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Byzantine Aristocracy And Bureaucracy
The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy, which was inherited from the Roman Empire. At the apex of the hierarchy stood the emperor, yet "Byzantium was a republican monarchy and not primarily a monarchy by divine right".[1] Beneath the emperor, a multitude of officials and court functionaries operated the complex administrative machinery that was necessary to run the empire. In addition to those officials, a large number of honorific titles existed, which the emperor awarded to his subjects or to friendly foreign rulers. Over the more than thousand years of the empire's existence, different titles were adopted and discarded, and many lost or gained prestige. At first the various titles of the empire were the same as those in the late Roman Empire. However, by the time that Heraclius
Heraclius
was emperor (610–641), many of the titles had become obsolete
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Imperial Crown
An Imperial Crown is a crown used for the coronation of emperors.Contents1 Design 2 Types of Imperial crowns2.1 Roman Imperial Crowns 2.2 Byzantine Imperial Crowns 2.3 Imperial Crowns with Mitre2.3.1 Imperial Crowns with single arch and deployable mitre 2.3.2 Imperial Crowns with single arch and attached mitre2.4 Imperial Crowns with high arches 2.5 Prussian-German Imperial Crowns 2.6 Napoleonic Imperial Crowns 2.7 Imperial crowns based on the design of European royal crowns 2.8 Other Imperial Crowns without European origin or influence3 Heraldic Imperial Crowns 4 Legal usage 5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 ReferencesDesign[edit] Crowns in Europe during the medieval period varied in design:An open crown is one which consists basically of a golden circlet elaborately worked and decorated with precious stones or enamels. ... The medieval French crown was of this type. ..
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Born In The Purple
Traditionally, born in the purple[1] was a category of members of royal families born during the reign of their parent. This notion was later loosely expanded to include all children born of prominent or high-ranking parents.[2] The parents must be prominent at the time of the child's birth so that the child is always in the spotlight and destined for a prominent role in life. A child born before the parents become prominent would not be "born in the purple"
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Monarch
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.[1][2] A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means
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Persian Empire
The Persian Empire
Empire
(Persian: شاهنشاهی ایران‎, translit. Šâhanšâhiye Irân, lit. 'Imperial Iran') is a series of imperial dynasties centered in Persia/ Iran
Iran
since the 6th century BC in the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
era, to the 20th century AD in the Qajar
Qajar
era.Contents1 Achaemenids 2 Parthians and Sasanians 3 Safavids 4 List of the dynasties described as a Persian Empire 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksAchaemenids The first dynasty of the Persian Empire
Empire
was created by Achaemenids, established by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
in 550 BC with the conquest of Median, Lydian and Babylonian empires.[1] It covered much of the Ancient world and controlled the largest percentage of the earth's population in history when it was conquered by Alexander the Great
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Kyrios
Kyrios
Kyrios
or kurios (Ancient Greek: κύριος, translit. kýrios) is a Greek word which is usually translated as "lord" or "master".[1] In religious usage, it is sometimes translated as God. It is used in the Septuagint
Septuagint
translation of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
and the Greek New Testament.[2][3][4][5] Kyrios
Kyrios
appears about 740 times in the New Testament, usually referring to Jesus. In Classical Athens, the word kyrios referred to the head of the household (oikos), who was responsible for his wife, children, and any unmarried female relatives.Contents1 Classical Greece 2 New Testament 3 See also 4 ReferencesClassical Greece[edit] In Classical Athens, the word kyrios referred to the head of the household,[6] who was responsible for his wife, children, and any unmarried female relatives
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Rex (title)
The Latin title rex has the meaning of "king, ruler" (monarch).[1][2] It is derived from Proto-Indo-European *h₃rḗǵs. Its cognates include Sanskrit rājan, Gothic reiks, and Old Irish rí, etc. Its Greek equivalent is archon (ἄρχων), "leader, ruler, chieftain". The chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom was titled Rex Romae (King of Rome). Usage[edit]Rex Catholicissimus (Most Catholic King), awarded by the Pope to the Spanish monarchs since 1493 Romanorum Rex (King of the Romans), used by the German king since the 11th century Rex Britanniae (King of Britain), Æthelbald of Mercia (737) Rex Scottorum (King of the Scots), used by the Scottish king between the 11th century and 1707 Rex Sclavorum (King of the Slavs), various Medieval Slavic rulersSee also[edit]R. Dux Basileus Germanic kingReferences[edit]^ Dale, Rodney; Puttick, Steve (1997-01-01). The Wordsworth Dictionary of Abbreviations and Acronyms. Wordsworth Editions
