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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
and resulting interpreted philosophies . Buddhism originated in Ancient India
Ancient India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages
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Tokyo National Museum
The TOKYO NATIONAL MUSEUM (東京国立博物館, Tōkyō Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan), or TNM, established in 1872, is the oldest Japanese national museum , the largest art museum in Japan
Japan
and one of the largest art museums in the world. The museum collects, houses, and preserves a comprehensive collection of art works and archaeological objects of Asia
Asia
, focusing on Japan
Japan
. The museum holds over 110,000 objects, which includes 87 Japanese National Treasure holdings and 610 Important Cultural Property holdings (as of July 2005). The museum also conducts research and organizes educational events related to its collection. The museum is located inside Ueno Park
Ueno Park
in Taitō , Tokyo
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Dharma
DHARMA ( ; Sanskrit : धर्म dharma, listen (help ·info ); Pali : धम्म dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions
Indian religions
Hinduism
Hinduism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
, Sikhism
Sikhism
and Jainism
Jainism
. There is no single word translation for dharma in Western languages. In Hinduism
Hinduism
, dharma signifies behaviours that are considered to be in accord with rta , the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and ‘‘right way of living’’. In Buddhism
Buddhism
dharma means "cosmic law and order", but is also applied to the teachings of the Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy , dhamma/dharma is also the term for "phenomena "
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Standing Buddha
The STANDING BUDDHA of the Tokyo National Museum
Tokyo National Museum
is a remarkable example of Greco-Buddhist statuary. Comparable ones can be found in the Musee Guimet in France
France
, and in the National Museum, New Delhi besides various other museums of South Asia. The statue is dated by the museum to the 1st or 2nd century CE. CONTEXTSome of the standing Buddhas (such as the example pictured) were sculpted using the specific Greek technique of making the hands and sometimes the feet in marble to increase the realistic effect, and the rest of the body in another material
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Bodhipakkhiyādhammā
In Buddhism, BODHIPAKKHIYā DHAMMā ( Pali
Pali
; variant spellings include bodhipakkhikā dhammā and bodhapakkhiyā dhammā; Skt. : bodhipakṣa dharma) are qualities (dhammā ) conducive or related to (pakkhiya) awakening (bodhi ). In the Pali
Pali
commentaries, the term bodhipakkhiyā dhammā is used to refer to seven sets of such qualities regularly mentioned by the Buddha throughout the Pali
Pali
Canon . Within these seven sets of Enlightenment qualities, there is a total of thirty-seven individual qualities (sattatiṃsa bodhipakkhiyā dhammā). These seven sets of qualities are recognized by both Theravadan and Mahayanan Buddhists as complementary facets of the Buddhist Path to Enlightenment
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Tibetan Buddhist Canon
The TIBETAN BUDDHIST CANON is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism . In addition to sutrayana texts from Early Buddhist (mostly Sarvastivada ) and Mahayana sources, the Tibetan canon includes tantric texts. The Tibetan Canon underwent a final compilation in the 14th century by Buton Rinchen Drub (1290–1364). The Tibetans did not have a formally arranged Mahayana canon and so devised their own scheme which divided texts into two broad categories: * Kangyur (Wylie : bka'-'gyur) or "Translated Words", consists of works supposed to have been said by the Buddha himself
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Threefold Training
The Buddha identified the THREEFOLD TRAINING (sikkhā) as training in: * higher virtue (adhisīla-sikkhā) * higher mind (adhicitta-sikkhā) * higher wisdom (adhipaññā-sikkhā)CONTENTS* 1 In the Pali Canon * 1.1 Similarity to threefold partition of the Noble Eightfold Path * 2 Notes * 3 Sources * 4 External links IN THE PALI CANONAccording to Theravada
Theravada
canonical texts , pursuing this training leads to the abandonment of lust, hatred, and delusion . One who is fully accomplished in this training attains Nibbana
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Buddhist Councils
Lists and numbering of BUDDHIST COUNCILS vary between and even within schools. The numbering here is normal in Western writings. CONTENTS * 1 First Buddhist council (c. 400 BCE) * 2 Second Buddhist council * 3 Third council * 4 Fourth Buddhist Councils * 5 Theravada Buddhist council in 1871 (Fifth Buddhist Council) * 6 Theravada Buddhist council in 1954 (Sixth Buddhist Council) * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography FIRST BUDDHIST COUNCIL (C. 400 BCE) Main article: First Buddhist council According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the death of the Buddha , dated by the majority of recent scholars around 400 BCE, under the patronage of the king Ajatashatru
Ajatashatru
with the monk Mahakasyapa presiding, at Sattapanni caves Rajgriha (now Rajgir
Rajgir
)
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Chinese Buddhist Canon
The CHINESE BUDDHIST CANON (大藏經 Dàzàngjīng) (Japanese : 大蔵経 Daizōkyō; Korean : 대장경 Daejanggyeong; Vietnamese : Đại tạng kinh) refers to the total body of Buddhist literature deemed canonical in Chinese , Japanese , Korean , and Vietnamese Buddhism
