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Buddhas Of Bamiyan
The BUDDHAS OF BAMIYAN (Persian : بت های باميان – bott-hâye Bāmiyān) were 4th- and 5th-century monumental statues of standing buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, 230 kilometres (140 mi) northwest of Kabul
Kabul
at an elevation of 2,500 metres (8,200 ft). Built in 507 CE (smaller) and 554 CE (larger), the statues represented the classic blended style of Gandhara art . They were 35 and 53 meters tall, respectively. The main bodies were hewn directly from the sandstone cliffs, but details were modeled in mud mixed with straw, coated with stucco . This coating, practically all of which wore away long ago, was painted to enhance the expressions of the faces, hands, and folds of the robes; the larger one was painted carmine red and the smaller one was painted multiple colors. The lower parts of the statues' arms were constructed from the same mud-straw mix while supported on wooden armatures. It is believed that the upper parts of their faces were made from great wooden masks or casts. Rows of holes that can be seen in photographs were spaces that held wooden pegs that stabilized the outer stucco
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World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity. More specifically, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is an already classified landmark, which by way of being unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable piece is of special cultural or physical significance (such as either due to hosting an ancient ruins or some historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) and symbolizes a remarkable footprint of extreme human endeavour often coupled with some act of indisputable accomplishment of humanity which then serves as a surviving evidence of its intellectual existence on the planet
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Table Of World Heritage Sites By Country
HERITAGE may refer to: * History , "heritage" refers to events or processes that have a special meaning in group memory * National heritage site , a site having a value that has been registered by a governmental agency as being of national importance to the history of that nation * Historic site an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to their historical importance* Cultural heritage , the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society: man-made heritage * World Heritage Site , As a certified by UNESCO * List of des
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Bamyan Province
BAMYAN PROVINCE (Persian : بامیان‎‎) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, located in the central highlands of the country. Its terrain is mountainous or semi-mountainous. The province is divided into six districts , with the town of Bamyan serving as its capital. The province has a population of about 425,500. It is the largest province in the Hazarajat region of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and is the cultural capital of the Hazara ethnic group that predominates in the area. Its name can be translated as "The Place of Shining Light". In antiquity, central Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was strategically placed to thrive from the Silk Road
Silk Road
caravans that criss-crossed the region, trading between the Roman Empire, China, Central Asia
Central Asia
and South Asia
South Asia
. Bamyan was a stopping-off point for many travellers. It was here that elements of Greek and Buddhist art were combined into a unique classical style known as Greco-Buddhist art. The province has several famous historical sites, including the now-destroyed Buddhas of Bamiyan , around which are more than 3,000 caves, the Band-e Amir National Park , Dara-i-Ajhdar, Gholghola and Zakhak ancient towns, the Feroz Bahar, Astopa, Klegan, Gaohargin, Kaferan and Cheldukhtaran
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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World Heritage Committee
The WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE establishes the sites to be listed as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites . It decides about inscriptions on the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It is composed of 21 state parties that are elected by the GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF STATES PARTIES for a four-year term. According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is for six years, however many states parties choose voluntarily to be Members of the Committee for only four years, in order to give other states' parties an opportunity to be on the committee. All members elected at the 15th General Assembly (2005) voluntarily decided to reduce their period of term of office from six to four years. CONTENTS * 1 Sessions * 2 Members * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SESSIONSThe World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee
meets once a year to discuss the management of existing World Heritage Sites, and accept the nominations from countries
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List Of World Heritage In Danger
The LIST OF WORLD HERITAGE IN DANGER is compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ) through the World Heritage Committee according to Article 11.4 of the World Heritage Convention, which was established in 1972 to designate and manage World Heritage Sites . Entries in the list are threatened World Heritage Sites for the conservation of which major operations are required and for which "assistance has been requested". The list is intended to increase international awareness of the threats and to encourage counteractive measures. Threats to a site can be either proven imminent threats or potential dangers that could have adverse effects on a site. In the case of natural sites, ascertained dangers include the serious decline in the population of an endangered or other valuable species or the deterioration of natural beauty or scientific value of a property caused by human activities such as logging, pollution, settlement, mining, agriculture and major public works. Ascertained dangers for cultural properties include serious deterioration of materials, structure, ornaments or architectural coherence and the loss of historical authenticity or cultural significance. Potential dangers for both cultural and natural sites include development projects, armed conflicts, insufficient management systems or changes in the legal protective status of the properties
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History Of Afghanistan
The written HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN, (Persian : تاریخ افغانستان‎‎ _, Tārīkh e Afġānistān ),_Pashto : د افغانستان تاريخ‎ _, Da Afġānistān Tārīkh),_ can be traced back to around 500 BCE when the area was under the Achaemenid Empire , although evidence indicates that an advanced degree of urbanized culture has existed in the land since between 3000 and 2000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up to large parts of Afghanistan in the north, with several sites being known. Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army arrived at what is now Afghanistan in 330 BCE after conquering Persia during the Battle of Gaugamela . Since then, many empires have established capitals inside Afghanistan, including the Greco-Bactrians , Mauryas , Kushans , Hindu Shahi , Saffarids , Samanids , Ghaznavids , Ghurids , Timurids , Mughals , Hotakis and Durranis . Afghanistan (meaning "land of the Afghans") has been a strategically important location throughout history. The land served as "a gateway to India , impinging on the ancient Silk Road , which carried trade from the Mediterranean to China "
