HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1500] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Byzantine Aristocracy And Bureaucracy
The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy , which was inherited from the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. At the apex of the hierarchy stood the emperor , who was the sole ruler (autokrator ) and who was considered to be divinely ordained . Beneath him, a multitude of officials and court functionaries operated the complex administrative machinery that was necessary to run the empire. In addition to those officials, a large number of honorific titles existed, which the emperor awarded to his subjects or to friendly foreign rulers. Over the more than thousand years of the empire's existence, different titles were adopted and discarded, and many lost or gained prestige. At first the various titles of the empire were the same as those in the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. However, by the time that Heraclius was emperor (610–641), many of the titles had become obsolete. By the time of Alexios I reign (1082–1118), many of the positions were either new or drastically changed. However, from that time on they remained essentially the same until the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453
[...More...]

"Byzantine Aristocracy And Bureaucracy" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Imperial Crown
An IMPERIAL CROWN is a crown used for the coronation of emperors . CONTENTS * 1 Design * 2 Types of Imperial crowns * 2.1 Roman Imperial Crowns * 2.2 Byzantine Imperial Crowns * 2.3 Imperial Crowns with Mitre * 2.3.1 Imperial Crowns with single arch and deployable mitre * 2.3.2 Imperial Crowns with single arch and attached mitre * 2.4 Imperial Crowns with high arches * 2.5 Prussian-German Imperial Crowns * 2.6 Napoleonic Imperial Crowns * 2.7 Imperial crowns based on the design of European royal crowns * 2.8 Other Imperial Crowns without European origin or influence * 3 Heraldic Imperial Crowns * 4 Legal usage * 5 See also * 6 Footnotes * 7 References DESIGNCrowns in Europe during the medieval period varied in design: An open crown is one which consists basically of a golden circlet elaborately worked and decorated with precious stones or enamels. ... The medieval French crown was of this type. ... the closed crown, which had bands of metal crossing usually from one side to the other and from back to front so that they met in the middle, at the top of the head. ..
[...More...]

"Imperial Crown" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Angels
An ANGEL, especially according to Abrahamic religions and Zoroastrianism , is a spiritual being superior to humans in power and intelligence . Angels
Angels
are typically described as benevolent, dreadful, and endowed with wisdom and knowledge of earthly events, but not infallible; for they strive with each other, and God
God
has to make peace between them. Most of them serve either as intermediaries between Heaven
Heaven
and Earth, or as guardian spirits . They are studied in the theological doctrine of angelology . In Christian Science, the word "angel" is used to refer to an inspiration from God. The use of the term has extended to refer to artistic depictions of the spirits, and it is also used figuratively to refer to messengers and harbingers, and to people who possess high qualities of goodness , purity, selflessness, intelligence , or beauty . Angels
Angels
are referred to in connection with their spiritual missions; as for instance, the "angel which has redeemed", "an interpreter", "the angel that destroyed", "the messenger of the covenant", "angel of his presence", and "a band of angels of evil ". In fine art , angels are usually depicted as having the shape of human beings of extraordinary beauty; they are often identified using the symbols of bird wings , halos , and light
[...More...]

"Angels" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe
. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the _Roman Empire_ (Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. _Basileia tôn Rhōmaiōn_; Latin : _Imperium Romanum_), or _Romania_ (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans". Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I
Constantine I
(r
[...More...]

"Byzantine Empire" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Aristocracy
ARISTOCRACY (Greek ἀριστοκρατία _aristokratía_, from ἄριστος _aristos_ "excellent", and κράτος _kratos_ "power ") is a form of government that places power in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class . The term derives from the Greek _aristokratia_, meaning "rule of the best". At the time of the word's origins in ancient Greece , the Greeks conceived it as rule by the best qualified citizens—and often contrasted it favourably with monarchy , rule by an individual. In later times, aristocracy was usually seen as rule by a privileged group, the aristocratic class , and was contrasted with democracy . CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading CONCEPTThe concept evolved in Ancient Greece, whereby a council of leading citizens was commonly empowered and contrasted with representative democracy , in which a council of citizens was appointed as the "senate" of a city state or other political unit. The Greeks did not like the concept of monarchy, and as their democratic system fell, aristocracy was upheld. In Ancient Rome, the Republic consisted of an aristocracy—as well as consuls, a senate, and a tribal assembly. In the Middle Ages and early modern era , aristocracies primarily consisted of an influential aristocratic class , privileged by birth, and often by wealth, land and property
[...More...]