Buddhism
. The traditional term for this canon is Dàzàngjīng (大藏經), which means the "Great Treasury of Sūtras." CONTENTS * 1 Contents * 2 Versions * 3 Languages * 4 Non-collected works * 5 Translations * 6 Samples * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 External links CONTENTSThe Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
includes Āgama , Vinaya and Abhidharma texts from Early Buddhist schools , as well as the Mahāyāna sūtras and scriptures from Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism

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Dharmachakra
The DHARMACHAKRA ( IAST
IAST
: dharmacakra; Pali
Pali
dhammacakka; "Wheel of the Dharma
Dharma
") is one of the Ashtamangala
Ashtamangala
of Indian religions
Indian religions
such as Jainism
Jainism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
, and Hinduism
Hinduism
. It has represented the Buddhist dharma , Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
's teaching and walking of the path to Nirvana , since the time of early Buddhism
Buddhism
. It is also connected to the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
and the Noble Eightfold Path
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Tripiṭaka
TRIPIṭAKA, also referred to as TIPIṭAKA, is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures. The version canonical to Theravada Buddhism
Buddhism
is often referred to as Pali
Pali
Canon in English. Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
also reveres the Tripitaka as authoritative but, unlike Theravadins, it also reveres various derivative literature and commentaries that were composed much later. The Tripitakas were composed between about 500 BCE to about the start of the common era, likely written down for the first time in the 1st century BCE. The Dipavamsa states that during the reign of Valagamba of Anuradhapura (29–17 BCE) the monks who had previously remembered the Tipitaka and its commentary orally now wrote them down in books, because of the threat posed by famine, war. The Mahavamsa also refers briefly to the writing down of the canon and the commentaries at this time
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Four Stages Of Enlightenment
The FOUR STAGES OF ENLIGHTENMENT in Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
are the four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment as an Arahat . These four stages are Sotapanna , Sakadagami , Anāgāmi , and Arahant. The Buddha referred to people who are at one of these four stages as noble people (ariya-puggala) and the community of such persons as the noble sangha (ariya-sangha). The teaching of the four stages of enlightenment is a central element of the early Buddhist schools , including the Theravada
Theravada
school of Buddhism, which still survives
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Middle Way
The MIDDLE WAY or MIDDLE PATH ( Pali
Pali
: Majjhimāpaṭipadā; Sanskrit : Madhyamāpratipad ; Tibetan : དབུ་མའི་ལམ།, THL : Umélam; Chinese : 中道; Vietnamese : Trung đạo; Thai : มัชฌิมาปฏิปทา) is the term that Gautama Buddha used to describe the character of the Noble Eightfold Path he discovered that leads to liberation
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Karuṇā
KARUṇā (in both Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali
Pali
) is generally translated as compassion . It is part of the spiritual path of both Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
. CONTENTS* 1 Buddhism
Buddhism
* 1.1 Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
* 1.2 Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2 Jainism
Jainism
* 3 Miscellaneous * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Sources * 7 External links BUDDHISM Karuṇā
Karuṇā
is important in all schools of Buddhism. For Theravāda Buddhists, dwelling in karuṇā is a means for attaining a happy present life and heavenly rebirth
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Buddhist Monasticism
Buddhist
Buddhist
monasticism is one of the earliest surviving forms of organized monasticism in the history of religion. It is also one of the most fundamental institutions of Buddhism
Buddhism
. Monks and nuns are considered to be responsible for the preservation and dissemination of the Buddha's teaching and the guidance of Buddhist
Buddhist
lay people. CONTENTS * 1 History and development * 2 Monastic life * 3 Local variations * 3.1 Tibet
Tibet
* 3.2 East Asia * 3.3 Southeast Asia * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT Further information: Sangha The order of Buddhist
Buddhist
monks and nuns was founded by Gautama Buddha during his lifetime between the fifth and fourth centuries BC
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Pāli Canon
The PāLI CANON ( Pali
Pali
: Tipitaka, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: IAST
IAST
: Tripiṭaka ) is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravadan Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language . It is the first known and most complete extant early Buddhist canon. It was composed in North India
North India
and was preserved orally until it was committed to writing during the Fourth Buddhist Council in Sri Lanka in 29 BCE
BCE
, approximately 454 years after the death of Gautama Buddha . It was composed by members of Sangha of each ancient major Buddhist sub-tradition. It is written in Pali, Sanskrit, and regional Asian languages. It survives in various versions. The surviving Sri Lankan version is the most complete
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