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Buddhas Of Bamiyan
The BUDDHAS OF BAMIYAN (Persian : بت های باميان – bott-hâye Bāmiyān) were 4th- and 5th-century monumental statues of standing buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, 230 kilometres (140 mi) northwest of Kabul
Kabul
at an elevation of 2,500 metres (8,200 ft). Built in 507 CE (smaller) and 554 CE (larger), the statues represented the classic blended style of Gandhara art . They were 35 (115 ft) and 53 meters (174 ft) tall, respectively. The main bodies were hewn directly from the sandstone cliffs, but details were modeled in mud mixed with straw, coated with stucco . This coating, practically all of which wore away long ago, was painted to enhance the expressions of the faces, hands, and folds of the robes; the larger one was painted carmine red and the smaller one was painted multiple colors
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Principality Of Chaghaniyan
The PRINCIPALITY OF CHAGHANIYAN, known in Arabic
Arabic
sources as AL-SAGHANIYAN, was a local Iranian dynasty, which ruled the Chaghaniyan
Chaghaniyan
region from the early 7th-century to the late 8th-century. The rulers of the region were known by their titles of “Chaghan Khudah” (Middle Iranian ; Čagīnīgān Xvaday, meaning “the lord of Chaghaniyan”).a CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Notes * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources HISTORY Coin of a Chaghan Khudah or Hephthalite
Hephthalite
ruler written in Sogdian . During the early 7th-century, Chaghaniyan
Chaghaniyan
became independent from Hephthalite
Hephthalite
rule, and came under the control of local rulers known as the “Chaghan Khudah”
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Rashidun Caliphate
The RASHIDUN CALIPHATE (Arabic : اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎‎ _al-Khilāfaṫur-Rāshidah_) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad . It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad after his death in 632 CE (11 AH in the Islamic calendar ). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam as the _ Rashidun _ or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (Arabic : اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ‎‎ _al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn_). This term is not used in Shia Islam as Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs as legitimate
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Umayyad Caliphate
The UMAYYAD CALIPHATE ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎‎, trans. _Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah_), also spelled OMAYYAD, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
. This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎‎, _al-ʾUmawiyyūn_, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, _Banū ʾUmayya_, "Sons of Umayya "), hailing from Mecca
Mecca
. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan , long-time governor of Syria
Syria
, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661/41 AH
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Abbasid Caliphate
The ABBASID CALIPHATE (/əˈbæsᵻd/ or /ˈæbəsᵻd/ Arabic : ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎‎ _al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah_) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad . The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs , for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq , after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centered its government in Kufa , but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, north of the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Kabul Shahi
The KABUL SHAHI DYNASTIES also called SHAHIYA ruled the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India from the decline of the Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
in the 3rd century to the early 11th century. They are split into two eras: the Buddhist
Buddhist
Turk Shahi
Turk Shahi
and the later Hindu
Hindu
-Shahis with the change-over occurring around 870 CE. When Xuanzang visited the region early in the 7th century, the Kabul region was ruled by a Kshatriya
Kshatriya
king, who is identified as the Shahi Khingal, and whose name has been found in an inscription found in Gardez
Gardez

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World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity
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Sasanian Empire
The SASANIAN EMPIRE (/səˈsɑːniən/ or /səˈseɪniən/ ), also known as SASSANIAN, SASANID, SASSANID or NEO-PERSIAN EMPIRE), known to its inhabitants as _ĒRāNSHAHR _ in Middle Persian , was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam , named after the House of Sasan who ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire , was recognized as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighboring arch-rival the Roman - Byzantine Empire , for a period of more than 400 years
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Alchon Huns
The ALCHON HUNS, also known as the ALCHONO, ALXON, ALKHON, ALKHAN, ALAKHANA and WALXON, were a nomadic people who established states in Central Asia
Central Asia
and South Asia
South Asia
during the 5th and 6th centuries CE. They were first mentioned as being located in Paropamisus , and later expanded south-east, into the Punjab
Punjab
and central India
India
, as far as Eran and Kausambi
Kausambi
. The Alchon invasion of South Asia
South Asia
greatly weakened, and contributed to the fall of, the Gupta Empire . The names of the Alchon kings are known from their extensive coinage and from inscriptions in Buddhist
Buddhist
stupas . To the Indians, they were one of the HūṇA peoples (or Hunas), whose origins are controversial
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Hephthalite Empire
The HEPHTHALITES (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560. They were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
, west to Sogdia
Sogdia
and south through Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to northern India. They were a tribal confederation and included both nomadic and urban, settled communities. They were part of the four major "Hunic" states known collectively as Xionites
Xionites
or " Hunas
Hunas
", being preceeded by the Kidarites , and succeeded by the Alchon Huns
Alchon Huns
and lastly the Nezak Huns
Nezak Huns
. The Sveta Huna or White Huns
Huns
who invaded northern India
India
are probably the Hephthalites, but the exact relation is not clear
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Tahirid Dynasty
The TAHIRID DYNASTY (Persian : طاهریان‎‎, Tâhereyân) was a dynasty, of Persian dihqan origin, that governed the Abbasid province of Khorasan from 821 to 873 and the city of Baghdad
Baghdad
from 820 until 891. The dynasty was founded by Tahir ibn Husayn
Tahir ibn Husayn
, a leading general in the service of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma\'mun . Their capital in Khorasan was initially located at Merv
Merv
but was later moved to Nishapur
Nishapur
. The Tahirids enjoyed a high degree of autonomy in their governance of Khorasan, but they remained subject to the Abbasid caliphate and were not independent rulers
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Safavid Dynasty
The SAFAVID DYNASTY (/ˈsɑːfəvɪd/ ; Persian : دودمان صفوی‎‎ _Dudmān e Safavi_ ) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran
Iran
, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history. The Safavid shahs ruled over one of the so-called gunpowder empires . They ruled one of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Iran
Iran
, and established the Twelver
Twelver
school of Shia Islam
Shia Islam
as the official religion of the empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history
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Kurt Dynasty
The KURT DYNASTY, also known as the KARTIDS was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Tajik origin, that ruled over a large part of Khorasan during the 13th and 14th centuries. Ruling from their capital at Herat and central Khorasan in the Bamyan , they were at first subordinates of Sultan
Sultan
Abul-Fateh Ghiyāṣ-ud-din Muhammad bin Sām , Sultan
Sultan
of the Ghurid Empire , of whom they were related, and then as vassal princes within the Mongol Empire . Upon the fragmentation of the Ilkhanate in 1335, Mu'izz-uddin Husayn ibn Ghiyath-uddin worked to expand his principality. The death of Husayn b
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Ilkhanate
Timeline · History · Rulers · Nobility Culture · Language · Proto- Mongols States Mongol khanates IX-X Khereid Khanate X-1203 Merkit Khanate XI–XII Tatar Khanate IX – XII Naim
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Chagatai Khanate
later Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
GOVERNMENT Semi-elective monarchy , later hereditary monarchy KHAN • 1225–1242 Chagatai Khan
Chagatai Khan
LEGISLATURE Kurultai HISTORICAL ERA Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
Chagatai Khan
Chagatai Khan
inherited part of Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
1225 • Death of Chagatai 1242 • Chagatai Khanate split into two parts, Western Chagatai Khanate and Moghulistan
Moghulistan
1340s • End of the western empire. 1370 • End of the eastern empire. 1680s AREA • 1310 or 1350 est
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