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Buddhas Of Bamiyan
The Buddhas of Bamiyan
Buddhas of Bamiyan
(Persian:بت های باميان – bott-hâye Bāmiyān) were 4th- and 5th-century[1] monumental statues of Gautam Buddha
Gautam Buddha
carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
region of central Afghanistan, 230 kilometres (140 mi) northwest of Kabul
Kabul
at an elevation of 2,500 metres (8,200 ft). Built in 507 CE (smaller) and 554 CE (larger),[1] the statues represented the classic blended style of Gandhara
Gandhara
art.[2] They were 35 (115 ft) and 53 meters (174 ft) tall, respectively.[3] The main bodies were hewn directly from the sandstone cliffs, but details were modeled in mud mixed with straw, coated with stucco
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World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area)
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Qarlughids
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editThe Qarlughids, a tribe of Turkic and Hazaras
Hazaras
origin, controlled Ghazni
Ghazni
and the lands of the Bamyan
Bamyan
and the Kurram Valley
Kurram Valley
(Ghazna, Banban, and Kurraman), establishing a Muslim principality and dynasty lasting between 1224 and 1266. The Qarlughids
Qarlughids
arrived from the north to settle in the regions of Hazarajat
Hazarajat
together with the armies of Muhammad II of Khwarezm, the Shah
Shah
of Khwarezm
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Rashidun Caliphate
The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎ al-Khilāfa-al-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad
Muhammad
after his death in 632 CE (AH 11). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn)
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Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Tahirid Dynasty
The Tahirid dynasty
Tahirid dynasty
(Persian: طاهریان‎, Tâhiriyân) was a dynasty, of Persian[3] dihqan[4] origin, that governed the Abbasid province of Khorasan from 821 to 873 and the city of Baghdad
Baghdad
from 820 until 891. The dynasty was founded by Tahir ibn Husayn, a leading general in the service of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. Their capital in Khorasan was initially located at Merv
Merv
but was later moved to Nishapur
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Saffarid Dynasty
The Saffarid dynasty
Saffarid dynasty
(Persian: سلسله صفاریان‎) was a Muslim
Muslim
Persianate[3] dynasty from Sistan
Sistan
that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj
Zaranj
(a city now in southwestern Afghanistan).[4][5] Khorasan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Sistan
Sistan
from 861 to 1003.[6] The dynasty, of Persian origin,[7][8][9][10][11][12] was founded by Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, born in 840 in a small town called Karnin (Qarnin), which was located east of Zaranj
Zaranj
and west of Bost, in what is now Afghanistan
Afghanistan
- a native of Sistan
Sistan
and a local ayyar, who worked as a coppersmith (ṣaffār) before becoming a warlord
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Samanid Empire
The Samanid Empire
Samanid Empire
(Persian: سامانیان‎, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni[7] Iranian empire,[8] ruling from 819 to 999. The empire was mostly centered in Khorasan and Transoxiana
Transoxiana
during its existence, but at its greatest extent, the empire encompassed all of today's Afghanistan, and large parts of Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Pakistan.[9] The Samanid state was founded by four brothers; Nuh, Ahmad, Yahya, and Ilyas—each of them ruled their own territory under Abbasid suzerainty. In 892, Isma'il ibn Ahmad
Isma'il ibn Ahmad
(892–907) united the Samanid state under one ruler, thus effectively putting an end to the feudal system used by the Samanids
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Ghaznavids
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editThe Ghaznavid dynasty (Persian: غزنویان‎ ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate[10] Muslim
Muslim
dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin,[11] at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana
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Ghurid Dynasty
The Ghurids
Ghurids
or Ghorids (Persian: سلسله غوریان‎; self-designation: شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent from the Ghor
Ghor
region of present-day central Afghanistan, presumably Tajik, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain,[6] and it has been argued that they were Pashtun. The dynasty converted to Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
from Buddhism,[5] after the conquest of Ghor
Ghor
by the Ghaznavid emperor Mahmud of Ghazni
Ghazni
in 1011
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Seljuk Empire
in Anatolia Artuqid
Artuqid
dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid
Burid
dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editThe Great Seljuq Empire
Empire
(Turkish Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu) or Great Seljuk State (Turkmen Beỳik Seljuk Döwleti), known by its endonym Āl-e Saljuq (Persian آلِ سلجوق‬ "The House (family/clan) of Seljuk") was a medieval Turko-Persian[14] Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.[15] The Seljuk Empire
Empire
controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to western Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Levant, and from Central Asia
Central Asia
to the Persian Gulf
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Khwarazmian Dynasty
The Khwarazmian dynasty
Khwarazmian dynasty
(/kwəˈræzmiən/;[4] also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from (Persian: خوارزمشاهیان‎, translit. Khwārazmshāhiyān "Kings of Khwarezmia") was a Persianate[5][6][7] Sunni Muslim
Sunni Muslim
dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin.[8][9] The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran
Iran
during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs[10] and Qara-Khitan,[11] and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia
Khwarezmia
in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm
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Ilkhanate
Timeline · History · Rulers · Nobility Culture · Language · Proto-MongolsStates Mongol
Mongol
khanates IX-X Khereid
Khereid
Khanate X-1203
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Kabul Shahi
The Kabul
Kabul
Shahi
Shahi
dynasties[2][3] also called Shahiya[4][5] ruled the Kabul
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Chagatai Khanate
The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate[5][6] that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan,[7] second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors. Initially it was a part of the Mongol Empire, but it became a functionally separate khanate with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
after 1259
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