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Building (other)
A BUILDING or EDIFICE is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory . Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to land prices, ground conditions, specific uses and aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures . Buildings serve several societal needs – primarily as shelter from weather, security, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the human habitat (a place of comfort and safety) and the outside (a place that at times may be harsh and harmful). Ever since the first cave paintings , buildings have also become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression
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Neolithic Architecture
NEOLITHIC ARCHITECTURE refers to structures encompassing housing and shelter from approximately 10,000 to 2,000 BC, the Neolithic period . In southwest Asia, Neolithic cultures appear soon after 10,000 BC, initially in the Levant
Levant
( Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B ) and from there into the east and west. Early Neolithic structures and buildings can be found in southeast Anatolia, Syria, and Iraq by 8,000 BC with agriculture societies first appearing in southeast Europe by 7,000 BC, and central Europe by ca. 5,500 BC (of which the earliest cultural complexes include the Starčevo-Koros (Cris) , Linearbandkeramic , and Vinča
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Terra Amata (archaeological Site)
TERRA AMATA is an archeological site in open air located on the slopes of Mount Boron in Nice
Nice
, at a level 26 meters (85 ft) above the current sea level of the Mediterranean. It was discovered and excavated in 1966 by Henry de Lumley
Henry de Lumley
. The site, originally on a prehistoric beach, contained tools of the lower Paleolithic
Paleolithic
period, dated to about 400,000 BC, as well as traces of some of the earliest domestication of fire in Europe. The site now lies beneath an apartment building and a museum of prehistoric Nice, where some of the objects discovered are on display. CONTENTS * 1 Principal discoveries * 2 Controversy * 3 References * 4 External links PRINCIPAL DISCOVERIESThe site was discovered during the construction of a terrace near the port of Nice
Nice
in 1966
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List Of Building Types
A LIST OF STRUCTURAL STRUCTURE TYPES AND FORMS OF ARCHITECTURE . For individual buildings, see List of buildings and structures . For other types of structures see nonbuilding structure
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Timber Framing
TIMBER FRAMING and "POST-AND-BEAM" CONSTRUCTION are methods of building with heavy timbers (posts and beams ) rather than dimensional lumber such as 2x4s. Traditional timber framing is the method of creating structures using heavy squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs (larger versions of the mortise and tenon joints in furniture). It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. The method comes from making things out of logs and tree trunks without modern high tech saws to cut lumber from the starting material stock. Hewing with broadaxes , adzes , and draw knives and using hand-powered braces and augers (brace and bit) and other laborious woodworking , artisans or framers could gradually assemble a building capable of bearing heavy weight without excessive use of interior space given over to vertical support posts
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Marburg
MARBURG is a university town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse
Hesse
, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district (Landkreis). The town area spreads along the valley of the river Lahn
Lahn
and has a population of approximately 72,000. Having been awarded town privileges in 1222, Marburg
Marburg
served as capital of the landgraviate of Hessen-Marburg during periods of the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries. The University of Marburg
University of Marburg
was founded in 1527 and dominates the public life in the town to this day. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Founding and early history * 1.2 St
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Nice
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. NICE (/niːs/ , French pronunciation: ​ ; Niçard Occitan : Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard, pronounced ; Italian : Nizza ; Greek : Νίκαια; Latin
Latin
: Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France
France
and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département. The urban area of Nice
Nice
extends beyond the administrative city limits, with a population of about 1 million on an area of 721 km2 (278 sq mi)
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Shinichi Fujimura
SHINICHI FUJIMURA (藤村 新一, Fujimura Shin'ichi, b. 4 May 1950) is a Japanese archaeologist who claimed he had found a large number of stone artifacts dating back to the Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic periods. These objects were later revealed to be forgeries . CONTENTS * 1 Success * 2 Criticism * 3 Disclosure * 4 Aftermath * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links SUCCESSFujimura was born in Kami, Miyagi
Kami, Miyagi
, in 1950. After graduating from a high school in Sendai
Sendai
, he obtained a job in a manufacturing company. He became intrigued by archaeology when he was a child, finding shards of Jōmon pottery in the backyard of his house. In 1972 Fujimura began to study archaeology and to look for Paleolithic artifacts during his holidays
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Fence
