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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures , and especially their respective practices
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Buddhadharma
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
Ancient India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures , and especially their respective practices
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Standing Buddha
The STANDING BUDDHA of the Tokyo National Museum is a remarkable example of Greco-Buddhist statuary. Comparable ones can be found in the Musee Guimet in France , and in the National Museum, New Delhi besides various other museums of South Asia. The statue is dated by the museum to the 1st or 2nd century CE. CONTEXTSome of the standing Buddhas (such as the example pictured) were sculpted using the specific Greek technique of making the hands and sometimes the feet in marble to increase the realistic effect, and the rest of the body in another material. Alfred Charles Auguste Foucher especially considered Hellenistic free-standing Buddhas as "the most beautiful, and probably the most ancient of the Buddhas", assigning them to the 1st century BCE, and making them the starting point of the anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha ("The Buddhist art of Gandhara", Marshall, p101). DEVELOPMENT Face of the statue, from 3 angles. Base of the statue. Standing Buddha, National Museum, New Delhi . Hand detail
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Tokyo National Museum
The TOKYO NATIONAL MUSEUM (東京国立博物館, Tōkyō Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan), or TNM, established in 1872, is the oldest Japanese national museum , the largest art museum in Japan and one of the largest art museums in the world. The museum collects, houses, and preserves a comprehensive collection of art works and archaeological objects of Asia , focusing on Japan . The museum holds over 110,000 objects, which includes 87 Japanese National Treasure holdings and 610 Important Cultural Property holdings (as of July 2005). The museum also conducts research and organizes educational events related to its collection. The museum is located inside Ueno Park in Taitō , Tokyo. The facilities consist of the Honkan (本館, Japanese Gallery), Tōyōkan (東洋館, Asian Gallery), Hyōkeikan (表慶館), Heiseikan (平成館), Hōryū-ji Hōmotsukan (法隆寺宝物館, the Gallery of Hōryū-ji Treasures), as well as Shiryōkan (資料館, the Research and Information Center), and other facilities. There are restaurants and shops within the museum's premises, as well as outdoor exhibitions and a garden where visitors can enjoy seasonal views. The museum's collections focus on ancient Japanese art and Asian art along the Silk Road . There is also a large collection of Greco-Buddhist art . All information is provided in Japanese, Chinese, English, French, German, Korean, and Spanish
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Gautama Buddha
GAUTAMA BUDDHA (c. 563 BCE/480 BCE – c. 483 BCE/400 BCE), also known as SIDDHāRTHA GAUTAMA , SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA , or simply the BUDDHA, after the title of _Buddha _, was an ascetic (śramaṇa ) and sage , on whose teachings Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE . Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India
India
such as Magadha and Kosala
Kosala
. Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism. He is recognized by Buddhists as an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood , and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering . Accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later
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Dharmachakra
The DHARMACHAKRA ( IAST
IAST
: _dharmacakra_; Pali
Pali
_dhammacakka_; "Wheel of the Dharma
Dharma
") is one of the Ashtamangala
Ashtamangala
of Indian religions
Indian religions
such as Jainism
Jainism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism
Hinduism
. It has represented the Buddhist dharma , Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
's teaching of the path to Nirvana
Nirvana
, since the time of early Buddhism
Buddhism
. It is also connected to the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 2.1 Symbol * 3 Usage * 3.1 Hindu
Hindu
usage * 3.2 Buddhist
Buddhist
usage * 3.3 Beyond Buddhism
Buddhism
* 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 Further reading * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe Sanskrit
Sanskrit
noun _dharma _ is a derivation from the root _dhṛ_, which has a meaning of "to hold, maintain, keep", and takes a meaning of "what is established or firm", and hence "law"
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History Of Buddhism
The HISTORY OF BUDDHISM spans from the 5th century BCE to the present; which arose in the eastern part of Ancient India , in and around the ancient Kingdom of Magadha
Magadha
(now in Bihar
Bihar
, India
India
), and is based on the teachings of Siddhārtha Gautama . This makes it one of the oldest religions practiced today. The religion evolved as it spread from the northeastern region of the Indian subcontinent through Central , East , and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. At one time or another, it influenced most of the Asian continent. The history of Buddhism
Buddhism
