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Byzantine Aristocracy And Bureaucracy
The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy , which was inherited from the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. At the apex of the hierarchy stood the emperor , who was the sole ruler (autokrator ) and who was considered to be divinely ordained . Beneath him, a multitude of officials and court functionaries operated the complex administrative machinery that was necessary to run the empire. In addition to those officials, a large number of honorific titles existed, which the emperor awarded to his subjects or to friendly foreign rulers. Over the more than thousand years of the empire's existence, different titles were adopted and discarded, and many lost or gained prestige. At first the various titles of the empire were the same as those in the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. However, by the time that Heraclius was emperor (610–641), many of the titles had become obsolete
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Imperial Crown
An IMPERIAL CROWN is a crown used for the coronation of emperors . CONTENTS * 1 Design * 2 Types of Imperial crowns * 2.1 Roman Imperial Crowns * 2.2 Byzantine Imperial Crowns * 2.3 Imperial Crowns with Mitre * 2.3.1 Imperial Crowns with single arch and deployable mitre * 2.3.2 Imperial Crowns with single arch and attached mitre * 2.4 Imperial Crowns with high arches * 2.5 Prussian-German Imperial Crowns * 2.6 Napoleonic Imperial Crowns * 2.7 Imperial crowns based on the design of European royal crowns * 2.8 Other Imperial Crowns without European origin or influence * 3 Heraldic Imperial Crowns * 4 Legal usage * 5 See also * 6 Footnotes * 7 References DESIGNCrowns in Europe during the medieval period varied in design: An open crown is one which consists basically of a golden circlet elaborately worked and decorated with precious stones or enamels. ... The medieval French crown was of this type. ..
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Angels
An ANGEL, especially according to Abrahamic religions and Zoroastrianism , is a spiritual being superior to humans in power and intelligence . Angels
Angels
are typically described as benevolent, dreadful, and endowed with wisdom and knowledge of earthly events, but not infallible; for they strive with each other, and God
God
has to make peace between them. Most of them serve either as intermediaries between Heaven
Heaven
and Earth, or as guardian spirits . They are studied in the theological doctrine of angelology . In Christian Science, the word "angel" is used to refer to an inspiration from God. The use of the term has extended to refer to artistic depictions of the spirits, and it is also used figuratively to refer to messengers and harbingers, and to people who possess high qualities of goodness , purity, selflessness, intelligence , or beauty
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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Aristocracy
ARISTOCRACY (Greek ἀριστοκρατία _aristokratía_, from ἄριστος _aristos_ "excellent", and κράτος _kratos_ "power ") is a form of government that places power in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class . The term derives from the Greek _aristokratia_, meaning "rule of the best". At the time of the word's origins in ancient Greece , the Greeks conceived it as rule by the best qualified citizens—and often contrasted it favourably with monarchy , rule by an individual. In later times, aristocracy was usually seen as rule by a privileged group, the aristocratic class , and was contrasted with democracy . CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading CONCEPTThe concept evolved in Ancient Greece, whereby a council of leading citizens was commonly empowered and contrasted with representative democracy , in which a council of citizens was appointed as the "senate" of a city state or other political unit
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Bureaucracy
BUREAUCRACY (/bjuːˈrɒkrəsi/ ) is a term that refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution. The public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy. Since being coined, the word _bureaucracy_ has developed negative connotations. Bureaucracies have been criticized as being inefficient, convoluted, or too inflexible to individuals. The dehumanizing effects of excessive bureaucracy became a major theme in the work of German-language writer Franz Kafka and are central to his novels _ The Trial _ and _The Castle _. The elimination of unnecessary bureaucracy is a key concept in modern managerial theory and has been an issue in some political campaigns
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracu
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Byzantine Emperor
This is a LIST OF THE BYZANTINE EMPERORS from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine ) Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (_symbasileis_) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great , the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later Byzantine emperors as the model ruler
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Autocracy
An AUTOCRACY is a system of government in which supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d\'état or mass insurrection ). Absolute monarchy (such as Saudi Arabia) and dictatorship are the main historical forms of autocracy. In earlier times, the term "autocrat" was coined as a favorable feature of the ruler, having some connection to the concept of "lack of conflicts of interests" as well as an indication of grandeur and power, the Tsar for example was styled, "Autocrat of all the Russias", as late as the early 20th century
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Autokrator
_AUTOKRATōR_ (Greek : αὐτοκράτωρ, plural: αὐτοκράτορες, Ancient Greek pronunciation , Byzantine pronunciation lit. "self-ruler", "one who rules by himself", from αὐτός and κράτος) is a Greek epithet applied to an individual who exercises absolute power, unrestrained by superiors. In a historical context, it has been applied to military commanders-in-chief, and to Roman and Byzantine emperors as the translation of the Latin
Latin
title _imperator _. Its connection with Byzantine-style absolutism gave rise to the modern terms autocrat and autocracy
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Divine Right Of Kings
The DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS, DIVINE RIGHT, or GOD\'S MANDATE is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy . It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God
God
. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy , or any other estate of the realm . It implies that only God
God
can judge an unjust king and that any attempt to depose, dethrone or restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God
God
and may constitute a sacrilegious act. It is often expressed in the phrase "by the Grace of God
God
", attached to the titles of a reigning monarch
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Late Antiquity
LATE ANTIQUITY is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe , the Mediterranean world, and the Near East . The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown , after the publication of his seminal work _The World of Late Antiquity _ (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire 's Crisis of the Third Century (c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the early Islamic period (7th–9th centuries), following the Muslim conquests in the mid-7th century
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Heraclius
HERACLIUS ( Latin : _Flavius Heraclius Augustus_, Greek : Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος' c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641. He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Roman Empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder , the exarch of Africa , led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas . Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. The year Heraclius came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Heraclius immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628
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Alexios I Komnenos
ALEXIOS I KOMNENOS (Greek : Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός, 1048 or 1056 – 15 August 1118), was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty , it was during his reign that the Komnenos family came to full power. Inheriting a collapsing empire and faced with constant warfare during his reign against both the Seljuq Turks in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the Normans in the western Balkans , Alexios was able to curb the Byzantine decline and begin the military, financial, and territorial recovery known as the _ Komnenian restoration _. The basis for this recovery were various reforms initiated by Alexios. His appeals to Western Europe for help against the Turks were also the catalyst that likely contributed to the convoking of the Crusades
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Fall Of Constantinople
Decisive Ottoman victory Fall of the Byzantine Empire BELLIGERENTS * Byzantine Empire * Republic of Genoa * Republic of Venice * Kingdom of Sicily *
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Diocletian
DIOCLETIAN (/ˌdaɪ.əˈkliːʃən/ ; Latin : _Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus_), born DIOCLES (244–312), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in the Roman province of Dalmatia , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus . After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son, Carinus , but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus . Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century . He appointed fellow officer Maximian as Augustus , co-emperor, in 286
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