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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe
. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the _Roman Empire_ (Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. _Basileia tôn Rhōmaiōn_; Latin : _Imperium Romanum_), or _Romania_ (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans". Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I
Constantine I
(r
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Byzantine (other)
BYZANTINE usually refers to the Roman Empire
Empire
during the Middle Ages. MAY ALSO REFER TO: * A citizen of the Byzantine Empire, or native Greek during the Middle Ages (see ]) * tinism, a modern comparison to the complexity of the political apparatus of their empire * List of emperors of the late Roman Empire, also called * The ancient city of ] * Medieval Greek , the form of the Greek language spoken during the Middle Ages * Byzantine Rite , an ecclesial rite in the Eastern Catholic Churches and the Eastern Orthodox Church * Byzantine architecture * Byzantine art OTHER USES OF THE WORD BYZANTINE * Byzantine (band) , a heavy metal band from West Virginia, USA * Byzantine fault tolerance in computer science * Byzantine text-type manuscripts * Neo- Byzantine architecture , an historicist or revival style * Byzantine The Betrayal , video gameSEE ALSO * Byzantium (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title BYZANTINE. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Byzantine_(other) additional terms may apply
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Tremissis
The TREMISSIS or TREMIS (Greek : τριμίσιον, _trimision_) was a small solid gold coin of Late Antiquity . Its name, meaning "a third of a unit", formed by analogy with semissis (half of a unit), indicated its value relative to the solidus . It was introduced into Roman currency in the 380s by the Emperor Theodosius I and initially weighed 8 siliquae (equivalent to 1.52 grams). Roman tremisses continued to be commonly minted into the reign of Leo III (717–741), but thereafter they were only rarely struck in the east of the empire, probably only for ceremonial uses, until the reign of Basil I (867–886), after which they disappeared. Nevertheless, the coin continued in common use in the Sicilian theme until the fall of Syracuse in 878. The trachy , introduced in the 11th century, was equivalent in value to the old tremissis. Although it was not made of gold, it was one third of the standard golden hyperpyron . It was not, however, called tremissis. Outside of the Roman empire, tremisses were minted by the Anglo-Saxons , Burgundians , Franks , Frisians , Lombards , Ostrogoths , Suevi and Visigoths between the 5th and 8th centuries. The word tremissis was borrowed into Old English as _thrymsa _. In Frankish sources, the tremissis is sometimes called a triens , a term likewise meaning "a third", which originally referred to a bronze coin worth a third of an as
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Justinian The Great
JUSTINIAN I (/dʒʌˈstɪniən/ ; Latin : _Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus_; Greek : Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός _Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós_) (c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as JUSTINIAN THE GREAT and also SAINT JUSTINIAN THE GREAT in the Eastern Orthodox Church , was a Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire , and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized _renovatio imperii_, or "restoration of the Empire". Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the "last Roman " in modern historiography . This ambition was expressed by the partial recovery of the territories of the defunct western Roman Empire . His general, Belisarius , swiftly conquered the Vandal kingdom in North Africa. Subsequently, Belisarius, Narses , and other generals conquered the Ostrogothic kingdom , restoring Dalmatia , Sicily , Italy , and Rome to the empire after more than half a century of rule by the Ostrogoths
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Byzantine Insignia
For most of its history, the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire did not know or use heraldry in the West European sense. Various emblems (Greek : σημεῖα, sēmeia; sing. σημεῖον, sēmeion) were used in official occasions and for military purposes, such as banners or shields displaying various motifs such as the cross or the labarum . The use of the cross, and of icons of Christ
Christ
, the Theotokos and various saints is also attested on seals of officials, but these were often personal rather than family emblems. CONTENTS* 1 Imperial insignia * 1.1 Eagles * 1.2 Tetragrammatic cross * 2 Personal and family insignia * 3 Military flags and insignia * 4 Ceremonial insignia * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links IMPERIAL INSIGNIAEAGLESThe single-headed Roman imperial eagle continued to be used in Byzantium, although far more rarely. Thus "eagle-bearers" (ὀρνιθόβορας), descendants of the aquilifers of the Roman legions, are still attested in the 6th century military manual known as the Strategikon of Maurice , although it is unknown whether the standards they carried bore any resemblance to the legionary aquilae . On coins, the eagle ceases to appear after the early 7th century, but it is still occasionally found on seals of officials and on stone reliefs
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Vassal