is also characterized by the development of numerous movements, schisms, and schools, among them the Theravāda , Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna traditions, with contrasting periods of expansion and retreat. CONTENTS * 1 Life of the Buddha * 2 Early Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.1 1st Buddhist
Buddhist
council (5th century BC) * 2.2 2nd Buddhist
Buddhist
council (4th century BC) * 3 Aśokan proselytism (c. 261 BC) * 3.1 3rd Buddhist
Buddhist
council (c
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Timeline Of Buddhism
The purpose of this timeline is to give a detailed account of Buddhism
Buddhism
from the birth of Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
to the present. CONTENTS * 1 Timeline of events * 2 Dates * 2.1 Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
* 2.2 Indian Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.3 Expansion of Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.4 Decline in India
India
* 2.5 Medieval period * 2.6 Early modern era * 2.7 Modern era * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Sources * 6.1 Printed sources * 6.2 Web-sources * 7 External links TIMELINE OF EVENTSTIMELINE: DEVELOPMENT AND PROPAGATION OF BUDDHIST TRADITIONS (ca. 450 BCE – ca
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Buddhist Councils
Lists and numbering of BUDDHIST COUNCILS vary between and even within schools. The numbering here is normal in Western writings. CONTENTS * 1 First Buddhist council
First Buddhist council
(c. 400 BCE) * 2 Second Buddhist council (c. 4th century BCE) * 3 Third Buddhist council (c. 251 BCE) * 4 The Fourth Buddhist Councils * 5 Theravada Buddhist council in 1871 (Fifth Buddhist Council) * 6 Theravada Buddhist council in 1954 (Sixth Buddhist Council) * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography FIRST BUDDHIST COUNCIL (C. 400 BCE) Main article: First Buddhist council
First Buddhist council
According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the death of the Buddha , dated by the majority of recent scholars around 400 BCE, under the patronage of the king Ajatashatru with the monk Mahakasyapa presiding, at Sattapanni caves Rajgriha (now Rajgir ). Its objective was to preserve the Buddha's sayings (suttas ) and the monastic discipline or rules ( Vinaya ). The Suttas were recited by Ananda , and the Vinaya was recited by Upali . According to some sources, the Abhidhamma Pitaka , or its matika, was also included. Also, the Sangha made the unanimous decision to keep all the rules of the Vinaya, even the lesser and the minor rules
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List Of Buddhists
This is a LIST OF NOTABLE BUDDHISTS, encompassing all the major branches of the religion (ie in Buddhism), and including interdenominational and eclectic Buddhist practitioners. This list includes both formal teachers of Buddhism
Buddhism
, and people notable in other areas who are publicly Buddhist or who have espoused Buddhism. CONTENTS* 1 Historical Buddhist thinkers and founders of schools * 1.1 Buddha\'s disciples and early Buddhists * 1.2 Later Buddhists (after Buddha) * 1.3 Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
* 1.4 Central Asian * 1.5 Chinese * 1.6 Tibetan * 1.7 Japanese * 1.8 Korean * 1.9 Burmese * 1.10 Thai * 2 Historical rulers and political figures * 3 Modern teachers * 3.1 Theravada
Theravada
teachers * 3.2 Tibetan Buddhist teachers * 3.3 Zen
Zen
teachers * 4 Modern authors who wrote about Buddhism
Buddhism
* 5 Modern politicians, activists, and protesters * 6 Buddhist practitioners notable in other fields * 7 Fictional Buddhists * 8 See also * 9 References HISTORICAL BUDDHIST THINKERS AND FOUNDERS OF SCHOOLSIndividuals are grouped by nationality, except in cases where their influence was felt elsewhere. Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
and his immediate disciples ('Buddhists') are listed separately from later Indian Buddhist thinkers, teachers and contemplatives
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Dharma
DHARMA ( ; Sanskrit : धर्म _dharma_, _ listen (help ·info ); Pali : धम्म dhamma_) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions
Indian religions
Hinduism , Buddhism
Buddhism
, Sikhism and Jainism
Jainism
. There is no single word translation for _dharma_ in Western languages. In Hinduism , _dharma_ signifies behaviours that are considered to be in accord with _rta _, the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and ‘‘right way of living’’. In Buddhism
Buddhism
_dharma_ means "cosmic law and order", but is also applied to the teachings of the Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy , _dhamma/dharma _ is also the term for "phenomena ". Dharma
Dharma
in Jainism
Jainism
refers to the teachings of _tirthankara _ (_Jina_) and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings. For Sikhs , the word _dharm_ means the path of righteousness and proper religious practice. The word "dharma" was already in use in the historical Vedic religion , and its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia. The antonym of dharma is _adharma _
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Glossary Of Buddhism
Some Buddhist
Buddhist
terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. Below are given a number of important Buddhist
Buddhist
terms, short definitions, and the languages in which they appear. In this list, an attempt has been made to organize terms by their original form and give translations and synonyms in other languages along with the definition
