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Built Structure
STRUCTURE is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system , or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as biological organisms , minerals and chemicals . Abstract structures include data structures in computer science and musical form . Types of structure include a hierarchy (a cascade of one-to-many relationships), a network featuring many-to-many links , or a lattice featuring connections between components that are neighbors in space. CONTENTS * 1 Load-bearing * 2 Biological * 3 Chemical * 4 Mathematical * 5 Musical * 6 Social * 7 Data * 8 Software * 9 Logical * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links LOAD-BEARING A traditional Sami food storage structure Gothic quadripartite cross-ribbed vaults of the Saint-Séverin
Saint-Séverin
church in Paris Buildings, aircraft, skeletons, anthills, beaver dams and salt domes are all examples of load -bearing structures. The results of construction are divided into buildings and non-building structures , and make up the infrastructure of a human society. Built structures are broadly divided by their varying design approaches and standards, into categories including building structures, architectural structures , civil engineering structures and mechanical structures
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DNA
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˌkliːɪk, -ˌkleɪɪk/ ( listen ); DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses . DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids ; alongside proteins , lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides ), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life . Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix . The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides . Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases — cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T) — a sugar called deoxyribose , and a phosphate group . The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone . The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T, and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes
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System
A SYSTEM is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole. Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 System
System
concepts * 3.1 Subsystem * 4 Analysis of systems * 4.1 Cultural system * 4.2 Economic system * 5 Application of the system concept * 5.1 Systems in information and computer science * 5.2 Systems in engineering and physics * 5.3 Systems in social and cognitive sciences and management research * 5.4 Pure logical systems * 5.5 Systems applied to strategic thinking * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term "system" comes from the Latin
Latin
word _systēma_, in turn from Greek σύστημα _systēma_: "whole concept made of several parts or members, system", literary "composition". HISTORYAccording to Marshall McLuhan
Marshall McLuhan
, "System" means "something to look at". You must have a very high visual gradient to have systematization. In philosophy, prior to Descartes, there was no "system". Plato had no "system". Aristotle had no "system"
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Building
A BUILDING or EDIFICE is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory . Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to land prices, ground conditions, specific uses and aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term _building_ compare the list of nonbuilding structures . Buildings serve several needs of society – primarily as shelter from weather, security, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the human habitat (a place of comfort and safety) and the _outside_ (a place that at times may be harsh and harmful). Ever since the first cave paintings , buildings have also become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in sustainable planning and building practices has also become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings
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Machine
A MACHINE is a tool containing one or more parts that transforms energy . Machines are usually powered by chemical, thermal , or electrical means, and are often motorized . Historically, a power tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine. However, the advent of electronics has led to the development of power tools without moving parts that are considered machines. A simple machine is a device that simply transforms the direction or magnitude of a force , but a large number of more complex machines exist. Examples include vehicles , electronic systems , molecular machines , computers , television , and radio . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Types * 3.1 Mechanical * 3.1.1 Simple machines * 3.1.2 Engine * 3.2 Electrical * 3.2.1 Electrical machine * 3.2.2 Electronic machine * 3.2.3 Computing machines * 3.3 Molecular machines * 4 Machine elements * 4.1 Mechanisms * 4.2 Controllers * 5 Impact * 5.1 Industrial Revolution * 5.2 Mechanization and automation * 5.3 Automata * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading ETYMOLOGY _machina_, which in turn derives from the Greek (Doric μαχανά _makhana_, Ionic μηχανή _mekhane_ "contrivance, machine, engine", a derivation from μῆχος _mekhos_ "means, expedient, remedy" )
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Organism
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, _organismos_) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote . Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains —bacteria and archaea . Eukaryotic organisms are characterized by the presence of a membrane-bound cell nucleus and contain additional membrane-bound compartments called organelles (such as mitochondria in animals and plants and plastids in plants and algae , all generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria). Fungi, animals and plants are examples of kingdoms of organisms within the eukaryotes. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which only about 1.2 million have been documented. More than 99% of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived are estimated to be extinct
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Mineral
A MINERAL is a naturally occurring chemical compound , usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition , whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids . The study of minerals is called mineralogy . There are over 5,300 known mineral species; as of March 2017 , over 5,230 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth\'s crust . The diversity and abundance of mineral species is controlled by the Earth's chemistry. Silicon
Silicon
and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth's crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties . Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed. Changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals. Minerals can be described by their various physical properties, which are related to their chemical structure and composition. Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit , hardness , lustre , diaphaneity , colour, streak , tenacity , cleavage , fracture , parting, and specific gravity
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Chemical Substance
