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Bumpy Johnson
Ellsworth Raymond Johnson (October 31, 1905 – July 7, 1968) — known as "Bumpy" Johnson — was an American mob boss and bookmaker in New York City's Harlem
Harlem
neighborhood. The main Harlem
Harlem
associate of the Luciano crime family, Johnson's criminal career has inspired films and television.Contents1 Early life 2 Criminal career 3 Death 4 In popular culture4.1 Film 4.2 Television 4.3 Music 4.4 Other5 References 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Johnson was born in Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina
on October 31, 1905. Johnson derived his nickname "Bumpy" from a bump on the back of his head.[1] When he was 10, his older brother, Willie, was accused of killing a white man
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United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth
The United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth
United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth
(USP Leavenworth) is a medium-security United States federal prison for male inmates that is located in northeast Kansas. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. It also includes a satellite federal prison camp (FPC) for minimum-security male offenders. USP Leavenworth is located 25 miles (40 km) northwest of Kansas City, Kansas.[2]Contents1 Background 2 Design 3 Historical timeline 4 Notable inmates (current and former) 5 Famous escapees 6 Executions 7 Cemetery 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksBackground[edit] USP Leavenworth, a civilian facility, is the oldest of three major prisons built on federal land in Leavenworth County, Kansas
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The Bronx
The Bronx
The Bronx
(/brɒŋks/) is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City within the U.S. state
U.S. state
of New York. It is south of Westchester County; north and east of Manhattan, across the Harlem River; and north of Queens, across the East River. Since 1914, the borough has had the same boundaries as Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States.[2] The Bronx
The Bronx
has a land area of 42 square miles (109 km2) and a population of 1,471,160 in 2017.[1] Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, and third-highest population density.[2] It is the only borough predominantly on the U.S. mainland. The Bronx
The Bronx
is divided by the Bronx River
Bronx River
into a hillier section in the west, and a flatter eastern section
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African American
Origins of the civil rights movement
Origins of the civil rights movement
· Civil rights movement
Civil rights movement
· Black Power movementPost–civil rights era
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John H. Johnson
John Harold Johnson (January 19, 1918 – August 8, 2005) was an American businessman and publisher. He was the founder of the Johnson Publishing Company. In 1982, he became the first African American to appear on the Forbes 400. Johnson's Ebony (founded 1945) and Jet (founded 1951) magazines were among the most influential African-American businesses
African-American businesses
in media in the second half of the twentieth century.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Honors and awards 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Early years and education: Johnson was born in rural Arkansas City, Arkansas, the grandson of slaves. When he was 6 years old, his father died in a sawmill accident and Johnson was raised by his mother and his step father. He attended an overcrowded and segregated elementary school
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Johnson Publishing Company
Johnson Publishing
Publishing
Company, Inc. (JPC) was an American publishing company founded in November 1942 by African-American
African-American
businessman John H. Johnson. It was headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. JPC was privately held and run by Johnson until his death in 2005. Led by its flagship publication, Ebony, Johnson Publishing
Publishing
was at one time the largest African-American–owned publishing firm in the United States. JPC also published Jet, a weekly magazine, from November 1951 until June 2014, when it became digital only. The company's last chairman and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) was the founder's daughter, Linda Johnson-Rice. In its final years, Johnson Publishing
Publishing
Company sold off assets including its historic 820 S. Michigan Avenue headquarters in 2011, and its publications in 2016
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Chicago, Illinois
Chicago
Chicago
(/ʃɪˈkɑːɡoʊ, -ˈkɔː-/ ( listen)), officially the City
City
of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is also the most populous city in both the state of Illinois
Illinois
and the Midwestern United States. It is the county seat of Cook County
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Appeal
In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision. Appeals function both as a process for error correction as well as a process of clarifying and interpreting law.[1] Although appellate courts have existed for thousands of years, common law countries did not incorporate an affirmative right to appeal into their jurisprudence until the 19th century.[2]Contents1 History 2 Appellate procedure 3 Appellate courts 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] Appellate courts and other systems of error correction have existed for many millennia
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San Francisco Bay, California
San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay is a shallow estuary in the U.S. state of California. It is surrounded by a contiguous region known as the San Francisco Bay Area (often simply "the Bay Area"), and is dominated by the large cities of San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose. San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California. Water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, and from the Sierra Nevada mountains, flow into Suisun Bay, which then travels through the Carquinez Strait
Carquinez Strait
