of the area . The invaders received help from the dynasty itself, which continued to rule the area afterwards as Mongol vassals. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Family Tree of the Kings of Dali * 3 Art * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe Dali Kingdom
Dali Kingdom
was preceded by the Nanzhao dynasty, which was overthrown in 902. Three dynasties followed in quick succession before Duan Siping seized power in 937, establishing himself at Dali . Gao Shengtai forced the puppet king Duan Zhengming to abdicate and become a monk in 1095, and renamed the state "Greater China". He returned the power t