"Aristocracy" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Bureaucracy
BUREAUCRACY (/bjuːˈrɒkrəsi/ ) is a term that refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution. The public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy. Since being coined, the word _bureaucracy_ has developed negative connotations. Bureaucracies have been criticized as being inefficient, convoluted, or too inflexible to individuals. The dehumanizing effects of excessive bureaucracy became a major theme in the work of German-language writer Franz Kafka and are central to his novels _ The Trial _ and _The Castle _. The elimination of unnecessary bureaucracy is a key concept in modern managerial theory and has been an issue in some political campaigns. Others have noted the necessity of bureaucracies in modern life. The German sociologist Max Weber argued that bureaucracy constitutes the most efficient and rational way in which one can organize the human activity and that systematic processes and organized hierarchies were necessary to maintain order, maximize efficiency, and eliminate favoritism
[...More...]

"Bureaucracy" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracuse (663–669, Eastern) LANGUAGES * Latin (official until 610) * Greek (official after 610) * Regional / local languages RELIGION * Before AD 380: Imperial cult -driven polytheism * From AD 380: Christiani
[...More...]

"Roman Empire" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Byzantine Emperor
This is a LIST OF THE BYZANTINE EMPERORS from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine ) Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (_symbasileis_) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great , the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later Byzantine emperors as the model ruler. It was under Constantine that the major characteristics of what is considered the Byzantine state emerged: a Roman polity centered at Constantinople and culturally dominated by the Greek East , with Christianity as the state religion . Emperors listed below up to Theodosius I in 395 were sole or joint rulers of the entire Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire was the direct legal continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395
[...More...]

"Byzantine Emperor" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Autocracy
An AUTOCRACY is a system of government in which supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d\'état or mass insurrection ). Absolute monarchy (such as Saudi Arabia) and dictatorship are the main historical forms of autocracy. In earlier times, the term "autocrat" was coined as a favorable feature of the ruler, having some connection to the concept of "lack of conflicts of interests" as well as an indication of grandeur and power, the Tsar for example was styled, "Autocrat of all the Russias", as late as the early 20th century. CONTENTS * 1 History and etymology * 2 Comparison with other forms of government * 3 Origin and development * 4 Maintenance * 5 Autocracy promotion * 6 Historical examples * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY AND ETYMOLOGYIn the Medieval Greek language , the term _Autocrates_ was used for anyone holding the title _emperor_, regardless of the actual power of the monarch . Some historical Slavic monarchs, such as Russian tsars and emperors , included the title _Autocrat_ as part of their official styles, distinguishing them from the constitutional monarchs elsewhere in Europe
[...More...]

"Autocracy" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Autokrator
_AUTOKRATōR_ (Greek : αὐτοκράτωρ, plural: αὐτοκράτορες, Ancient Greek pronunciation , Byzantine pronunciation lit. "self-ruler", "one who rules by himself", from αὐτός and κράτος) is a Greek epithet applied to an individual who exercises absolute power, unrestrained by superiors. In a historical context, it has been applied to military commanders-in-chief, and to Roman and Byzantine emperors as the translation of the Latin
Latin
title _imperator _. Its connection with Byzantine-style absolutism gave rise to the modern terms autocrat and autocracy . In modern Greek , it means "emperor ", and the female form of the title is _AUTOKRATEIRA_ (αὐτοκράτειρα, "empress"). CONTENTS * 1 Ancient Greece * 2 Rome and Byzantium * 3 Slavic nations * 4 References * 5 Further reading ANCIENT GREECEThe title appeared in Classical Greece in the late 5th century BC, and was used for generals given independent authority, i.e. a supreme commander (_STRATēGOS AUTOKRATōR_). In Classical Athens , _stratēgoi autokratores_ were generals endowed with autonomous power of command, i.e. they were able to make certain military and diplomatic decisions without prior consultation with the Athenian assembly
[...More...]

