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Buses
A BUS (archaically also OMNIBUS, MULTIBUS, MOTORBUS, AUTOBUS) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers . Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker rigid bus , with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses , and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses ; coaches are used for longer-distance services. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver\'s licence . Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport , scheduled coach transport , school transport , private hire, or tourism ; promotional buses may be used for political campaigns and others are privately operated for a wide range of purposes, including rock and pop band tour vehicles. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, and electric trolleybuses in 1882. The first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses , were used in 1895. Recently, interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses , fuel cell buses , and electric buses , as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel
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Bus (other)
A BUS is a vehicle designed to carry passengers. BUS, BUş, BUš, or BUS may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 People * 2 Places * 3 Science and technology * 4 Other uses * 5 See also PEOPLE * Laurențiu Buș (born 1987), Romanian footballer * Sergiu Buș (born 1992), Romanian footballer, brother of Laurenţiu Buş * James Bus
Bus
Cook , nickname of sports agent * Schelte J
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Alexander Dennis Enviro400
The ALEXANDER DENNIS ENVIRO400 is a twin-axle double-decker bus built by Alexander Dennis since 2005 in Guildford
Guildford
, England
England
. The second generation ENVIRO400 MMC was launched in 2014 followed by the ENVIRO400H CITY for the London
London
market in 2015. All variants of the Enviro400 are also offered as a diesel-electric hybrid bus , known as the ENVIRO400H. The Enviro400 is available both as an integral bus and as a standalone bodywork and chassis. The Enviro400 chassis replaced the Dennis Trident 2
Dennis Trident 2
(and continued to be badged as the Trident for a time) and was formerly available with East Lancs Myllennium Lolyne and Optare Olympus
Optare Olympus
bodywork; the Enviro400 body replaced the Alexander ALX400 and Plaxton President designs and is sold on Scania N-series and Volvo B5LH
Volvo B5LH
chassis, as well as formerly the Volvo B7TL and B9TL chassis. Sometimes the Enviro400 can be made as a closed top double-decker bus or an open-top double-decker bus
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Double-decker Bus
A DOUBLE-DECKER BUS is a bus that has two storeys or decks. Double-decker buses are used for mass transport in the United Kingdom, Europe, Asia and many former European possessions, the most iconic example being the red London bus. Early double-deckers put the driver in a separate cab. Passenger access was via an open platform at the rear, and a bus conductor would collect fares. Modern double-deckers have a main entrance door at the front, and the driver takes fares, thus halving the number of bus workers aboard, but slowing the boarding process. The rear open platform, popular with passengers, was abandoned for safety reasons, as there was a risk of passengers falling when running and jumping onto the bus. Double-deckers are primarily for commuter transport but open-top models are used as sight-seeing buses for tourists. William Gladstone , speaking of London 's double-deck horse drawn omnibuses , once observed, "...the best way to see London is from the top of a bus"
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Arriva London
ARRIVA LONDON is a bus company operating services in Greater London . It is a subsidiary of Arriva and operates services under contract to Transport for London . It was formed in 1998 from a fusion of previously separate Arriva subsidiaries Grey-Green , Leaside Buses, Kentish Bus , London "> Arriva London logo on AEC Routemaster RM2217 The origins of Arriva London can be traced back to 1980 when the Cowie Group purchased the Grey-Green coach business in London. In February 1987, Grey-Green commenced operating bus routes in north and east London under contract to London Regional Transport . Meanwhile, on 1 April 1989 London Buses was divided into 11 separate business units , two of which were Leaside Buses and South London Transport. As part of the privatisation of London bus services , the Cowie Group purchased these business units in September 1994 and January 1995. Leaside Buses operated six depots in Clapton , Enfield , Palmers Green , Stamford Hill , Tottenham and Wood Green and South London Transport four in Brixton , Norwood , South Croydon and Thornton Heath
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London Buses
LONDON BUSES is the subsidiary of Transport for London
Transport for London
(TfL) that manages bus services within Greater London
London
. It was formed following the Greater London
London
Authority Act 1999 that transferred control of bus services in Greater London
London
and its surrounding areas from the UK Government 's London
London
Regional Transport (LRT) to TfL, controlled by the locally elected Mayor of London
London

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Optare Tempo
The OPTARE TEMPO is a full-size rigid single-deck bus manufactured by Optare and was launched in late 2004. It is marketed and sold as the replacement for the Optare Excel . It is designed as a lightweight bus, to use less fuel than traditional heavy duty integral rigids. As of July 2017, 233 had been built, including 27 Tempo SRs. The Tempo SR has now been replaced in the UK market by longer variants of the Optare MetroCity , although production of the Tempo SR continues for the Australian market. CONTENTS * 1 Tempo * 2 Tempo SR * 3 Operators * 3.1 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 3.2 Europe