A FENCE is a structure that encloses an area, typically outdoors, and is usually constructed from posts that are connected by boards, wire, rails or netting. A fence differs from a wall in not having a solid foundation along its whole length. Alternatives to fencing include a ditch (sometimes filled with water , forming a moat ). CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 By function * 1.2 By construction * 2 Requirement of use * 3 Legal issues * 3.1 History * 3.2 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 3.3 United States
United States
* 4 Cultural value of fences * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links TYPES Typical agricultural barbed wire fencing. Split-rail fencing common in timber-rich areas. A chain-link wire fence surrounding a field. Portable metal fences around a construction site
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Russell Sturgis
RUSSELL STURGIS (/ˈstɜːrdʒɪs/ ; October 16, 1836 – February 11, 1909) was an American architect and art critic of the 19th and early 20th centuries. He was one of the founders of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1870. Sturgis was born in Baltimore County, Maryland , the son of Russell and Margaret Dawes (Appleton) Sturgis. The father was a New York shipping merchant who was living temporarily in Baltimore when Russell was born in 1836. The family were descended from Edward Sturgis, recorded in Charlestown, Massachusetts
Charlestown, Massachusetts
, in 1634 and later one of the first settlers of Yarmouth, Massachusetts . Russell Sturgis
Russell Sturgis
was a direct descendant of Thomas Sturgis (1755-1821), who was the younger brother of Russell Sturgis (1750-1826)
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Architecture
ARCHITECTURE (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων arkhitekton "architect", from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "builder") is both the process and the product of planning , designing , and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings , are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art . Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. "Architecture" can mean: * A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. * The art and science of designing buildings and (some) nonbuilding structures . * The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. * A unifying or coherent form or structure * Knowledge
Knowledge
of art, science, technology, and humanity
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History Of Architecture
The HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regions, overarching stylistic trends, and dates. The branches of architecture are civil, sacred , naval , military, and landscape architecture
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List Of Human Habitation Forms
This is a LIST OF (SEMI)-PERMANENT, MOBILE AND MISC. TYPES OF HUMAN HABITATION. Such an exhaustive list is at times used for national census, where counting every human, however housed (or not housed, as with homeless humans), is mandatory
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Home
A HOME or DOMICILE is a dwelling-place used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual , family , household or several families in a tribe . It is often a house , apartment , or other building , or alternatively a mobile home , houseboat , yurt or any other portable shelter. Homes typically provide areas and facilities for sleeping, preparing food, eating and hygiene. Larger groups may live in a nursing home , children\'s home , convent or any similar institution. A homestead also includes agricultural land and facilities for domesticated animals . Where more secure dwellings are not available, people may live in the informal and sometimes illegal shacks found in slums and shanty towns . More generally, "home" may be considered to be a geographic area, such as a town , village , suburb , city , or country . Transitory accommodation in a treatment facility for a few weeks is not normally considered permanent enough to replace a more stable location as 'home'
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Holiday Cottage
A HOLIDAY COTTAGE, HOLIDAY HOME, or VACATION PROPERTY is accommodation used for holiday vacations. Such properties are typically small homes, such as cottages , that vacationers can rent and run as if it were their own home for the duration of their stay. The properties may be owned by those using them for a vacation, in which case the term SECOND HOME applies; or may be rented out to holidaymakers through an agency. Terminology varies among countries. In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
this type of property is usually termed a holiday home or holiday cottage ; in Australia, a holiday house/home, or weekender; in New Zealand, a bach or crib
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Apartment Block
A TOWER BLOCK, HIGH-RISE, APARTMENT TOWER, RESIDENTIAL TOWER, APARTMENT BLOCK, BLOCK OF FLATS, or OFFICE TOWER is a tall building or structure used as a residential or office building . In some areas it may be referred to as an "MDU", standing for "Multi Dwelling Unit". In the United States, such a structure is referred to as an APARTMENT BUILDING or OFFICE BUILDING, while a group of such buildings is called an APARTMENT COMPLEX or OFFICE COMPLEX. High-rise buildings became possible with the invention of the elevator (lift) and cheaper, more abundant building materials. The materials used for the structural system of high-rise buildings are reinforced concrete and steel . Most North American style skyscrapers have a steel frame , while residential blocks are usually constructed of concrete. There is no clear difference between a tower block and a skyscraper, although a building with fifty or more stories is generally considered a skyscraper
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