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Four Noble Truths
The FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism
Buddhism
in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things , which are _dukkha _, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This craving keeps us caught in _samsara _, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, and the _dukkha_ that comes with it. There is, however, a way to end this cycle , namely by attaining _nirvana _, cessation of craving, whereafter rebirth and associated _dukkha_ will no longer arise again. This can be accomplished by following the eightfold path , restraining oneself, cultivating discipline, and practicing mindfulness and meditation. In short form, the four truths are _dukkha_, _samudaya_ ("arising," "coming together"), _nirodha_ ("cessation," "confinement"), and _magga_, the path leading to cessation. As the "Four Noble Truths" ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: _catvāri āryasatyāni_; Pali
Pali
: _cattāri ariyasaccāni_), they are "the truths of the Noble Ones ," the truths or realities which are understood by the "worthy ones" who have attained nirvana. In the _sutras _, Buddhist religious texts, the four truths have both a symbolic and a propositional function. They represent the awakening and liberation of the Buddha, but also the possibility of liberation for all sentient beings, describing how release from craving is to be reached
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Skandha
SKANDHAS ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
) or KHANDHAS ( Pāḷi ) means "heaps, aggregates, collections, groupings". In Buddhism
Buddhism
, it refers to the FIVE AGGREGATES concept that asserts five factors constitute and completely explain a sentient being’s mental and physical existence . The five aggregates or heaps are: form (or matter or body) (_rupa_), sensations (or feelings, received from form) (_vedana_), perceptions (_samjna_), mental activity or formations (_sankhara_), and consciousness (_vijnana_). The _skandhas_ refute the idea of a "being or individual", and complements the _anatta _ doctrine of Buddhism
Buddhism
which asserts that all things and beings are without self. The _anatta_ and "five aggregates" doctrines are part of the liberating knowledge in Buddhism, wherein one realizes that there is no-self, as the "being" is merely made up of a temporary grouping of five aggregates, each of which are "not I, and not my self", and each of the _skandha_ is empty, without substance. In the Theravada
Theravada
tradition, suffering arises when one identifies with or clings to the aggregates. This suffering is extinguished by relinquishing attachments to aggregates. The Mahayana tradition asserts that the nature of all aggregates as intrinsically empty of independent existence
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Impermanence
IMPERMANENCE, also called ANICCA or ANITYA, is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism
Buddhism
. The doctrine asserts that all of conditioned existence, without exception, is "transient, evanescent, inconstant". All temporal things, whether material or mental, are compounded objects in a continuous change of condition, subject to decline and destruction. The concept of impermanence is also found in various schools of Hinduism and Jainism. Anicca or impermanence is understood in Buddhism
Buddhism
as the first of three marks of existence, the other two being dukkha (suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness) and anatta (non-self, non-soul, no essence). All physical and mental events, states Buddhism, come into being and dissolve. Human life embodies this flux in the aging process, the cycle of repeated birth and death (Samsara ), nothing lasts, and everything decays. This is applicable to all beings and their environs, including beings who have reincarnated in deva (god ) and naraka (hell) realms. This is in contrast to nirvana , the reality that is Nicca, or knows no change, decay or death. Impermanence
Impermanence
is intimately associated with the doctrine of anatta , according to which things have no essence, permanent self, or unchanging soul
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Dukkha
DUKKHA ( Pāli ; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: duḥkha; Tibetan : སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist
Buddhist
concept, commonly translated as "suffering ", "pain" or "unsatisfactoriness". It refers to the fundamental unsatisfactoriness and painfulness of mundane life, and inspires the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
and nirvana doctrines of Buddhism. The term is also found in scriptures of Hinduism , such as the Upanishads , in discussions of moksha (spiritual liberation). CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and meaning * 2 Buddhism
Buddhism
* 3 Hinduism * 4 Comparison of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Sources * 8.1 Printed sources * 8.2 Web-sources * 9 External links ETYMOLOGY AND MEANING Dukkha
Dukkha
(Pali; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
duḥkha) is a term found in ancient Indian literature, wherein states Monier-Williams, it means anything that is "uneasy, uncomfortable, unpleasant, difficult, causing pain or sadness"
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