A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE also known as a PURE SUBSTANCE is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds. Chemical substances can be chemical elements , chemical compounds , ions or alloys . Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures . A common example of a chemical substance is pure water ; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory . Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold , table salt (sodium chloride ) and refined sugar (sucrose ). However, in practice, no substance is entirely pure, and chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical. Chemical substances exist as solids , liquids , gases , or plasma , and may change between these phases of matter with changes in temperature or pressure . Chemical substances may be combined or converted to others by means of chemical reactions . Forms of energy , such as light and heat , are not matter, and are thus not "substances" in this regard
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Data Structure
In computer science , a DATA STRUCTURE is a particular way of organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently . CONTENTS * 1 Usage * 2 Implementation * 3 Examples * 4 Language support * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links USAGEData structures can implement one or more particular abstract data types (ADT), which specify the operations that can be performed on a data structure and the computational complexity of those operations. In comparison, a data structure is a concrete implementation of the specification provided by an ADT. Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to specific tasks. For example, relational databases commonly use B-tree indexes for data retrieval, while compiler implementations usually use hash tables to look up identifiers. Data structures provide a means to manage large amounts of data efficiently for uses such as large databases and internet indexing services . Usually, efficient data structures are key to designing efficient algorithms . Some formal design methods and programming languages emphasize data structures, rather than algorithms, as the key organizing factor in software design. Data structures can be used to organize the storage and retrieval of information stored in both main memory and secondary memory
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Computer Science
COMPUTER SCIENCE is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers . It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms ) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information . An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems. Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines . Some fields, such as computational complexity theory (which explores the fundamental properties of computational and intractable problems), are highly abstract, while fields such as computer graphics emphasize real-world visual applications. Other fields still focus on challenges in implementing computation. For example, programming language theory considers various approaches to the description of computation, while the study of computer programming itself investigates various aspects of the use of programming language and complex systems . Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans
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Musical Form
The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music,[2] and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.[3] In the tenth edition of The Oxford Companion to Music, Percy Scholes defines musical form as "a series of strategies designed to find a successful mean between the opposite extremes of unrelieved repetition and unrelieved alteration."[4] According to Richard Middleton, musical form is "the shape or structure of the work." He describes it through difference: the distance moved from a repeat; the latter being the smallest difference. Difference is quantitative and qualitative: how far, and of what type, different
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Hierarchy
A HIERARCHY (from the Greek _hierarchia_, "rule of a high priest", from _hierarkhes _, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above," "below," or "at the same level as" one another. A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally. The only direct links in a hierarchy, insofar as they are hierarchical, are to one's immediate superior or to one of one's subordinates, although a system that is largely hierarchical can also incorporate alternative hierarchies. Indirect hierarchical links can extend "vertically" upwards or downwards via multiple links in the same direction, following a path . All parts of the hierarchy which are not linked vertically to one another nevertheless can be "horizontally" linked through a path by traveling up the hierarchy to find a common direct or indirect superior, and then down again. This is akin to two co-workers or colleagues ; each reports to a common superior, but they have the same relative amount of authority. Organizational forms exist that are both alternative and complementary to hierarchy. Heterarchy is one such form. A HIERARCHY is a system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority
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Complex Network
In the context of network theory, a complex network is a graph (network) with non-trivial topological features—features that do not occur in simple networks such as lattices or random graphs but often occur in graphs modelling of real systems. The study of complex networks is a young and active area of scientific research (since 2000) inspired largely by the empirical study of real-world networks such as computer networks, technological networks, brain networks and social networks.Contents1 Definition 2 Scale-free networks 3 Small-world networks 4 See also 5 Books 6 ReferencesDefinition[edit] Most social, biological, and technological networks display substantial non-trivial topological features, with patterns of connection between their elements that are neither purely regular nor purely random. Such features include a heavy tail in the degree distribution, a high clustering coefficient, assortativity or disassortativity among vertices, community structure, and hierarchical structure. In the case of directed networks these features also include reciprocity, triad significance profile and other features. In contrast, many of the mathematical models of networks that have been studied in the past, such as lattices and random graphs, do not show these features
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Link (geometry)
In geometry , the LINK of a vertex of a 2-dimensional simplicial complex is a graph that encodes information about the local structure of the complex at the vertex. It is a graph-theoretic analog to a sphere centered at a point. EXAMPLE The tetrahedron is a 2-complex. The link of a vertex of a tetrahedron is the triangle. The link of a vertex of a tetrahedron is a triangle – the three vertices of the link corresponds to the three edges incident to the vertex, and the three edges of the link correspond to the faces incident to the vertex. In this example, the link can be visualized by cutting off the vertex with a plane; formally, intersecting the tetrahedron with a plane near the vertex – the resulting cross-section is the link. DEFINITIONLet X {displaystyle scriptstyle X} be a simplicial complex. The LINK Lk ( v , X ) {displaystyle scriptstyle operatorname {Lk} (v,X)} of a vertex v {displaystyle scriptstyle v} of X {displaystyle scriptstyle X} is the graph constructed as follows. The vertices of Lk ( v , X ) {displaystyle scriptstyle operatorname {Lk} (v,X)} correspond to edges of X {displaystyle scriptstyle X} which are incident to v {displaystyle scriptstyle v} . Two such edges are adjacent in Lk ( v , X ) {displaystyle scriptstyle operatorname {Lk} (v,X)} if they are incident to a common 2-cells at v {displaystyle scriptstyle v}
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