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Byzantine-Mongol Alliance
A BYZANTINE–MONGOL ALLIANCE occurred during the end of the 13th and the beginning of the 14th century between the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
. Byzantium actually tried to maintain friendly relations with both the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
realms, who were often at war with each other. The alliance involved numerous exchanges of presents, military collaboration and marital links, but dissolved in the middle of the 14th century
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Mongol Invasion Of Bulgaria And Serbia
During the Mongol invasion of Europe
Mongol invasion of Europe
, Mongol tumen s led by Batu Khan and Kadan invaded Serbia and then Bulgaria in the spring of 1242 after defeating the Hungarians at the battle of Mohi and ravaging the Hungarian regions of Croatia , Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Bosnia . Initially, the troops of Kadan moved south along the Adriatic Sea into Serbian territory. Then, turning east, it crossed the centre of the country—plundering as it went—and entered Bulgaria, where it was joined by the rest of the army under Batu. The campaigning in Bulgaria probably happened mainly in the north, where archaeology yields evidence of destruction from this period. The Mongols did, however, cross Bulgaria to attack the Empire of Constantionple to its south before withdrawing completely. Bulgaria agreed to pay tribute to the Mongols, and this continued into the 1260s
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First Mongol Invasion Of Hungary
Mongol victory * Devastation of Hungary; heavy destruction of Hungary's population and infrastructure, much loot taken. * Mongol failure to subjugate the kingdom and capture Béla IV . * Subsequent demands for submission by the Mongols in 1254, 1259, and 1264 are ignored leading to further raids, and eventually a second invasion . BELLIGERENTS Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
* Voivodeship of Transylvania Kingdom of
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Mongol Invasion Of The Latin Empire
In the summer of 1242, a Mongol army invaded the Latin Empire
Latin Empire
of Constantinople . The army, a detachment of the army under Qadan then devastating Bulgaria , entered the empire from the north. It was met by the Emperor Baldwin II , who was victorious in a first encounter but was subsequently defeated. The encounters probably took place in Thrace
Thrace
, but little can be said about them owing to the paucity of sources. Subsequent relations between Baldwin and the Mongol khans have been taken as evidence by some that Baldwin was captured and forced to make submission to the Mongols and pay tribute. Together with the major Mongol invasion of Anatolia the following year (1243), the Mongol defeat of Baldwin precipitated a power shift in the Aegean world. CONTENTS * 1 Sources * 2 Invasion * 3 Aftermath * 4 Notes * 5 Sources SOURCES The Aegean world in the early 13th century
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Second Mongol Invasion Of Poland
2ND INVASION (1259–60) * Sandomierz
Sandomierz
* Kraków
Kraków
3RD INVASION (1287–88) * Lagow * Dunajec * Stary Sacz The SECOND MONGOL INVASION OF POLAND was carried out by general Boroldai (Burundai) in 1259–1260. During this invasion the cities of Sandomierz
Sandomierz
, Kraków
Kraków
, Lublin
Lublin
, Zawichost , and Bytom
Bytom
were sacked by Mongols for the second time. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Aftermath * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYThe invasion began in late 1259, after a powerful Mongol army had been sent to the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
in order to punish King Daniel of Galicia for his independent actions
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Mongol Invasion Of Thrace
The MONGOL INVASION OF THRACE took place in the winter of 1264/1265, under the leadership of Nogai Khan . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Invasion * 3 Aftermath * 4 References BACKGROUNDThe Seljuk Sultan Kayqubad II appealed to Berke , khan of the Golden Horde to attack the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in order to free his brother Kaykaus II . INVASIONWith the assistance of the Second Bulgarian Empire
Second Bulgarian Empire
(then vassal of the Golden Horde), around 2 tumens under the leardership of Nogai Khan crossed the Danube river
Danube river
and invaded Byzantine Thrace . Nogai defeated the armies of the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
in the spring of 1265
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First Mongol Invasion Of Poland
Kingdom of Poland
Poland
Knights Templar
Knights Templar
Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
* Silesia
Silesia
* Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
* Moravian Margraviate COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Baidar Kadan Orda Khan
Orda Khan
Henry II the Pious
Henry II the Pious
† Wenceslaus I of Bohemia Mieszko II the Fat
Mieszko II the Fat
Boleslav of Moravia various others STRENGTH about 10,000 (one tumen ) over 10,000–30,000
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Mongol Invasions Of Dzurdzuketia
During the 13th and 14th centuries, the Mongols
Mongols
launched two long, massive invasions of the territory of modern Chechnya
Chechnya
and Ingushetia
Ingushetia
, which included the lands of Alania
Alania