A VASSAL is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch , in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including land held as a tenant or fief . The term is applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies. In contrast, a fidelity , or fidelitas, was a sworn, unconditional loyalty to a monarch. CONTENTS * 1 Western vassalage * 2 Difference between "vassal" and "vassal state" * 3 Feudal Japanese equivalents * 4 See also * 5 Compare * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links WESTERN VASSALAGEIn fully developed VASSALAGE, the lord and the vassal would take part in a commendation ceremony composed of two parts, the homage and the fealty , including the use of Christian sacraments to show its sacred importance. According to Eginhard 's brief description, the commendatio made to Pippin the Younger in 757 by Tassilo III, Duke
Duke
of Bavaria , involved the relics of Saints Denis, Rusticus, Éleuthère , Martin , and Germain – apparently assembled at Compiegne for the event. Such refinements were not included from the outset when it was time of crisis, war, hunger, etc. Under feudalism, those who were weakest needed the protection of the knights who owned the weapons and knew how to fight
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις or Κωνσταντινούπολη (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin) Map of Constantinople Shown within Turkey ALTERNATE NAME Byzantion, Miklagard/Miklagarth, Tsargrad, Basileuousa (Queen of Cities), Megalopolis (the Great City) LOCATION Istanbul , Istanbul Province , Turkey REGION Thrace COORDINATES 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″E / 41.01361°N 28.95500°E / 41.01361; 28.95500 Coordinates : 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″E / 41.01361°N 28.95500°E / 41.01361; 28.95500 TYPE Imperial city AREA6 km2 (2.3 sq mi) enclosed within Constantinian Walls 14 km2 (5.4 sq mi) enclosed within Theodosian Walls HISTORY BUILDER Constantine the Great FOUNDED AD 330 PERIODS Late Antiquity to Late Middle Ages CULTURES Roman , Byzantine TIMELINE OF CONSTANTINOPLECapital of the Byzantine Empire 330-1204 AD; 1261-1453 AD * 330 AD: Founding of Constantinople * ca
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Late Latin
LATE LATIN is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity . The English dictionary definition of Late Latin dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, extending in the Iberian Peninsula of southwestern Europe to the 7th century. This somewhat-ambiguously-defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin . There is no scholarly consensus about exactly when Classical Latin should end or exactly when Medieval Latin should begin. However, Late Latin is characterized (with variations and disputes) by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin is not identical with Vulgar Latin . The latter served as Proto-Romance, a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages . Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains largely classical in its overall features, depending on the author. Some are more literary and classical, but some are more inclined to the vernacular. Also, Late Latin is not identical to Christian or to patristic Latin, the theological writings of the early Christian fathers. While Christian writings are considered a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote much Late Latin, especially in the early part of the period
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Medieval Greek
MEDIEVAL GREEK, also known as BYZANTINE GREEK, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th-6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages , conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire . This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine Studies, or Byzantinology , the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire. The beginning of Medieval Greek is occasionally dated back to as early as the 4th century, either to 330 AD, when the political centre of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople , or to 395 AD, the division of the Empire. However, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political as opposed to cultural and linguistic developments. Indeed, by this time the spoken language, particularly pronunciation, had already shifted towards modern forms. The conquests of Alexander , and the ensuing Hellenistic period , had caused Greek to spread to peoples throughout Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, altering the spoken language's pronunciation and structure
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ , who serves as the focal point of the Christian faith . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians . Christians make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah (the Christ ) was prophesied in the Old Testament . Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles\' Creed and Nicene Creed . These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered , died , was buried , descended into hell , and rose from the dead, in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins . The creeds further maintain that Jesus physically ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Spirit , and that he will return to judge the living and the dead and grant eternal life to his followers. His incarnation , earthly ministry, crucifixion and resurrection are often referred to as "the gospel ", meaning "good news"
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Eastern Orthodox Church
The EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, also known as the ORTHODOX CHURCH, or officially as the ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the second-largest Christian church and one of the oldest extant religious institutions in the world. The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles . The Eastern Orthodox Church is a communion of autocephalous churches , each typically governed by a Holy Synod . It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination , and has no central governing structure analogous to the Papacy in the Roman Catholic Church . The contemporary Orthodox Church had shared communion with the contemporary Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism of AD 1054, which had been triggered by disputes over doctrine, especially the authority of the Pope . Prior to the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Eastern Orthodox had also shared communion with the Oriental Orthodox churches , separating primarily over differences in Christology
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Edict Of Milan
The EDICT OF MILAN (Latin : Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire. Western Roman Emperor Constantine I , and Licinius
Licinius
, who controlled the Balkans, met in Milan
Milan
and among other things, agreed to change policies towards Christians following the Edict of Toleration by Galerius issued two years earlier in Serdica
Serdica
. The Edict of Milan gave Christianity a legal status, but did not make Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire; this took place under Emperor Theodosius I
Theodosius I
in 380 AD. The document is found in Lactantius
Lactantius
' De Mortibus Persecutorum and in Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
's History of the Church with marked divergences between the two. Whether or not there was a formal 'Edict of Milan'  is debatable. The version found in Lactantius
Lactantius
is not in the form of an edict. It is a letter from Licinius
Licinius
to the governors of the provinces in the Eastern Empire he had just conquered by defeating Maximinus later in the same year and issued in Nicomedia. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Religious statement * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY Remains of the Imperial palace of Mediolanum (Milan)
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State Church Of The Roman Empire
Nicene Christianity became the STATE CHURCH OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 AD, when Emperor Theodosius I
Theodosius I
made it the Empire\'s sole authorized religion . The Eastern Orthodox Church , Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
, and the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
each claim to be the historical continuation of this church in its original form, but do not identify with it in the caesaropapist form that it took later. Unlike Constantine I
Constantine I
, who with the Edict of Milan
Edict of Milan
of 313 AD had established tolerance for Christianity without placing it above other religions and whose involvement in matters of the Christian faith extended to convoking councils of bishops who were to determine doctrine and to presiding at their meetings, but not to determining doctrine himself, Theodosius established a single Christian doctrine (specified as that professed by Pope Damasus I
Pope Damasus I
of Rome
Rome
and Pope
Pope
Peter II of Alexandria ) as the Empire's official religion
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Autocracy
An AUTOCRACY is a system of government in which supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d\'état or mass insurrection ). Absolute monarchy (such as Saudi Arabia) and dictatorship are the main historical forms of autocracy. In earlier times, the term "autocrat" was coined as a favorable feature of the ruler, having some connection to the concept of "lack of conflicts of interests" as well as an indication of grandeur and power, the Tsar for example was styled, "Autocrat of all the Russias", as late as the early 20th century. CONTENTS * 1 History and etymology * 2 Comparison with other forms of government * 3 Origin and development * 4 Maintenance * 5 Autocracy promotion * 6 Historical examples * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY AND ETYMOLOGYIn the Medieval Greek language , the term _Autocrates_ was used for anyone holding the title _emperor_, regardless of the actual power of the monarch . Some historical Slavic monarchs, such as Russian tsars and emperors , included the title _Autocrat_ as part of their official styles, distinguishing them from the constitutional monarchs elsewhere in Europe
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (_constitutional_ monarchy ), to completely autocratic (_absolute_ monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. There have been cases where the term of a monarch's reign is either fixed in years or continues until certain goals are achieved: an invasion being repulsed, for instance. Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey , from a 13th-century chronicle. Monarchic rule was the most common form of government until the 19th century
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List Of Byzantine Emperors
This is a LIST OF THE BYZANTINE EMPERORS from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine ) Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (_symbasileis_) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great , the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later Byzantine emperors as the model ruler. It was under Constantine that the major characteristics of what is considered the Byzantine state emerged: a Roman polity centered at Constantinople and culturally dominated by the Greek East , with Christianity as the state religion . Emperors listed below up to Theodosius I in 395 were sole or joint rulers of the entire Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire was the direct legal continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395
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