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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists
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Buddhadharma
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
Ancient India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists
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Standing Buddha
The STANDING BUDDHA of the Tokyo National Museum is a remarkable example of Greco-Buddhist statuary. Comparable ones can be found in the Musee Guimet
Musee Guimet
in France
France
, and in the National Museum, New Delhi besides various other museums of South Asia. The statue is dated by the museum to the 1st or 2nd century CE. CONTEXTSome of the standing Buddhas (such as the example pictured) were sculpted using the specific Greek technique of making the hands and sometimes the feet in marble to increase the realistic effect, and the rest of the body in another material
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Tokyo National Museum
The TOKYO NATIONAL MUSEUM (東京国立博物館, Tōkyō Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan), or TNM, established in 1872, is the oldest Japanese national museum , the largest art museum in Japan and one of the largest art museums in the world. The museum collects, houses, and preserves a comprehensive collection of art works and archaeological objects of Asia , focusing on Japan . The museum holds over 110,000 objects, which includes 87 Japanese National Treasure holdings and 610 Important Cultural Property holdings (as of July 2005). The museum also conducts research and organizes educational events related to its collection. The museum is located inside Ueno Park in Taitō , Tokyo
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Gautama Buddha
GAUTAMA BUDDHA (c. 563 BCE/480 BCE – c. 483 BCE/400 BCE), also known as SIDDHāRTHA GAUTAMA , SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA , or simply the BUDDHA, after the title of _Buddha _, was an ascetic (śramaṇa ) and sage , on whose teachings Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE . Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India
India
such as Magadha and Kosala
Kosala
. Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism. He is recognized by Buddhists as an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood , and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering
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Dharmachakra
The DHARMACHAKRA ( IAST
IAST
: _dharmacakra_; Pali
Pali
_dhammacakka_; "Wheel of the Dharma
Dharma
") is one of the Ashtamangala
Ashtamangala
of Indian religions
Indian religions
such as Jainism
Jainism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism
Hinduism
. It has represented the Buddhist dharma , Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
's teaching of the path to Nirvana
Nirvana
, since the time of early Buddhism
Buddhism
. It is also connected to the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path
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History Of Buddhism
The HISTORY OF BUDDHISM spans from the 5th century BCE to the present; which arose in the eastern part of Ancient India , in and around the ancient Kingdom of Magadha
Magadha
(now in Bihar
Bihar
, India
India
), and is based on the teachings of Siddhārtha Gautama . This makes it one of the oldest religions practiced today. The religion evolved as it spread from the northeastern region of the Indian subcontinent through Central , East , and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. At one time or another, it influenced most of the Asian continent. The history of Buddhism
Buddhism
is also characterized by the development of numerous movements, schisms, and schools, among them the Theravāda , Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna traditions, with contrasting periods of expansion and retreat
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Timeline Of Buddhism
The purpose of this timeline is to give a detailed account of Buddhism
Buddhism
from the birth of Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
to the present. CONTENTS * 1 Timeline of events * 2 Dates * 2.1 Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
* 2.2 Indian Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.3 Expansion of Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.4 Decline in India
India
* 2.5 Medieval period * 2.6 Early modern era * 2.7 Modern era * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Sources * 6.1 Printed sources * 6.2 Web-sources * 7 External links TIMELINE OF EVENTSTIMELINE: DEVELOPMENT AND PROPAGATION OF BUDDHIST TRADITIONS (ca. 450 BCE – ca
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Buddhist Councils
Lists and numbering of BUDDHIST COUNCILS vary between and even within schools. The numbering here is normal in Western writings. CONTENTS * 1 First Buddhist council
First Buddhist council
(c. 400 BCE) * 2 Second Buddhist council (c. 4th century BCE) * 3 Third Buddhist council (c. 251 BCE) * 4 The Fourth Buddhist Councils * 5 Theravada Buddhist council in 1871 (Fifth Buddhist Council) * 6 Theravada Buddhist council in 1954 (Sixth Buddhist Council) * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography FIRST BUDDHIST COUNCIL (C
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List Of Buddhists
This is a LIST OF NOTABLE BUDDHISTS, encompassing all the major branches of the religion (ie in Buddhism), and including interdenominational and eclectic Buddhist practitioners. This list includes both formal teachers of Buddhism
Buddhism
, and people notable in other areas who are publicly Buddhist or who have espoused Buddhism
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Dharma
DHARMA ( ; Sanskrit : धर्म _dharma_, _ listen (help ·info ); Pali : धम्म dhamma_) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions
Indian religions
Hinduism , Buddhism
Buddhism
, Sikhism and Jainism
Jainism
. There is no single word translation for _dharma_ in Western languages. In Hinduism , _dharma_ signifies behaviours that are considered to be in accord with _rta _, the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and ‘‘right way of living’’. In Buddhism
Buddhism
_dharma_ means "cosmic law and order", but is also applied to the teachings of the Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy , _dhamma/dharma _ is also the term for "phenomena "
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Glossary Of Buddhism
Some Buddhist
Buddhist
terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. Below are given a number of important Buddhist
Buddhist
terms, short definitions, and the languages in which they appear. In this list, an attempt has been made to organize terms by their original form and give translations and synonyms in other languages along with the definition
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Four Noble Truths
The FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism
Buddhism
in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things , which are _dukkha _, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This craving keeps us caught in _samsara _, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, and the _dukkha_ that comes with it. There is, however, a way to end this cycle , namely by attaining _nirvana _, cessation of craving, whereafter rebirth and associated _dukkha_ will no longer arise again. This can be accomplished by following the eightfold path , restraining oneself, cultivating discipline, and practicing mindfulness and meditation. In short form, the four truths are _dukkha_, _samudaya_ ("arising," "coming together"), _nirodha_ ("cessation," "confinement"), and _magga_, the path leading to cessation
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Skandha
SKANDHAS ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
) or KHANDHAS ( Pāḷi ) means "heaps, aggregates, collections, groupings". In Buddhism
Buddhism
, it refers to the FIVE AGGREGATES concept that asserts five factors constitute and completely explain a sentient being’s mental and physical existence . The five aggregates or heaps are: form (or matter or body) (_rupa_), sensations (or feelings, received from form) (_vedana_), perceptions (_samjna_), mental activity or formations (_sankhara_), and consciousness (_vijnana_). The _skandhas_ refute the idea of a "being or individual", and complements the _anatta _ doctrine of Buddhism
Buddhism
which asserts that all things and beings are without self
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Impermanence
IMPERMANENCE, also called ANICCA or ANITYA, is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism
Buddhism
. The doctrine asserts that all of conditioned existence, without exception, is "transient, evanescent, inconstant". All temporal things, whether material or mental, are compounded objects in a continuous change of condition, subject to decline and destruction. The concept of impermanence is also found in various schools of Hinduism and Jainism. Anicca or impermanence is understood in Buddhism
Buddhism
as the first of three marks of existence, the other two being dukkha (suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness) and anatta (non-self, non-soul, no essence). All physical and mental events, states Buddhism, come into being and dissolve. Human life embodies this flux in the aging process, the cycle of repeated birth and death (Samsara ), nothing lasts, and everything decays
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Dukkha
DUKKHA ( Pāli ; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: duḥkha; Tibetan : སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist
Buddhist
concept, commonly translated as "suffering ", "pain" or "unsatisfactoriness". It refers to the fundamental unsatisfactoriness and painfulness of mundane life, and inspires the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
and nirvana doctrines of Buddhism. The term is also found in scriptures of Hinduism , such as the Upanishads , in discussions of moksha (spiritual liberation)
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