to meet with the Napa River
Napa River
at the entrance to San Pablo Bay, which connects at its south end to San Francisco Bay. The Guadalupe River
River
enters the bay at its southernmost point in San Jose. The Guadalupe drains water from the Santa Cruz mountains and Hamilton Mountain
Mountain
ranges in southern most San Jose
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Sit-down Strike
A sit-down strike is a labor strike and a form of civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers, usually employed at factories or other centralized locations, take unauthorized or illegal possession of the workplace by "sitting down" at their stations. The attraction for workers of a sit-down strike is that the practice prevents employers from replacing them with strikebreakers or removing equipment to transfer production to other locations. Neal Ascherson has commented that an additional attraction of the practice is that it emphasises the role of workers in providing for the people, and allows workers to in effect hold valuable machinery hostage as a bargaining chip.[1] Workers have used this technique since the beginning of the 20th century in countries such as United States, Italy, Poland, Yugoslavia, and France
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Acquittal
In common law jurisdictions, an acquittal certifies that the accused is free from the charge of an offense, as far as the criminal law is concerned. This is so even where the prosecution is simply abandoned by the prosecution. The finality of an acquittal is dependent on the jurisdiction. In some countries, such as the United States, an acquittal operates to bar the retrial of the accused for the same offense, even if new evidence surfaces that further implicates the accused. The effect of an acquittal on criminal proceedings is the same whether it results from a jury verdict, or whether it results from the operation of some other rule that discharges the accused
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Shaft (1971 Film)
Shaft is a 1971 American blaxploitation action-crime film directed by Gordon Parks
Gordon Parks
and written by Ernest Tidyman and John D. F. Black. The film revolves around a private detective named John Shaft
John Shaft
who is hired by a Harlem
Harlem
mobster to rescue his daughter from the Italian mobsters who kidnapped her. The film stars Richard Roundtree
Richard Roundtree
as John Shaft, Moses Gunn
Moses Gunn
as Bumpy Jonas, Charles Cioffi as Vic Androzzi, and Christopher St. John as Ben Buford. The major themes present in Shaft are the Black Power movement, race, masculinity, and sexuality
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Numbers Game
The numbers game, also known as the numbers racket, the policy racket, the Italian lottery, the policy game, or the daily number, is a form of illegal gambling or illegal lottery played mostly in poor and working class neighborhoods in the United States, wherein a bettor attempts to pick three digits to match those that will be randomly drawn the following day. In recent years, the "number" would be the last three digits of "the handle", the amount race track bettors placed on race day at a major racetrack, published in racing journals and major newspapers in New York. Gamblers place bets with a bookmaker ("bookie") at a tavern, bar, barber shop, social club, or any other semi-private place that acts as an illegal betting parlor. Runners carry the money and betting slips between the betting parlors and the headquarters, called a numbers bank or policy bank
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Moses Gunn
Moses Gunn
Moses Gunn
(October 2, 1929 – December 16, 1993)[1] was an American actor of stage and screen. An Obie Award-winning stage player, he co-founded the Negro Ensemble Company in the 1960s. His 1962 Off-Broadway debut was in Jean Genet's The Blacks, and his Broadway debut was in A Hand is on the Gate, an evening of African-American poetry. He was nominated for a 1976 Tony Award
Tony Award
as Best Actor (Play) for The Poison Tree and played Othello
Othello
on Broadway in 1970.Contents1 Biography 2 Death 3 Film / Television 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Born in St. Louis, Missouri, of African descent the son of Mary and George Gunn, a labourer he was one of seven siblings. After his mother died, his family separated. Moses left home and rode the railroad at just 12 years old. He returned to St. Louis
St

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Come Back Charleston Blue
Come Back, Charleston Blue
Come Back, Charleston Blue
is a 1972 film starring Godfrey Cambridge and Raymond St. Jacques, loosely based on Chester Himes' novel The Heat's On. It is a sequel to the 1970 film Cotton Comes to Harlem.Contents1 Plot 2 Cast 3 Production 4 Reception 5 Soundtrack 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksPlot[edit] Coffin Ed Johnson and Gravedigger Jones are confounded by a string of strange murders in the neighborhood of Harlem, New York. The murders themselves aren't nearly as bizarre as the calling card left by the murderer: a blue steel straight razor. Legend has it that this was the calling card of Charleston Blue, a vigilante who tried to rid the neighborhood of all criminal elements using a straight razor
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Paul Benjamin
Paul Benjamin (born 1938) is an American actor.[1] Benjamin was born in Pelion, South Carolina. He made his film debut in 1969 as a bartender in Midnight Cowboy.[1] After small roles in Sidney Lumet's The Anderson Tapes
The Anderson Tapes
(1971) and Born to Win
Born to Win
(1971),[1] he did extensive television work in the 1970s. A few notable exceptions were a major role in Barry Shear's Across 110th Street (1972), and smaller parts in Shear's western The Deadly Trackers (1973), Michael Campus' The Education of Sonny Carson (1974), Arthur Marks' Friday Foster (1975), Gordon Parks' biopic Leadbelly (1976), and Don Siegel's prison film Escape from Alcatraz (1979). He gave exceptional performances in the TV adaptations of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1979) and Gideon's Trumpet
Gideon's Trumpet
(1980)
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