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Timeline Of Afghan History
This is a TIMELINE OF AFGHAN HISTORY, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Afghanistan and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Afghanistan . See also the list of leaders of Afghanistan and the list of years in Afghanistan . This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. CONTENTS * 1 18th Century * 2 19th Century * 3 20th Century * 4 21st Century * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links 18TH CENTURY YEAR DATE EVENT 1709 21 April Mirwais Hotak , an influential Afghan tribal chief, gained independence at Kandahar after a successful revolution against the Persian Safavid dynasty . 1709-1713 The Persian government sent two large armies to regain Kandahar Province but suffered defeat by the Afghans. 1715 November Mirwais died of a natural cause and his brother Abdul Aziz inherited the throne until he was killed by Mahmud Hotaki , son of Mirwais. 1722 _ Battle of Gulnabad _: Led by Mahmud, the Afghan army captured the Safavid capital of Isfahan and Mahmad was declared _ Shah _ of Persia
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Indus Valley Civilisation
The INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION (IVC) was a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia
South Asia
, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to Pakistan
Pakistan
and northwest India
India
. Along with ancient Egypt
Egypt
and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
it was one of three earliest civilisations of the world and included among the civilisations of the Old World , and of the three, the most widespread. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River
Indus River
, which flows through the length of Pakistan, and along a system of perennial, mostly monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar- Hakra river in northwest India
India
and eastern Pakistan. Aridification of this region during the 3rd millennium BCE may have been the initial spur for the urbanisation associated with the civilisation, but eventually also reduced the water supply enough to cause the civilisation's demise, and to scatter its population eastward. At its peak, the Indus
Indus
Civilisation may have had a population of over five million
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Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age Pontic Steppe * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna Northern/Eastern Steppe *
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Ancient Iranian Peoples
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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Median Empire
The MEDES (/miːdz/ , Old Persian _Māda-_, Ancient Greek : Μῆδοι, Hebrew : מָדַי‎) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran ) and who spoke the Median language . They mainly inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Kermanshah - Hamadan (Ecbatana) region Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 1000 BC to around 900 BC. This period of migration coincided with a power vacuum in the Near East with the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1020 BC), which had dominated northwestern Iran and eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus , going into a comparative decline. This allowed new peoples to pass through and settle. In addition Elam , the dominant power in Iran, was suffering a period of severe weakness, as was Babylonia to the west. From the 10th to the late 7th centuries BC, the western parts of Media fell under the domination of the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire based in northern Mesopotamia , but which stretched from Cyprus to Iran, and from the Caucasus to Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula
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Achaemenid Empire
The ACHAEMENID EMPIRE (/əˈkiːmənɪd/ ; c. 550–330 BC), also called the FIRST PERSIAN EMPIRE, was an empire based in Western Asia , founded by Cyrus the Great . Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was one of the largest empires in history , spanning 5.5 million square kilometers, and was larger than any previous empire in history . It is equally notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings ), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system , the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires. It is noted in Western history as the antagonist of the Greek city-states during the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the Jewish exiles in Babylon . The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus , one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World , was built in a Hellenistic style in the empire as well. By the 7th century BC , the Persians had settled in the southwestern portion of the Iranian Plateau in the region of Persis , which came to be their heartland
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Seleucid Empire
The SELEUCID EMPIRE (/sɪˈljuːsɪd/ ; Ancient Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, _Basileía tōn Seleukidōn_) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great . Seleucus received Babylonia and, from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near eastern territories. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia , Persia , the Levant , Mesopotamia , and what is now Kuwait , Afghanistan , and parts of Pakistan and Turkmenistan . The Seleucid Empire was a major center of Hellenistic culture that maintained the preeminence of Greek customs where a Greek political elite dominated, mostly in the urban areas. The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by immigration from Greece . Seleucid expansion into Anatolia and Greece was abruptly halted after decisive defeats at the hands of the Roman army . Their attempts to defeat their old enemy Ptolemaic Egypt were frustrated by Roman demands
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Maurya Empire
The MAURYA EMPIRE was a geographically extensive Iron Age
Iron Age
historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
which dominated ancient India between c. 322 and 187 BCE. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent , the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra
Pataliputra
(modern Patna
Patna
). The empire was the largest to have ever existed in the Indian subcontinent , spanning over 5 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles) at its zenith under Ashoka
Ashoka
. Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
raised an army and with the assistance of Chanakya (also known as Kauṭilya), overthrew the Nanda Empire in c. 322 BCE and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India, taking advantage of the disruptions caused by the withdrawal westward of Alexander the Great 's armies. By 316 BCE the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander. Chandragupta then defeated the invasion led by Seleucus I , a Macedonian general from Alexander's army, gaining additional territory west of the Indus River
Indus River

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