in the West, Simsir in the Northeast, and the Georgian -allied kingdom of Durdzuketia in the South. They caused massive destruction and human death for the Dzurdzuks, but also greatly shaped the people they became afterward. The ancestors of the Chechens
Chechens
and Ingush ultimately fended off the Mongols
Mongols
which attacked in two separate waves, but this came at great cost to them, and the states they had set up were utterly destroyed as was their previous organized culture
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Mongol Invasion Of Rus'
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe
Mongol invasion of Europe
, the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
invaded Kievan Rus\' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan
Ryazan
, Kolomna
Kolomna
, Moscow
Moscow
, Vladimir , and Kiev
Kiev
. The campaign was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River in May 1223, which resulted in a Mongol
Mongol
victory over the forces of several Rus' principalities. The Mongols nevertheless retreated. A full-scale invasion of Rus' by Batu Khan
Batu Khan
followed, from 1237 to 1240. The invasion was ended by the Mongol
Mongol
succession process upon the death of Ögedei Khan
Ögedei Khan

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Mongol Invasion Of Volga Bulgaria
The MONGOL INVASION OF VOLGA BULGARIA lasted from 1223 to 1236. The Bulgar State, centered in lower Volga
Volga
and Kama , was the center of the fur trade in Eurasia throughout most of its history. Before the Mongol conquest, Russians of Novgorod
Novgorod
and Vladimir repeatedly looted and attacked the area, thereby weakening the Bulgar state's economy and military power. The latter ambushed the Mongols in the later 1223 or in 1224. Several clashes occurred between 1229–1234, and the Mongol Empire conquered the Bulgars
Bulgars
in 1236
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Battle Of Samara Bend
The BATTLE OF SAMARA BEND (Russian : Монгольско-булгарское сражение, lit. 'Mongolian-Bulgarian battle') or the Battle of Kernek was the first battle between Volga Bulgaria and the Mongols , probably one of the first skirmishes or battles the Mongols lost. It took place in autumn 1223, at the southern border of Volga Bulgaria. The Bulgars retreated and the Mongols pursued them. Then the main Bulgar forces ambushed the Mongols
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Siege Of Bilär
The SIEGE OF BILäR was a battle for the capital city of the Volga Bulgaria between the Volga Bulgars and the Mongols
Mongols
. It took place in autumn 1236 and lasted for 45 days. It ended with the total destruction of Bilär and the massacre of its population, estimated several dozen thousands. After the battle of Samara Bend the Bolghars renovated all fortification of Bilär , the city was encircled with the third 11-kilometre-long wall of stone and wood. However, after the Mongols besieged the city, it withstood the siege only for 45 days. By the material, provided by archaeological excavations the city was burnt, the unburied remains of its population could be found all over Bilär
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Second Mongol Invasion Of Hungary
The SECOND MONGOL INVASION OF HUNGARY (Hungarian : második tatárjárás) led by Nogai Khan
Nogai Khan
and Tulabuga took place during the winter of 1285/1286
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Third Mongol Invasion Of Poland
An INVASION is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering, liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory, forcing the partition of a country, altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government, or a combination thereof. An invasion can be the cause of a war , be a part of a larger strategy to end a war, or it can constitute an entire war in itself. Due to the large scale of the operations associated with invasions, they are usually strategic in planning and execution
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Mongol Raids Into Palestine
MONGOL RAIDS INTO PALESTINE took place towards the end of the Crusades
Crusades
, following the temporarily successful Mongol invasions of Syria
Syria
, primarily in 1260 and 1300. Following each of these invasions, there existed a period of a few months during which the Mongols were able to launch raids southward into Palestine , reaching as far as Gaza . The raids were executed by a relatively small part of the Mongol army, which proceeded to loot, kill, and destroy. However, the Mongols appeared to have had no intention, on either occasion, of integrating Palestine into the Mongol administrative system, and a few months after the Syrian invasions, Mamluk forces returned from Egypt and reoccupied the region with little resistance
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Battle Of Ain Jalut
Unknown; most sources (mainly European) agree or at least note that it was probably numerically much larger than the Mongol force Muslim sources state 20,000 Mamelukes One tumen detachment (nominally 10,000 but usually smaller) CASUALTIES AND LOSSES Heavy Destruction of the Mongol force Ain Jalut, عين جالوت, מעין חרוד COORDINATES 32°33′01″N 35°21′22″E / 32.550354°N 35.356032°E / 32.550354; 35.356032 * v * t * e Mongol invasions and conquests ASIA BURMA* First * Ngasaunggyan * Pagan * Second CENTRAL ASIA * Qara Khitai * Khwarezm CHINA * Western Xia * Jin * Song * Dali * Ziqi JAPAN * Bun\'ei * Kōan VIETNAM * Bạch Đằng Other invasions * India * Java * Korea * Tibet EUROPE * Rus\' * Volga Bulgaria (Samara Bend , Bilär ) * D
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