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Burgomaster
BURGOMASTER (alternatively spelled BURGERMEISTER, literally _master of the town _, _master of the borough _, _master of the fortress _, or _master of the citizens_) is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or chairman of the executive council, usually of a sub-national level of administration such as a city or a similar entity. The name in English was derived from the Dutch _burgemeester _. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign (or partially or de facto sovereign) city-state , sometimes combined with other titles (as in Hamburg 's First Mayor and President of the Senate ). Contemporary titles are commonly translated into English as _mayor _. CONTENTS * 1 Municipal government * 2 City state government * 3 Compound title at supra-municipal level * 4 References * 5 External links MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT _ Arnold von Brauweiler, a German burgomaster, known in German as Bürgermeister_ * Bürgermeister (literally: 'master of the citizens'), in German: in Germany, Austria, and formerly in Switzerland . In Switzerland, the title was abolished mid-19th century; various current titles for roughly equivalent offices include _Gemeindepr äsident_, _Stadtpräsident_, _Gemeindeamtmann_, and _Stadtamtmann_
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Burgermeister Meisterburger
SANTA CLAUS IS COMIN\' TO TOWN is a 1970 Christmas
Christmas
stop motion animated television special produced by Rankin/Bass Productions
Rankin/Bass Productions
. The film stars Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
as the narrator S.D. Kluger, Mickey Rooney as Kris Kringle/ Santa Claus , Keenan Wynn
Keenan Wynn
as the Winter Warlock, and Paul Frees in various roles. The film tells the story of how Santa Claus and several Claus-related Christmas
Christmas
traditions came to be. It is based on the hit Christmas
Christmas
song Santa Claus Is Comin\' to Town , which was introduced on radio by Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
in 1934, and the story of Saint Nicholas . The special was created in Japan
Japan
using stop motion animation called "Animagic", in which all the characters are made out of wood and plastic and animated via stop-motion photography
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Gerard Donck
GERARD DONCK (1600– 1650) was a Dutch Golden Age painter. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Collections * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYDonck was born and died in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
. According to the RKD
RKD
he produced dated portraits in the years 1627-1640
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Citizenship
CITIZENSHIP is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or part of a nation . A person may have multiple citizenships and a person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless . NATIONALITY is often used as a synonym for citizenship in English – notably in international law – although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a person's membership of a nation (a large ethnic group ). In some countries, e.g. the United States , the United Kingdom , _nationality_ and _citizenship_ can have different meanings (for more information, see Nationality versus citizenship ). CONTENTS * 1 Determining factors * 2 History * 2.1 Polis * 2.2 Roman ideas * 2.3 Middle Ages * 2.4 Renaissance * 2.5 Modern times * 2.5.1 United States * 2.5.2 Soviet Union * 2.5.3 Fascism * 3 Different senses * 4 International * 4.1 European Union * 4.2 Commonwealth * 5 Subnational * 6 Education * 6.1 Republic of Ireland * 6.2 United Kingdom * 7 Criticism of citizenship education in schools * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links DETERMINING FACTORS _ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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Borough
A BOROUGH is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term _borough_ designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely. The word _borough_ derives from common Proto-Germanic "*burgz", meaning "fort": compare with _bury_, _burgh_ and _brough_ (England), _burgh_ (Scotland), _Burg_ (Germany), _borg_ (Scandinavia), _burcht_ (Dutch), _boarch_ (West Frisian), and the Germanic borrowing present in neighbouring Indo-european languages such as _borgo_ (Italian), _bourg_ (French), _burgo_ (Spanish and Portuguese), _burg_ (Romanian), _purg_ (Kajkavian ) and _durg_ (दर्ग) (Hindi) and _arg_ (ارگ) (Persian ). The incidence of these words as suffixes to place names (for example, Aldeburgh , Bamburgh , Tilbury , Tilburg , Strasbourg ( Strossburi in the local dialect), Luxembourg , Edinburgh , Grundisburgh , Hamburg , Gothenburg ) usually indicates that they were once fortified settlements. In the Middle Ages , boroughs were settlements in England that were granted some self-government ; burghs were the Scottish equivalent. In medieval England , boroughs were also entitled to elect members of parliament . The use of the word _borough_ probably derives from the burghal system of Alfred the Great
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Fortress
FORTIFICATIONS are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare , and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
_fortis_ ("strong") and _facere_ ("to make"). From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece
Greece
, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece
Mycenaean Greece
, such as the ancient site of Mycenae
Mycenae
(famous for the huge stone blocks of its 'cyclopean ' walls). A Greek _Phrourion _ was a fortified collection of buildings used as a military garrison , and is the equivalent of the Roman castellum or English fortress . These construction mainly served the purpose of a watch tower, to guard certain roads, passes, and lands that might threaten the kingdom. Though smaller than a real fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch and maintain the border. The art of setting out a military camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called "castramentation " since the time of the Roman legions
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Germanic Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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Chief Magistrate
CHIEF MAGISTRATE is a public official, executive or judicial, whose office is the highest in its class. Historically, the two different meanings of magistrate have often overlapped and refer to, as the case may be, to a major political and administrative officer (usually at a subnational or colonial level) or a judge and barrister . CONTENTS* 1 Governing chief magistrates * 1.1 European states * 1.2 Colonial functions and titles * 1.3 References to the U.S. Presidency * 1.4 British Lord Protector * 2 Judicial Chief Magistrates * 2.1 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
* 3 See also * 4 Sources and references * 5 References GOVERNING CHIEF MAGISTRATESIf the jurisdiction he or she heads is considered to have statehood (sovereign or not), the official is generally its head of state and (in various degrees of authority) chief executive. However, the precise meaning depends upon the particular circumstances where it is given
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Dutch Language
DUTCH (_ Nederlands_ (help ·info )) is a West Germanic language that is spoken by around 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of Belgium —and by another 5 million as a second language. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language , after English and German. Outside of the Low Countries , it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname , and also holds official status in Aruba , Curaçao and Sint Maarten , which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands . Historical minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France and Germany , and in Indonesia , while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States , Canada and Australia combined. The Cape Dutch dialects of Southern Africa have evolved into Afrikaans , a mutually intelligible daughter language which is spoken to some degree by at least 16 million people, mainly in South Africa and Namibia . Dutch is one of the closest relatives of both German and English and is said to be roughly in between them
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Burgemeester
In the Netherlands and Belgium, the MAYOR (Dutch : _burgemeester_ or French : _bourgmestre_) is an appointed government position, whose main responsibility is chairing the executive and legislative councils of a municipality . The title is sometimes translated in English as burgomaster . NETHERLANDSIn the Netherlands, mayors chair both the council of mayor and aldermen and the municipal council . They are members of the council of mayor and aldermen (Dutch : _college van burgemeester en wethouders (B;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v * t * e Local government in the Netherlands PROVINCIAL * States-Provincial (_Provinciale Staten_) * Provincial-Executive (_Gedeputeerde Staten_) * King\'s Commissioner (_Commissaris van de Koning_) WATER BOARDS * General board (_hoofdingelanden_) * Executive board (_college van dijkgraaf en heemraden_) * Dike-reeve (_dijkgraaf_) * Executive (_heemraad_) MUNICIPAL * Municipal council (_gemeenteraad_) * Municipal board (_college van burgemeester en wethouders_) * Mayor (_burgemeester_) * Alderman (_wethouder_) URBAN DISTRICTS * Boroughs of Amsterdam * Boroughs of Rotterdam SPECIAL MUNICIPALITIES * Island council * Governing council * Lieutenant governor Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Burgemeester additional terms may apply
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Head Of State
A HEAD OF STATE (or CHIEF OF STATE) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state . Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers , the head of state may be a purely ceremonial figurehead with limited or no executive power or concurrently the head of government . In countries with parliamentary system , the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities and may not be empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Margrethe II of Denmark ). In countries where the head of state is also the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the actual highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch (e.g., the President of the United States ). Former French president Charles de Gaulle , while developing the current Constitution of France (1958), said the head of state should embody _l'esprit de la nation_ ("the spirit of the nation")
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Head Of Government
