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Butyl
In organic chemistry, butyl is a four-carbon alkyl radical or substituent group with general chemical formula −C4H9, derived from either of the two isomers of butane. The isomer n-butane can connect in two ways, giving rise to two "-butyl" groups:If it connects at one of the two terminal carbon atoms, it is normal butyl or n-butyl: CH3−CH2−CH2−CH2− (fully systematic name: butyl) If it connects at one of the non-terminal (internal) carbon atoms, it is secondary butyl or sec-butyl: CH3−CH2−CH(CH3)− (fully systematic name: 1-methylpropyl)The second isomer of butane, isobutane, can also connect in two ways, giving rise to two additional groups:If it connects at one of the three terminal carbons, it is isobutyl: (CH3)2CH−CH2− (fully systematic name: 2-methylpropyl) If it connects at the central carbon, it is tertiary butyl, tert-butyl or t-butyl: (CH3)3C− (fully systematic name: 1,1-dimethylethyl)Contents1 Nomenclature 2 Example 3 Ety
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Organic Chemistry
Organic chemistry
Organic chemistry
is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.[1] Study of structure includes many physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and the chemical constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms
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Butyric Acid
Butyric acid
Butyric acid
(from Ancient Greek: βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA,[6] is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. Salts and esters of butyric acid are known as butyrates or butanoates. Butyric acid
Butyric acid
is found in milk, especially goat, sheep and buffalo milk, butter, parmesan cheese, and as a product of anaerobic fermentation (including in the colon and as body odor). It is also suspected to be found in milk chocolate produced by the Hershey process, or added to imitate the flavour of Hershey's chocolate.[9] Butyric acid
Butyric acid
is present in, and is the main distinctive smell of, human vomit.[10] It has an unpleasant smell and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste similar to ether
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Tetrahedron Letters
Tetrahedron Letters is a weekly international journal for rapid publication of full original research papers in the field of organic chemistry. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2014 impact factor of 2.379 and it is ranked 22nd out of 57 journals in the "Organic Chemistry" category.[1] Indexing[edit] Tetrahedron Letters is indexed in:AGRICOLA BIOSIS Beilstein database CAB Abstracts Chemical Abstracts Chemical Engineering Biotechnology Abstracts Current Biotechnology Abstracts Current Contents Search Current Contents/Life Sciences Current Contents/Physics, Chemical, & Earth Sciences Derwent Drug File El Compendex Plus Excerpta Medica MEDLINE Pascal Research Alert Science Citation Index Scisearch ScopusReferences[edit]^ "Tetrahedron Letters". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters
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Reaction Rate
The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products. For example, the oxidative rusting of iron under Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
is a slow reaction that can take many years, but the combustion of cellulose in a fire is a reaction that takes place in fractions of a second. For most reactions, the rate decreases as the reaction proceeds. Chemical kinetics
Chemical kinetics
is the part of physical chemistry that studies reaction rates
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Diels-Alder Reaction
The Diels–Alder reaction
Diels–Alder reaction
is an organic chemical reaction (specifically, a [4+2] cycloaddition) between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene, commonly termed the dienophile, to form a substituted cyclohexene derivative. It was first described by Otto Diels and Kurt Alder
Kurt Alder
in 1928, for which work they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
in 1950. The Diels–Alder reaction
Diels–Alder reaction
is particularly useful in synthetic organic chemistry as a reliable method for forming 6-membered systems with good control over regio- and stereochemical properties.[1][2][3] The underlying concept has also been applied to other π-systems, such as carbonyls and imines, to furnish the corresponding heterocycles, known as the hetero-Diels–Alder reaction
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Trimethylsilyl
A trimethylsilyl group (abbreviated TMS) is a functional group in organic chemistry. This group consists of three methyl groups bonded to a silicon atom [−Si(CH3)3], which is in turn bonded to the rest of a molecule. This structural group is characterized by chemical inertness and a large molecular volume, which makes it useful in a number of applications. A trimethylsilyl group bonded to a methyl group forms tetramethylsilane, which is abbreviated as TMS as well. Compounds with trimethylsilyl groups are not normally found in nature. Chemists sometimes use a trimethylsilylating reagent to derivatize rather non-volatile compounds such as certain alcohols, phenols, or carboxylic acids by substituting a trimethylsilyl group for a hydrogen in the hydroxyl groups on the compounds. This way trimethylsiloxy groups [−O-Si(CH3)3] are formed on the molecule. A couple of examples of trimethylsilylating agents include trimethylsilyl chloride and bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide
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Kinetic Reaction Control
Thermodynamic reaction control or kinetic reaction control in a chemical reaction can decide the composition in a reaction product mixture when competing pathways lead to different products and the reaction conditions influence the selectivity or stereoselectivity. The distinction is relevant when product A forms faster than product B because the activation energy for product A is lower than that for product B, yet product B is more stable. In such a case A is the kinetic product and is favoured under kinetic control and B is the thermodynamic product and is favoured under thermodynamic control.[1][2][3] The conditions of the reaction, such as temperature, pressure, or solvent, affect which reaction pathway may be favored: either the kinetically controlled or the thermodynamically controlled one
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Substituent
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule. The terms substituent, side chain, group, branch, or pendant group are used almost interchangeably to describe branches from a parent structure,[1] though certain distinctions are made in the context of polymer chemistry.[2] In polymers, side chains extend from a backbone structure. In proteins, side chains are attached to the alpha carbon atoms of the amino acid backbone. The suffix -yl is used when naming organic compounds that contain a single bond replacing one hydrogen; -ylidene and -ylidyne are used with double bonds and triple bonds, respectively. In addition, when naming hydrocarbons that contain a substituent, positional numbers are used to indicate which carbon atom the substituent attaches to when such information is needed to distinguish between isomers
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Heptane
n- Heptane
Heptane
is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula H3C(CH2)5CH3 or C7H16. When used as a test fuel component in anti-knock test engines, a 100% heptane fuel is the zero point of the octane rating scale (the 100 point is a 100% iso-octane). Octane number equates to the anti-knock qualities of a comparison mixture of heptane and isooctane which is expressed as the percentage of isooctane in heptane and is listed on pumps for gasoline (petrol) dispensed globally.Contents1 Uses1.1 Octane
Octane
rating scale2 Isomers and enantiomers 3 Health risks 4 References 5 External linksUses[edit] Heptane
Heptane
(and its many isomers) is widely applied in laboratories as a non-polar solvent
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Hexane
Hexane
Hexane
/ˈhɛkseɪn/ is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14. The term may refer to any of the five structural isomers with that formula, or to a mixture of them.[5] In IUPAC nomenclature, however, hexane is the unbranched isomer (n-hexane); the other four isomers are named as methylated derivatives of pentane and butane. IUPAC also uses the term as the root of many compounds with a linear six-carbon backbone, such as 2-methylhexane. Hexanes are significant constituents of gasoline. They are all colorless liquids, odorless when pure, with boiling points between 50 and 70 °C (122 and 158 °F)
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Carbon
Carbon
Carbon
(from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table.[13] Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years.[14] Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity.[15] Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth
Earth
enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Butter
Butter
Butter
is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk. It is generally used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water, and in some types, added salt. Butter
Butter
may also be sold with added flavourings, such as garlic butter. Most frequently made from cows' milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks. Salt such as dairy salt, flavorings and preservatives are sometimes added to butter
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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