Europe
* 3.3 Australia
Australia
* 4 References * 5 External links TEMPO Rear of a Tempo, operated by Transdev Yellow Buses
Yellow Buses
in Bournemouth . The Optare Tempo was launched in October 2004, with the first delivered to Trentbarton in February 2005. It came in four different lengths: 10.6, 11.3, 12.0 and 12.6 metres and it has a raised roofline in the middle continuously to the rear roof spoiler instead of an arched top. It was originally powered by a Mercedes-Benz OM906LA engine, with a MAN D0836 engine option later introduced, coupled to an Allison or ZF automatic transmission. In 2007, a hybrid version was introduced for London
London
operators
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Scania OmniCity
The SCANIA OMNICITY is an integrally constructed transverse-engined low floor city bus that was available from Scania on the European market between 1997 and 2012. The OmniCity was introduced in September 1996 as the first product based on the 4-series bus range . The first prototypes were built in the former DAB plant in Silkeborg
Silkeborg
, Denmark
Denmark
, and serial production continued there in 1997, joined by Scania's plant in Katrineholm , Sweden
Sweden
. From 1999 it was also built at the plant in Słupsk , Poland . Production in Silkeborg
Silkeborg
ended in early 2000, and Katrineholm in 2004, with only a few test buses in 2005 to 2006. Since then all have been built in Poland. In 2006, the OmniCity was upgraded from the 4-series to the new N-series , which also included a thorough facelift, with the large rectangular front headlamps being replaced by smaller, round items, and further tweaks carried out to the rear styling. The Scania Citywide
Scania Citywide
was launched in 2011 as a replacement for the OmniCity, except for the right-hand drive markets, where Scania have chosen to rely on external bodywork manufacturers, including Alexander Dennis . With a total of more than 2200 units, the last few OmniCities were built in 2012
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Keolis
KEOLIS is the largest private sector French transport group. It runs passenger railways, tramways, bus networks, funiculars, trolley buses, and airport services. Based in Paris , Keolis is 70%-owned by the SNCF (French National Railways Corporation) and 30%-owned by the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec ( Quebec Deposit and Investment Fund; public pension plans in the province of Quebec). In 2013 Keolis turned over €5.1 billion. As at December 2013, Keolis employed 54,600 people in France, Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, Germany, India, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. It is the largest provider of public-transportation services in France. CONTENTS* 1 Operations * 1.1 Australia * 1.2 Canada * 1.3 China * 1.4 France * 1.5 Germany * 1.5.1 Future services * 1.5.2 Former services * 1.6 The Netherlands * 1.7 United Kingdom * 1.8 United States * 1.9 India * 2 References * 3 External links OPERATIONS Keolis Downer trams at Flinders Street station in February 2013 AUSTRALIA Keolis holds a 51% shareholding in Keolis Downer , which has operated the Melbourne tram network since November 2009
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Storstockholms Lokaltrafik
STORSTOCKHOLMS LOKALTRAFIK AB, (Stockholm Public Transport, literally Greater Stockholm Local Transit Company), commonly referred to as SL, is the organisation running all of the land based public transport systems in Stockholm County . SL has its origins in AB Stockholms Spårvägar (SS), a city-owned public transit company which started in 1915 by the City of Stockholm with the aim to deprivatize the two separate private tramway networks into one more efficient company. SS would in the late 1920s also acquire private motorbus companies. The first part of the Stockholm Metro was opened in 1950. SS was renamed to SL in January 1967 when the metro, local train, and bus operations in Stockholm County were merged into a single organisation under the supervision of Stockholm County Council . The different mass transit systems within the County had until then been run by different organisations, Statens Järnvägar , private companies and companies owned by the local municipalities. In 1993 SL began to use independent contractors for the operation and maintenance of the different transport systems. For bus traffic the operators own the buses, but for rail bound traffic the SL own the trains, and the contractors operate them. There is one more organisation owned by the county and responsible for local public transport. This is Waxholmsbolaget , responsible for boat traffic
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Stockholm
STOCKHOLM (/ˈstɒkhoʊm, -hoʊlm/ ; Swedish pronunciation: or ( listen )) is the capital of Sweden
Sweden
and the most populous city in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
; 932,917 people live in the municipality , approximately 1.5 million in the urban area , and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area . The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea . Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago . The area has been settled since the Stone Age
Stone Age
, in the 6th millennium BC , and was founded as a city in 1252 by a Swedish statesman Birger Jarl
Birger Jarl
. It is also the capital of Stockholm County . Stockholm
Stockholm
is the cultural, media, political, and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm
Stockholm
region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP
GDP
, and is among the top 10 regions in Europe
Europe
by GDP
GDP
per capita . It is an important global city , and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region
