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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Romanization Of Greek
Romanization
Romanization
of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
into the Latin
Latin
alphabet. The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek
Modern Greek
differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B (/b/) was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ, while the modern β sounds like the English letter V (/v/) instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes
Johannes
in Latin
Latin
and then John in English, but in Greek itself has instead become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis, Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would have been in ancient Greek
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Edict Of Milan
The Edict of Milan
Milan
(Latin: Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.[1] Western Roman Emperor Constantine I, and Licinius, who controlled the Balkans, met in Milan
Milan
and among other things, agreed to change policies towards Christians[1] following the Edict of Toleration by Galerius
Galerius
issued two years earlier in Serdica
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Vassal
A vassal[1] is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including land held as a tenant or fief.[2] The term is applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies. In contrast, fealty (fidelitas) was sworn, unconditional loyalty to a monarch.[3]Contents1 Western vassalage 2 Difference between "vassal" and "vassal state" 3 Feudal
Feudal
Japanese equivalents 4 See also4.1 Similar terms5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksWestern vassalage[edit] In fully developed vassalage, the lord and the vassal would take part in a commendation ceremony composed of two parts, the homage and the fealty, including the use of Christian sacraments to show its sacred importance
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Late Latin
Late Latin
Latin
is the scholarly name for the written Latin
Latin
of Late Antiquity.[1] The English dictionary definition of Late Latin
Latin
dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD,[2][3] extending in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
of southwestern Europe to the 7th century.[1] This somewhat-ambiguously-defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. There is no scholarly consensus about exactly when Classical Latin
Latin
should end or exactly when Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
should begin. However, Late Latin
Latin
is characterized (with variations and disputes) by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin
Latin
is not identical with Vulgar. The latter served as Proto-Romance, a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages
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Christianity
Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic[1] religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ, or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths
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Byzantine (other)
Byzantine usually refers to the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages. may also refer to:A citizen of the Byzantine Empire, or native Greek during the Middle Ages (see Byzantine Greeks) Byzantinism, a modern comparison to the complexity of the political apparatus of their empire Byzantine Emperors, rulers of the Byzantine Empire. The ancient city of Byzantium Medieval Greek, the form of the Greek language spoken during the Middle Ages Byzantine Rite, an ecclesial rite in the Eastern Catholic Churches and the Eastern Orthodox Church Byzantine architecture Byzantine artOther uses of the word Byzantine[edit]Byzantine (band), a heavy metal band from West Virginia, USA Byzantine fault tolerance in computer science
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Byzantium
Byzantium
Byzantium
or Byzantion
Byzantion
(/bɪˈzæntiəm, bɪˈzænʃəm/; Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul. Byzantium
Byzantium
was colonized by the Greeks
Greeks
from Megara
Megara
in c. 657 BC.Contents1 Name 2 History2.1 Emblem3 Notable people 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksName[edit] The etymology of Byzantion
Byzantion
is unknown
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Partition Of The Roman Empire
Maximian
Maximian
(Latin: Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus;[9] c. 250 – c. July 310)[7] was Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
from 286 to 305. He was Caesar[1][2] from 285 to 286, then Augustus
Augustus
from 286[3] to 305.[4] He shared the latter title with his co-emperor and superior, Diocletian, whose political brain complemented Maximian's military brawn. Maximian
Maximian
established his residence at Trier
Trier
but spent most of his time on campaign. In late 285, he suppressed rebels in Gaul known as the Bagaudae. From 285 to 288, he fought against Germanic tribes along the Rhine
Rhine
frontier
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Syracuse, Sicily
Syracuse (/ˈsɪrəˌkjuːs, -ˌkjuːz/; Italian: Siracusa, pronounced [siraˈkuːza] ( listen); Sicilian: Sarausa/Seragusa; Latin: Syrācūsae; Ancient Greek: Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai;[3] Medieval Greek: Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse. The city is notable for its rich Greek history, culture, amphitheatres, architecture, and as the birthplace of the preeminent mathematician and engineer Archimedes.[4] This 2,700-year-old city played a key role in ancient times, when it was one of the major powers of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Syracuse is located in the southeast corner of the island of Sicily, next to the Gulf of Syracuse beside the Ionian Sea. The city was founded by Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Corinthians and Teneans[5] and became a very powerful city-state
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Nicomedia
Nicomedia
Nicomedia
(/ˌnɪkəˈmiːdiə/;[1] Greek: Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey.Contents1 History1.1 Persecutions of 303 1.2 Later Empire2 Infrastructure 3 Notable natives and residents 4 Remains 5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] It was founded in 712/11 BC as a Megarian
Megarian
colony and was originally known as Astacus (/ˈæstəkəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἀστακός, "lobster").[2] After being destroyed by Lysimachus,[3] it was rebuilt by Nicomedes I of Bithynia in 264 BC under the name of Nicomedia, and has ever since been one of the most important cities in northwestern Asia Minor. The great military commander Hannibal
Hannibal
Barca came to Nicomedia
Nicomedia
in his final years and committed suicide in nearby Libyssa (Diliskelesi, Gebze)
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Diocletian
Diocletian
Diocletian
(/ˌdaɪ.əˈkliːʃən/; Latin: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (244–312),[3][5] was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian
Diocletian
rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus
Carus
and his son Numerian
Numerian
on campaign in Persia, Diocletian
Diocletian
was proclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian
Diocletian
defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century. He appointed fellow officer Maximian
Maximian
as Augustus, co-emperor, in 286
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Population Of The Byzantine Empire
The population of the Byzantine Empire fluctuated throughout the state's millennial history. After the reign of Emperor Heraclius and the loss of the empire's overseas territories, Byzantium was limited to the Balkans and Anatolia. When the empire began to recover after a series of conflicts in the 8th century and its territories stabilized, its population began to recover. By the end of the 8th century the population of the empire was around 7,000,000, a figure that climbed to over 12,000,000 people by 1025.[1] The numbers began falling steadily to 9,000,000 people at 1204 and even lower to 5,000,000 people at 1282 with the arrival of the Turks.[2]Contents1 Population 2 References 3 Bibliography 4 Further reading 5 External linksPopulation[edit]Year Population Notes Area300 17,000,000[3] Eastern Roman Empire 1,900,000 km. sq.311 17,000,000[3] Eastern Roman Empire 2,100,000 km. sq.457 16,000,000[3] Eastern Roman Empire 2,350,000 km
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