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state , a federated state , or a self-governing colony , (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet , a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state ", (e.g. as in article 7 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties , article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list), as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country. The authority of a head of government, such as a president, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature , varies greatly among sovereign states, depending largely on the particular makeup of the government that has been chosen, won, or evolved over time. In parliamentary systems , including constitutional monarchies , the head of government is the _de facto _ political leader of the government, and is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature
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Sovereign
SOVEREIGNTY is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity . It is a basic principle underlying the dominant Westphalian model of state foundation . Millenia of relative Western isolation support preferences for the term derived from Latin (through French _souveraineté_), but features (that are also embodied under the Chinese term Tianxia ) entail certain conditions traditionally seen, whether East or West, as moral imperatives for attainment and retention of sovereign rights and powers. CONTENTS * 1 Different approaches * 2 History * 2.1 Classical * 2.2 Medieval * 2.3 Reformation * 2.4 Age of Enlightenment * 3 Definition and types * 3.1 Absoluteness * 3.2 Exclusivity * 3.3 _De jure_ and _de facto_ * 3.3.1 Sovereignty and independence * 3.4 Internal * 3.4.1 Modern internal sovereignty * 3.5 External * 3.6 Shared and pooled * 3.7 Nation-states * 3.8 Federations * 4 Acquisition * 5 Justifications * 6 Views * 7 Relation to rule of law * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading DIFFERENT APPROACHESThe concepts of sovereignty have been discussed throughout history, and are still actively debated
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City-state
A CITY-STATE is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome , Athens
Athens
, Carthage
Carthage
, and the Italian city-states during the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Today only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Singapore , Monaco
Monaco
, and Vatican City
Vatican City
. City states are also sometimes called micro-states which however also includes other configurations of very small countries. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, and therefore are sometimes also cited as modern city-states. Namely, Qatar
Qatar
, Brunei
Brunei
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Bahrain
Bahrain
, and Malta
Malta
, which each have an urban center comprising a significant proportion of the population, though, all have several distinct settlements and a designated or de facto capital city
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Hamburg
HAMBURG (German pronunciation: (_ listen ), local pronunciation ( listen ); Low German /Low Saxon : Hamborg_ — (_ listen )), officially the FREE AND HANSEATIC CITY OF HAMBURG (German : Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg_) is the second largest city and a state of Germany , with a population of over 1.7 million people. The official name reflects Hamburg\'s history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League , a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire , a city-state , and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany , it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919, the civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten . Though repeatedly destroyed by the Great Fire of Hamburg , the floods , and military conflicts including WW2 bombing raids , the city managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. On the river Elbe , Hamburg is a major port and a global service, media, logistics and industrial hub, with headquarters and facilities of Airbus , Blohm + Voss , Aurubis , Beiersdorf , and Unilever . The radio and television broadcaster NDR , Gruner + Jahr (Europe's largest printing and publishing firm), Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are also based in Hamburg
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Government Of Hamburg
The GOVERNMENT OF HAMBURG is divided into executive , legislative and judicial branches. Due to the characteristic that Hamburg
Hamburg
is a city-state and a municipality in Germany
Germany
, the governance deals with several details of both state politics and community politics. It takes place in two ranks – a citywide and state administration (Senate of Hamburg
Hamburg
), and a local rank for the boroughs. The head of the city-state's government is the First Mayor
Mayor
and President of the Senate . A ministry is called Behörde (office) and a state minister is a Senator in Hamburg. The legislature is the state parliament, called Hamburgische Bürgerschaft , and the judicial branch is composed of the state supreme court and other courts. The seat of the government is Hamburg
Hamburg
Rathaus . The President of the Hamburg Parliament is the highest official person of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. This is a traditional difference to the other German states. The president is not allowed to exert anny occupation of the executive. Prior to 1871, Hamburg
Hamburg
was a fully sovereign country, and its government a sovereign government. Upon joining the German Empire
German Empire
, the city-state retained partial sovereignty as a federal state
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