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Sweden
Coordinates : 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16 Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige Flag Greater coat of arms MOTTO: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden" "For Sweden – With the Times" ANTHEM: _ Du gamla, Du fria _ _Thou ancient, thou free_ ROYAL ANTHEM : _ Kungssången _ _Song of the King_ Location of Sweden (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Stockholm 59°21′N 18°4′E / 59.350°N 18.067°E / 59.350; 18.067 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Swedish ETHNIC GROUPS no official statistics DEMONYM
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Toronto Transit Commission Bus System
The TORONTO TRANSIT COMMISSION (TTC) uses BUSES and other vehicles for public transportation. The TTC has more than 172 bus routes in operation , and serves over 487 million riders each year in 2011. Most bus routes serve the suburban areas of the city, and are integrated with the subway system , and several run into downtown . Buses are comparatively rare in the city centre as a large streetcar system serves the urban core. Many TTC bus routes are divided into branch routes, which deviate slightly from the original route, or which terminate at different points along the route. As well, there are express routes which skip some stops along its route. The system is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, but overnight service is limited compared to regular routes. Apart from within Toronto, some bus routes extend beyond the city limits into Mississauga
Mississauga
and York Region , where an extra fare takes effect, as those municipalities contract out bus routes to the TTC outside of Toronto, though Toronto
Toronto
Pearson International Airport, despite being in Mississauga, is within the TTC fare zone. The Toronto
Toronto
Transit Commission owned over 2,000 buses in 2010, holding the third largest overall bus fleet in North America, behind the New York City Transit Authority
New York City Transit Authority
(6,263) and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (2,911)
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Trolleybus
A TROLLEYBUS (also known as TROLLEY BUS, TROLLEY COACH, TRACKLESS TROLLEY, TRACKLESS TRAM or TROLLEY ) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles . Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit. This differs from a tram or streetcar , which normally uses the track as the return path, needing only one wire and one pole (or pantograph ). They are also distinct from other kinds of electric buses , which usually rely on batteries . Power is most commonly supplied as 600-volt direct current , but there have been, and are, exceptions. Currently, around 300 trolleybus systems are in operation, in cities and towns in 43 countries. Altogether, more than 800 trolleybus systems have existed, but not more than about 400 concurrently. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Vehicle design * 3 Advantages * 3.1 Comparison to trams * 3.2 Comparison to motorbuses * 4 Disadvantages * 4.1 Comparison to trams * 4.2 Comparison to motorbuses * 5 Off-wire power developments * 6 Other considerations * 7 Wire switches * 8 Manufacturing * 9 Transition to low-floor designs * 10 Double-decker trolleybuses * 11 Use and preservation * 12 See also * 13 Notes * 14 Further reading * 15 Periodicals * 16 External links HISTORY This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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Toronto
TORONTO (/təˈrɒntoʊ/ ( listen ), locally /təˈrɒnoʊ/ ( listen )) is a Canadian city and the provincial capital of Ontario
Ontario
. With a city population of 2,731,571 and a metropolitan population of 5,928,040, it is the most populous city and metropolitan area in Canada. A global city , Toronto is a centre of business, finance, arts, and culture, and is recognized as one of the most multicultural cities in the world. Indigenous peoples have inhabited the area now known as Toronto for thousands of years, with the city itself sitting at the southern terminus of the ancient Toronto Carrying-Place Trail . Permanent European settlement began in the 1790s, after the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase of 1787, when the Mississaugas
Mississaugas
surrendered the area to the British Crown . The British established the town of York , and later designated it as the capital of Upper Canada
Canada
. During the War of 1812 , the town was the site of the Battle of York
Battle of York
and suffered heavy damage by U.S. troops . York was renamed and incorporated as the city of Toronto in 1834, and became the capital of the province of Ontario
Ontario
during Canadian Confederation
Canadian Confederation
in 1867
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Ontario
ONTARIO (/ɒnˈtɛərioʊ/ ( listen ); French pronunciation: ​ ), one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada
Canada
, is located in east-central Canada
Canada
. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for nearly 40 percent of the country's population, and is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario
Ontario
is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
and Nunavut
Nunavut
are included. It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa , and the nation's most populous city, Toronto
Toronto
. Ontario
Ontario
is bordered by the province of Manitoba
Manitoba
to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay
James Bay
to the north, and Quebec
Quebec
to the east and northeast, and to the south by the U.S. states of (from west to east) Minnesota
Minnesota
, Michigan
Michigan
, Ohio
Ohio
, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and New York
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