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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages , when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, usually a family called the dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and one of its members, called the monarch , exercises a role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy ), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy ). Traditionally and in most cases, the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication, but there are also elective monarchies where the monarch is elected. Each of these has variations: in some elected monarchies only those of certain pedigrees are, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Autocracy
An AUTOCRACY is a system of government in which supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d\'état or mass insurrection ). Absolute monarchy (such as Saudi Arabia) and dictatorship are the main historical forms of autocracy. In earlier times, the term "autocrat" was coined as a favorable feature of the ruler, having some connection to the concept of "lack of conflicts of interests" as well as an indication of grandeur and power, the Tsar for example was styled, "Autocrat of all the Russias", as late as the early 20th century
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Romanization Of Greek
ROMANIZATION OF GREEK is the transliteration (letter -mapping) or transcription (sound -mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet . The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B (/b/ ) was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ , while the modern β sounds like the English letter V (/v/ ) instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes
Johannes
in Latin and then John in English, but in Greek itself has instead become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis , Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would have been in ancient Greek
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Edict Of Milan
The EDICT OF MILAN (Latin : Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire. Western Roman Emperor Constantine I , and Licinius , who controlled the Balkans, met in Milan
Milan
and among other things, agreed to change policies towards Christians following the Edict of Toleration by Galerius
Galerius
issued two years earlier in Serdica . The Edict of Milan gave Christianity a legal status, but did not make Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire; this took place under Emperor Theodosius I
Theodosius I
in 380 AD. The document is found in Lactantius
Lactantius
' De Mortibus Persecutorum and in Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
's History of the Church with marked divergences between the two. Whether or not there was a formal 'Edict of Milan'  is debatable
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Vassal
A VASSAL is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch , in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including land held as a tenant or fief . The term is applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies. In contrast, a fidelity , or fidelitas, was a sworn, unconditional loyalty to a monarch. CONTENTS * 1 Western vassalage * 2 Difference between "vassal" and "vassal state" * 3 Feudal
Feudal
Japanese equivalents * 4 See also * 5 Compare * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links WESTERN VASSALAGEIn fully developed VASSALAGE, the lord and the vassal would take part in a commendation ceremony composed of two parts, the homage and the fealty , including the use of Christian sacraments to show its sacred importance
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population . It includes sovereign states , inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1 . For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall. Some countries, notably Thailand
Thailand
, do not report total population, exclusively counting citizens; for total populations an international agency must issue an estimate
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State Religion
A STATE RELIGION (also called an ESTABLISHED RELIGION, STATE CHURCH, ESTABLISHED CHURCH or OFFICIAL RELIGION) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state . A state with an official religion, while not secular , is not necessarily a theocracy – a country whose rulers have in their hands both secular and spiritual authority. Official religions have been known throughout human history in almost all types of cultures. They were adopted by most ancient states, both monoethnic and polyethnic, and observing them was a requirement made to all citizens, and especially public officials. Official religions justified and reinforced the type of government existing in a society. Sanctifying it as the most, or the only, correct (divine) one, they often put forward and/or supported ideas of its expansion to other lands, whether the latter already followed the same religion or not
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Byzantine (other)
BYZANTINE usually refers to the Roman Empire
Empire
during the Middle Ages
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Principality Of Theodoro
The PRINCIPALITY OF THEODORO, also known as GOTHIA (Greek : Γοτθία) or the PRINCIPALITY OF THEODORO-MANGUP, was a small principality in the south-west of Crimea
Crimea
and both the final rump state of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and vestige of the Crimean Goths until its conquest by the Ottoman Turks
Ottoman Turks
in 1475. Its capital was Doros , which was also sometimes called Theodoro and is now known as Mangup
Mangup
. The state was closely allied with the Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
and was distinctive for its East Germanic (albeit heavily Hellenized ) population
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Late Latin
LATE LATIN is the scholarly name for the written Latin
Latin
of Late Antiquity . The English dictionary definition of Late Latin
Latin
dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, extending in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
of southwestern Europe to the 7th century. This somewhat-ambiguously-defined period fits between Classical Latin
Latin
and Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
. There is no scholarly consensus about exactly when Classical Latin
Latin
should end or exactly when Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
should begin. However, Late Latin
Latin
is characterized (with variations and disputes) by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin
Latin
is not identical with Vulgar Latin
Latin

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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
, who serves as the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faith . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians
Christians
. Christians
Christians
make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus
Jesus
is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah
Messiah
(the Christ
Christ
) was prophesied in the Old Testament . Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles\' Creed
Creed
and Nicene Creed
Creed

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Christian Persecution Of Paganism Under Theodosius I
The PERSECUTION OF PAGANISM UNDER THEODOSIUS I began in 381, after the first couple of years of his reign as co-emperor in the eastern part of the Roman Empire. In the 380s, Theodosius I
Theodosius I
reiterated Constantine's ban on pagan sacrifice, prohibited haruspicy on pain of death , pioneered the criminalization of magistrates who did not enforce anti-pagan laws, broke up some pagan associations and destroyed pagan temples. Between 389 and 391 he issued the "Theodosian decrees," which established a practical ban on paganism; visits to the temples were forbidden, remaining pagan holidays abolished, the sacred fire in the Temple of Vesta in the Roman Forum
Roman Forum
extinguished, the Vestal Virgins disbanded, auspices and witchcraft punished. Theodosius refused to restore the Altar of Victory in the Senate House, as requested by pagan Senators
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Byzantium
BYZANTION or BYZANTIUM (/bᵻˈzæntiəm, bᵻˈzænʃəm/ ; Greek : Βυζάντιον Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople
Constantinople
, and later Istanbul
Istanbul
. Byzantium
Byzantium
was colonized by the Greeks from Megara
Megara
in c. 657 BC. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 History * 2.1 Emblem * 3 Notable people * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links NAMEThe etymology of Byzantion is unknown. It has been suggested that the name is of Thraco -Illyrian origin. It may be derived from a Thracian or Illyrian personal name, Byzas . Ancient Greek legend refers to a king Byzas , the leader of the Megarian colonists and founder of the city. The form Byzantium
Byzantium
is a Latinisation of the original name
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Greek East And Latin West
GREEK EAST AND LATIN WEST are terms used to distinguish between the two parts of the Greco-Roman world
Greco-Roman world
, specifically the eastern regions where Greek was the lingua franca , and the western parts where Latin filled this role. During the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
a divide had persisted between Latin- and Greek-speaking areas; this divide was encouraged by administrative changes in the empire's structure between the 3rd and 5th centuries, which led ultimately to the establishment of separate Eastern and Western halves of the Empire. After the fall of the Western Empire, the terms Greek East and Latin West are applied to areas that were formerly part of the Eastern or Western Empires, and also to areas that fell under the Greek or Latin cultural sphere but that had never been part of the Roman Empire. This has given rise to two modern dichotomies
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