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Burgomaster
BURGOMASTER (alternatively spelled BURGERMEISTER, literally _master of the town _, _master of the borough _, _master of the fortress _, or _master of the citizens_) is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or chairman of the executive council, usually of a sub-national level of administration such as a city or a similar entity. The name in English was derived from the Dutch _burgemeester _. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign (or partially or de facto sovereign) city-state , sometimes combined with other titles (as in Hamburg 's First Mayor and President of the Senate ). Contemporary titles are commonly translated into English as _mayor _
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Burgermeister Meisterburger
SANTA CLAUS IS COMIN\' TO TOWN is a 1970 Christmas
Christmas
stop motion animated television special produced by Rankin/Bass Productions
Rankin/Bass Productions
. The film stars Fred Astaire as the narrator S.D. Kluger, Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
as Kris Kringle/ Santa Claus
Santa Claus
, Keenan Wynn as the Winter Warlock, and Paul Frees in various roles. The film tells the story of how Santa Claus and several Claus-related Christmas
Christmas
traditions came to be. It is based on the hit Christmas
Christmas
song Santa Claus
Santa Claus
Is Comin\' to Town , which was introduced on radio by Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
in 1934, and the story of Saint Nicholas
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Gerard Donck
GERARD DONCK (1600– 1650) was a Dutch Golden Age
Dutch Golden Age
painter. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Collections * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYDonck was born and died in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
. According to the RKD
RKD
he produced dated portraits in the years 1627-1640
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Citizenship
CITIZENSHIP is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or part of a nation . A person may have multiple citizenships and a person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless . NATIONALITY is often used as a synonym for citizenship in English – notably in international law – although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a person's membership of a nation (a large ethnic group ). In some countries, e.g. the United States , the United Kingdom , _nationality_ and _citizenship_ can have different meanings (for more information, see Nationality versus citizenship )
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Borough
A BOROUGH is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term _borough_ designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely. The word _borough_ derives from common Proto-Germanic "*burgz", meaning "fort": compare with _bury_, _burgh_ and _brough_ (England), _burgh_ (Scotland), _Burg_ (Germany), _borg_ (Scandinavia), _burcht_ (Dutch), _boarch_ (West Frisian), and the Germanic borrowing present in neighbouring Indo-european languages such as _borgo_ (Italian), _bourg_ (French), _burgo_ (Spanish and Portuguese), _burg_ (Romanian), _purg_ (Kajkavian ) and _durg_ (दर्ग) (Hindi) and _arg_ (ارگ) (Persian )
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Fortress
FORTIFICATIONS are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare , and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make"). From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
were the first small cities to be fortified
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Germanic Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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Chief Magistrate
CHIEF MAGISTRATE is a public official, executive or judicial, whose office is the highest in its class. Historically, the two different meanings of magistrate have often overlapped and refer to, as the case may be, to a major political and administrative officer (usually at a subnational or colonial level) or a judge and barrister . CONTENTS* 1 Governing chief magistrates * 1.1 European states * 1.2 Colonial functions and titles * 1.3 References to the U.S. Presidency * 1.4 British Lord Protector
Lord Protector
* 2 Judicial Chief Magistrates * 2.1 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
* 3 See also * 4 Sources and references * 5 References GOVERNING CHIEF MAGISTRATESIf the jurisdiction he or she heads is considered to have statehood (sovereign or not), the official is generally its head of state and (in various degrees of authority) chief executive
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Dutch Language
DUTCH (_ Nederlands_ (help ·info )) is a West Germanic language that is spoken by around 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of Belgium —and by another 5 million as a second language. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language , after English and German. Outside of the Low Countries , it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname , and also holds official status in Aruba , Curaçao and Sint Maarten , which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands . Historical minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France and Germany , and in Indonesia , while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States , Canada and Australia combined
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Burgemeester
In the Netherlands and Belgium, the MAYOR (Dutch : _burgemeester_ or French : _bourgmestre_) is an appointed government position, whose main responsibility is chairing the executive and legislative councils of a municipality . The title is sometimes translated in English as burgomaster . NETHERLANDSIn the Netherlands, mayors chair both the council of mayor and aldermen and the municipal council
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Head Of State
A HEAD OF STATE (or CHIEF OF STATE) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state . Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers , the head of state may be a purely ceremonial figurehead with limited or no executive power or concurrently the head of government . In countries with parliamentary system , the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities and may not be empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Margrethe II of Denmark ). In countries where the head of state is also the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the actual highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch (e.g., the President of the United States )
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Head Of Government
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state , a federated state , or a self-governing colony , (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet , a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state ", (e.g. as in article 7 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties , article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list), as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country
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Sovereign
SOVEREIGNTY is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity . It is a basic principle underlying the dominant Westphalian model of state foundation . Millenia of relative Western isolation support preferences for the term derived from Latin (through French _souveraineté_), but features (that are also embodied under the Chinese term Tianxia ) entail certain conditions traditionally seen, whether East or West, as moral imperatives for attainment and retention of sovereign rights and powers
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City-state
A CITY-STATE is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome , Athens
Athens
, Carthage
Carthage
, and the Italian city-states during the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Today only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Singapore , Monaco
Monaco
, and Vatican City
Vatican City
. City states are also sometimes called micro-states which however also includes other configurations of very small countries. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, and therefore are sometimes also cited as modern city-states
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Hamburg
HAMBURG (German pronunciation: (_ listen ), local pronunciation ( listen ); Low German /Low Saxon : Hamborg_ — (_ listen )), officially the FREE AND HANSEATIC CITY OF HAMBURG (German : Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg_) is the second largest city and a state of Germany , with a population of over 1.7 million people. The official name reflects Hamburg\'s history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League , a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire , a city-state , and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany , it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919, the civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten . Though repeatedly destroyed by the Great Fire of Hamburg , the floods , and military conflicts including WW2 bombing raids , the city managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe
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Government Of Hamburg
The GOVERNMENT OF HAMBURG is divided into executive , legislative and judicial branches. Due to the characteristic that Hamburg
Hamburg
is a city-state and a municipality in Germany
Germany
, the governance deals with several details of both state politics and community politics. It takes place in two ranks – a citywide and state administration (Senate of Hamburg
Hamburg
), and a local rank for the boroughs. The head of the city-state's government is the First Mayor and President of the Senate . A ministry is called Behörde (office) and a state minister is a Senator in Hamburg. The legislature is the state parliament, called Hamburgische Bürgerschaft , and the judicial branch is composed of the state supreme court and other courts. The seat of the government is Hamburg
Hamburg
Rathaus
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