"Autokrator" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Divine Right Of Kings
The DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS, DIVINE RIGHT, or GOD\'S MANDATE is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy . It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God
God
. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy , or any other estate of the realm . It implies that only God
God
can judge an unjust king and that any attempt to depose, dethrone or restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God
God
and may constitute a sacrilegious act. It is often expressed in the phrase "by the Grace of God
God
", attached to the titles of a reigning monarch. CONTENTS* 1 Origins * 1.1 Scots texts of James VI of Scotland * 2 Western conceptions * 2.1 Catholic justified submission * 3 Divine right and protestantism * 4 Divine right in Asia * 4.1 Mandate of Heaven * 4.2 Sultans in Southeast Asia * 4.3 South Asian kings * 5 Rights
Rights
* 6 Opposition * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links ORIGINSIn the pagan world, kings were often seen as either ruling with the backing of heavenly powers or perhaps even being divine beings themselves
[...More...]

"Divine Right Of Kings" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Late Antiquity
LATE ANTIQUITY is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe , the Mediterranean world, and the Near East . The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown , after the publication of his seminal work _The World of Late Antiquity _ (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire 's Crisis of the Third Century (c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the early Islamic period (7th–9th centuries), following the Muslim conquests in the mid-7th century. In the West the end was earlier, with the start of the Early Medieval period typically placed in the 6th century, or earlier on the Western edges of the empire. The Roman Empire underwent considerable social, cultural and organizational changes starting with the reign of Diocletian , who began the custom of splitting the Empire into Eastern and Western halves ruled by multiple emperors. Beginning with Constantine the Great , Christianity was made legal in the Empire, and a new capital was founded at Constantinople
[...More...]

"Late Antiquity" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Heraclius
HERACLIUS ( Latin : _Flavius Heraclius Augustus_, Greek : Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος' c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641. He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Roman Empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder , the exarch of Africa , led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas . Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. The year Heraclius came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Heraclius immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 . The first battles of the campaign ended in defeat for the Byzantines; the Persian army fought their way to the Bosphorus but Constantinople was protected by impenetrable walls and a strong navy and Heraclius was able to avoid total defeat. Soon after, he initiated reforms to rebuild and strengthen the military. Heraclius drove the Persians out of Asia Minor and pushed deep into their territory, defeating them decisively in 627 at the Battle of Nineveh . The Persian king Khosrau II was overthrown and executed by his son Kavadh II , who soon sued for a peace treaty, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territory
[...More...]

"Heraclius" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Alexios I Komnenos
ALEXIOS I KOMNENOS (Greek : Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός, 1048 or 1056 – 15 August 1118), was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty , it was during his reign that the Komnenos family came to full power. Inheriting a collapsing empire and faced with constant warfare during his reign against both the Seljuq Turks in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the Normans in the western Balkans , Alexios was able to curb the Byzantine decline and begin the military, financial, and territorial recovery known as the _ Komnenian restoration _. The basis for this recovery were various reforms initiated by Alexios. His appeals to Western Europe for help against the Turks were also the catalyst that likely contributed to the convoking of the Crusades
[...More...]

"Alexios I Komnenos" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Fall Of Constantinople
Decisive Ottoman victory Fall of the Byzantine Empire BELLIGERENTS * Byzantine Empire * Republic of Genoa * Republic of Venice * Kingdom of Sicily * Papal States * Ottoman defectors * Ottoman Empire COMMANDERS AND LEADERS * CONSTANTINE XI † * Loukas Notaras *
[...More...]

"Fall Of Constantinople" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Diocletian
DIOCLETIAN (/ˌdaɪ.əˈkliːʃən/ ; Latin : _Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus_), born DIOCLES (244–312), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in the Roman province of Dalmatia , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus . After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son, Carinus , but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus . Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century . He appointed fellow officer Maximian as Augustus , co-emperor, in 286. Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as Caesars , junior co-emperors. Under this 'tetrarchy ', or "rule of four", each emperor would rule over a quarter-division of the empire.