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Empress
An emperor (through Old French
Old French
empereor from Latin imperator[1]) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), mother (empress dowager), or a woman who rules in her own right (empress regnant). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe
Europe
the title of Emperor
Emperor
has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope, due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe
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Augusta (honorific)
Augusta (Classical Latin: [awˈɡʊsta]; plural Augustae; Greek: αὐγούστα)[1] was a Roman imperial
Roman imperial
honorific title given to empresses and honoured women of the imperial families. It was the feminine form of Augustus. In the third century, Augustae could also receive the titles of Mater Castrorum ("Mother of the Camp") and Mater Patriae ("Mother of the Fatherland"). The title implied the greatest prestige
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Primogeniture
Primogeniture
Primogeniture
(English: /praɪməˈdʒɛnɪtʃər/) is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives. The son of a deceased elder brother inherits before a living younger brother by right of substitution for the deceased heir. In the absence of any children, brothers succeed, individually, to the inheritance by seniority of age (subject to substitution). Among siblings, sons inherit before daughters. In the absence of male descendants in the male-line, there are variations of primogeniture which allocate the inheritance to a daughter or a brother or, in the absence of either, to another collateral relative, in a specified order (e.g
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Widow
A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died. The treatment of widows and widowers around the world varies.Contents1 Terminology 2 Economic position2.1 Effects of widowhood3 Classic and contemporary social customs3.1 Hinduism 3.2 Joseon
Joseon
Korea4 See also 5 ReferencesTerminology[edit] A widow is a woman whose spouse has died, while a widower is a man whose spouse has died
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Monk
A monk (/mʌŋk/, from Greek: μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" and Latin
Latin
monachus[1]) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks. A monk may be a person who decides to dedicate his life to serving all other living beings, or to be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live his or her life in prayer and contemplation. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy. In the Greek language
Greek language
the term can apply to women, but in modern English it is mainly in use for men. The word nun is typically used for female monastics. Although the term monachos is of Christian
Christian
origin, in the English language monk tends to be used loosely also for both male and female ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds
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Porphyrogennetos
Traditionally, born in the purple[1] was a category of members of royal families born during the reign of their parent. This notion was later loosely expanded to include all children born of prominent or high-ranking parents.[2] The parents must be prominent at the time of the child's birth so that the child is always in the spotlight and destined for a prominent role in life. A child born before the parents become prominent would not be "born in the purple"
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Autokrator
Autokratōr (Greek: αὐτοκράτωρ, autokrátor, pl. αὐτοκράτορες, autokrátores, Ancient Greek pronunciation [autokrátɔːr], Byzantine pronunciation [aftoˈkrator] lit. "self-ruler", "one who rules by himself", from αὐτός and κράτος) is a Greek epithet applied to an individual who exercises absolute power, unrestrained by superiors. In a historical context, it has been applied to military commanders-in-chief, and to Roman and Byzantine emperors
Byzantine emperors
as the translation of the Latin
Latin
title imperator. Its connection with Byzantine-style absolutism gave rise to the modern terms autocrat and autocracy
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Basileus
Basileus
Basileus
(Greek: βασιλεύς)[n 1] is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history. In the English-speaking world it is perhaps most widely understood to mean "king" or "emperor". The title was used by the Byzantine emperors, and has a longer history of use by sovereigns and other persons of authority in ancient Greece, as well as for the kings of modern Greece. The feminine forms are basileia (βασίλεια), basilis (βασιλίς), basilissa (βασίλισσα), or the archaic basilinna (βασιλίννα), meaning "queen" or "empress".[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Ancient Greece2.1 Original senses encountered on clay tablets2.1.1 Basileus
Basileus
vs
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Imperator
The Latin
Latin
word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic. Later it became a part of the titulature of the Roman Emperors as part of their cognomen. The English word emperor derives from imperator via Old French
Old French
Empereür. The Roman emperors themselves generally based their authority on multiple titles and positions, rather than preferring any single title
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