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Byzantine Greek
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language
Greek language
between the end of Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire. This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek
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Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea
Sea
is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe
Southern Europe
and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa
North Africa
and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water
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Lycian Language
The Lycian language
Lycian language
(𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊍𐊆 Trm̃mili)[3] was the language of the ancient Lycians
Lycians
of the region known as Lycia
Lycia
in Anatolia
Anatolia
(present day Turkey), during the Iron Age. Today it is a dead language, having been replaced by the Ancient Greek language
Ancient Greek language
during the Hellenization
Hellenization
of Anatolia.Contents1 Area 2 Classification 3 Endonym 4 Sources 5 Description 6 Notes 7 See also 8 External links 9 ReferencesArea[edit] Lycia
Lycia
covered the region lying between the modern cities of Antalya and Fethiye
Fethiye
in southern Turkey, especially the mountainous headland between Fethiye
Fethiye
Bay and the Gulf of Antalya
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Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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New Testament
The New Testament
New Testament
(Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Latin: Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament
New Testament
discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians
Christians
regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture. The New Testament
New Testament
(in whole or in part) has frequently accompanied the spread of Christianity
Christianity
around the world. It reflects and serves as a source for Christian theology
Christian theology
and morality
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Heraclius
Heraclius
Heraclius
(Latin: Flavius Heracles
Heracles
Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, translit. Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.[A 1] He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Roman Empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius
Heraclius
the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas. Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. The year Heraclius
Heraclius
came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Heraclius
Heraclius
immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628
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Jireček Line
The Jireček Line
Jireček Line
is a conceptual boundary through the ancient Balkans that divides the influence of the Latin
Latin
(in the north) and Greek (in the south) languages in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Antiquity until the 4th century. It goes from near the city of Laçi in modern Albania
Albania
to Serdica (now Sofia, in Bulgaria) and then follows the Balkan Mountains to Odessus (Varna) on the Black Sea. However, the proposed line is a theoretical tool only, and Latinized groups live south of the line, such as the Aromanians, Meglenites, Cutzovlachs (Βλαχοι), and Moscopolitans. Even so, it is a useful — although approximate — instrument for determining which influence a certain area was predominantly exposed to
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Asia Minor
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Phrygian Language
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker U
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Lydian Language
Lydian was an Indo-European language spoken in the region of Lydia
Lydia
in western Anatolia
Anatolia
(present-day Turkey)
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western)
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Carian Language
The Carian language is an extinct language of the Luwian
Luwian
subgroup of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language
Indo-European language
family. The Carian language was spoken in Caria, a region of western Anatolia
Anatolia
between the ancient regions of Lycia
Lycia
and Lydia, by the Carians, a name possibly first mentioned in Hittite sources. Prior to the late 20th century CE the language remained a total mystery even though many characters of the script appeared to be from the Greek alphabet. Using Greek phonetic values of letters investigators of the 19th and 20th centuries were unable to make headway and classified the language as non-Indo-European
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Armenian Language
Semi-official or unofficial (de facto) status: Georgia (Samtskhe-Javakheti)[a]  Lebanon[b]  Turkey[c]  Iran  United States (California)[d]Regulated by Institute of Language (Armenian National Academy of Sciences)[22]Language codesISO 639-1 hyISO 639-2 arm (B) hye (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: hye – Eastern Armenian hyw – Western Armenian xcl – Classical Armenian axm – Middle ArmenianGlottolog arme1241[23]Linguasphere 57-AAA-aThe Armenian-speaking world:   regions where Armenian is the language of the majorityThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Alexandria
Alexandria
Alexandria
(/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə/ or /-ˈzɑːnd-/;[3] Arabic: الإسكندرية al-ʾIskandariyya; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية Eskendria; Coptic: Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ, Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ Alexandria, Rakotə) is the second-largest city in Egypt
Egypt
and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta
Nile delta
makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria
Alexandria
is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria
Alexandria
is also a popular tourist destination. Alexandria
Alexandria
was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great
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Crimean Peninsula
Crimea
Crimea
(/kraɪˈmiːə/; Ukrainian: Крим, Krym; Russian: Крым, Krym; Crimean Tatar: Къырым, translit. Qırım; Turkish: Kırım; Ancient Greek: Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit. Kimmería/Taurikḗ) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the smaller Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson
Kherson
and west of the Russian region of Kuban. It is connected to Kherson
Kherson
Oblast by the Isthmus of Perekop
Isthmus of Perekop
and is separated from Kuban
Kuban
by the Strait of Kerch
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