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Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Tokyo National Museum
The Tokyo
Tokyo
National Museum
Museum
(東京国立博物館, Tōkyō Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan), or TNM, established in 1872, is the oldest Japanese national museum,[2] the largest art museum in Japan
Japan
and one of the largest art museums in the world. The museum collects, houses, and preserves a comprehensive collection of art works and archaeological objects of Asia, focusing on Japan. The museum holds over 110,000 objects, which includes 87 Japanese National Treasure holdings and 610 Important Cultural Property holdings (as of July 2005). The museum also conducts research and organizes educational events related to its collection. The museum is located inside Ueno Park
Ueno Park
in Taitō, Tokyo
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Dharma
Dharma
Dharma
(/ˈdɑːrmə/;[8] Sanskrit: धर्म, translit. dharma, pronounced [dʱəɾmə] ( listen); Pali: धम्म, translit. dhamma, translit
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Standing Buddha
The Standing Buddha
Standing Buddha
of the Tokyo National Museum
Tokyo National Museum
is a remarkable example of Greco-Buddhist statuary. Comparable ones can be found in the Musee Guimet
Musee Guimet
in France, and in the National Museum, New Delhi besides various other museums of South Asia
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Bodhipakkhiyādhammā
In Buddhism, bodhipakkhiyā dhammā (Pali; variant spellings include bodhipakkhikā dhammā and bodhapakkhiyā dhammā;[1] Skt.: bodhipakṣa dharma) are qualities (dhammā) conducive or related to (pakkhiya) awakening (bodhi). In the Pali
Pali
commentaries, the term bodhipakkhiyā dhammā is used to refer to seven sets of such qualities regularly mentioned by the Buddha throughout the Pali
Pali
Canon
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Tibetan Buddhist Canon
The Tibetan Buddhist canon
Tibetan Buddhist canon
is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. In addition to sutrayana texts from Early Buddhist (mostly Sarvastivada) and Mahayana sources, the Tibetan canon includes tantric texts.[1] The Tibetan Canon underwent a final compilation in the 14th century by Buton Rinchen Drub (1290–1364). The Tibetans did not have a formally arranged Mahayana
Mahayana
canon and so devised their own scheme which divided texts into two broad categories: Kangyur
Kangyur
(Wylie: bka'-'gyur) or "Translated Words", consists of works supposed to have been said by the Buddha himself
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Threefold Training
The Buddha
The Buddha
identified the threefold training (sikkhā)[1] as training in:higher virtue (adhisīla-sikkhā) higher mind (adhicitta-sikkhā) higher wisdom (adhipaññā-sikkhā)Contents1 In the Pali
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Chinese Buddhist Canon
The Chinese Buddhist Canon refers to the total body of Buddhist literature deemed canonical in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese Buddhism. The traditional term for the canon (Chinese: 大藏經 Dàzàngjīng; Japanese: 大蔵経 Daizōkyō; Korean: 대장경 Daejanggyeong; Vietnamese: Đại tạng kinh) means the "Great Treasury of Sūtras."Contents1 Contents 2 Versions 3 Languages 4 Non-collected works 5 Translations 6 Samples 7 See also 8 Notes 9 External linksContents[edit] The Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
includes Āgama, Vinaya
Vinaya
and Abhidharma texts from Early Buddhist schools, as well as the Mahāyāna sūtras and scriptures from Esoteric Buddhism. Versions[edit] There are many versions of the canon in East Asia
East Asia
in different places and time
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Dharmachakra
The dharmachakra (IAST: dharmacakra; Pali
Pali
dhammacakka; "Wheel of the Dharma") is one of the Ashtamangala[1] of Indian religions
Indian religions
such as Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism
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Buddhist Councils
Lists and numbering of Buddhist councils
Buddhist councils
vary between and even within schools. The numbering here is normal in Western writings.Contents1 First Buddhist council
First Buddhist council
(c. 400 BCE) 2 Second Buddhist council 3 Third council 4 Fourth Buddhist Councils 5 Theravada
Theravada
Buddhist council in 1871 (Fifth Buddhist Council) 6 Theravada
Theravada
Buddhist council in 1954 (Sixth Buddhist Council) 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography First Buddhist council
First Buddhist council
(c
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Tripiṭaka
Tripiṭaka, also referred to as Tipiṭaka, is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures.[1][2] The version canonical to Theravada Buddhism
Buddhism
is often referred to as Pali
Pali
Canon in English. Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
also reveres the Tripitaka as authoritative but, unlike Theravadins, it also reveres various derivative literature and commentaries that were composed much later.[1][3] The Tripitakas were composed between about 500 BCE to about the start of the common era, likely written down for the first time in the 1st century BCE.[3] The Dipavamsa
Dipavamsa
states that during the reign of Valagamba of Anuradhapura
Valagamba of Anuradhapura
(29–17 BCE) the monks who had previously remembered the Tipitaka and its commentary orally now wrote them down in books, because of the threat posed by famine and war
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Four Stages Of Enlightenment
The four stages of enlightenment in Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
are the four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment as an Arahant. These four stages are Sotapanna, Sakadagami, Anāgāmi, and Arahant. The Buddha referred to people who are at one of these four st
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Middle Way
The Middle Way
Middle Way
or Middle Path (Pali: Majjhimāpaṭipadā; Sanskrit: Madhyamāpratipad[1][a]; Tibetan: དབུ་མའི་ལམ།, THL: Umélam; Chinese: 中道; Vietnamese: Trung đạo; Thai: มัชฌิมาปฏิปทา) is the term that Gautama Buddha used to describe the character of the Noble Eightfold Path
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Buddhist Monasticism
Buddhist
Buddhist
monasticism is one of the earliest surviving forms of organized monasticism in the history of religion. It is also one of the most fundamental institutions of Buddhism. Monks and nuns are considered to be responsible for the preservation and dissemination of the Buddha's teaching and the guidance of Buddhist
Buddhist
lay people.Contents1 History and development 2 Monastic life 3 Local variations3.1 Tibet 3.2 East Asia 3.3 Southeast Asia4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyHistory and development[edit] Further information: Sangha The order of Buddhist
Buddhist
monks and nuns was founded by Gautama Buddha during his lifetime between the fifth and fourth centuries BC. The Buddhist
Buddhist
monastic lifestyle grew out of the lifestyle of earlier sects of wandering ascetics, some of whom the Buddha had studied under
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Karuṇā
Karuṇā
Karuṇā
(in both Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali) is generally translated as compassion.[1] It is part of the spiritual path of both Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism.Contents1 Buddhism1.1 Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism 1.2 Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism2 Jainism 3 Miscellaneous 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Sources 7 External linksBuddhism[edit] Karuṇā
Karuṇā
is important in all schools of Buddhism. For Theravāda Buddhists, dwelling in karuṇā is a means for attaining a happy present life and heavenly rebirth
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Dukkha
Dukkha
Dukkha
(/ˈduːkə/; Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist
Buddhist
concept, commonly translated as "suffering", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress".[1][2][3][4] It refers to the fundamental unsatisfactoriness and painfulness of mundane life. It is the first of the Four Noble Truths
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