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Brushite
Brushite
Brushite
is a phosphate mineral with the chemical formula CaHPO4·2H2O. It forms colorless to pale yellow monoclinic prismatic crystals and as powdery or earthy masses.[2][4] It is the phosphate analogue of the arsenate pharmacolite and the sulfate gypsum. Discovery and occurrence[edit] Brushite
Brushite
was first described in 1865 for an occurrence on Aves Island, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela, and named for the American mineralogist George Jarvis Brush (1831–1912).[3] It is believed to be a precursor of apatite and is found in guano-rich caves, formed by the interaction of guano with calcite and clay at a low pH. It occurs in phosphorite deposits and forms encrustations on old bones
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Chemical Formula
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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Apatite
Apatite
Apatite
is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH,F,Cl)2, and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, Ca10(PO4)6F2 and Ca10(PO4)6Cl2. The mineral was named apatite by the German geologist Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1786,[3] although the specific mineral he had described was reclassified as fluorapatite in 1860 by the German mineralogist Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg. Apatite
Apatite
is often mistaken for other minerals
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Piezoelectric
Piezoelectricity
Piezoelectricity
is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA
DNA
and various proteins)[1] in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure and latent heat
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Arsenate Mineral
Arsenate minerals usually refer to the naturally occurring orthoarsenates, possessing the (AsO4)3− anion group and, more rarely, other arsenates with anions like AsO3(OH)2− (also written HAsO42−) (example: pharmacolite Ca(AsO3OH).2H2O) or (very rarely) [AsO2(OH)2]− (example: andyrobertsite)
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Sulfate Mineral
The sulfate minerals are a class of minerals that include the sulfate ion (SO42−) within their structure. The sulfate minerals occur commonly in primary evaporite depositional environments, as gangue minerals in hydrothermal veins and as secondary minerals in the oxidizing zone of sulfide mineral deposits
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Gypsum
Gypsum
Gypsum
is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.[3] It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer, and as the main constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard chalk and wallboard. A massive fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum, called alabaster, has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Ancient Rome, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Nottingham alabasters of Medieval England. Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch hardness comparison, defines hardness value 2 as gypsum
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Aves Island
Isla de Aves (Spanish for " Island
Island
of Birds" or "Birds Island"), or Aves Island, is a Caribbean dependency of Venezuela. It has been the subject of numerous territorial disputes between the neighboring independent islands, such as Dominica, and European mother countries of surrounding dependent islands, such as the Netherlands. It is part of the Aves Ridge and lies to the west of the Windward Islands
Windward Islands
chain at 15°40′18″N 63°36′59″W / 15.67167°N 63.61639°W / 15.67167; -63.61639. It is 375 metres (1,230 ft) in length and never more than 50 metres (160 ft) in width, and rises 4 metres (13 ft) above the sea on a calm day. Under a particular interpretation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea it could be classified as a rock, which would only give Venezuela
Venezuela
a twelve nautical mile economic zone
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Nueva Esparta
New Sparta
Sparta
State, in Spanish Estado Nueva Esparta (IPA: [esˈtaðo ˈnweβa esˈparta]), is one of the 23 states of Venezuela. It comprises Margarita Island, Coche, and the largely uninhabited Cubagua. The state is the smallest one in area, and is located off the northeast Caribbean
Caribbean
coast of Venezuela. It is the only insular state of Venezuela
Venezuela
(not including the Federal Dependencies, a federal territory but not a state). The main island of Margarita has an area of 934 km2
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Venezuela
Coordinates: 7°N 65°W / 7°N 65°W / 7; -65Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela[a]República Bolivariana de Venezuela  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: Dios y Federación (English: "God and Federation")Anthem: Gloria al Bravo Pueblo (English: "Glory to the Brave People")Capital and largest city Caracas 10°30′N 66°55′W / 10.500°N 66.917°W / 10.500; -66.917Official languages SpanishbRecognized regional languages Indigenous languagesEthnic groups (2011[1])51.6% Mestizo 43.6% White 3.6% Black / Afrodescendant 1.2% Amerindians
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Guano
Guano
Guano
(from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats. As a manure, guano is a highly effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium: nutrients essential for plant growth. The 19th-century guano trade played a pivotal role in the development of modern input-intensive farming practices and inspired the formal human colonization of remote bird islands in many parts of the world. During the twentieth century, guano-producing birds became an important target of conservation programs and influenced the development of environmental consciousness
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Solubility
Solubility
Solubility
is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture
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Calcite
Calcite
Calcite
is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch hardness comparison, defines value 3 as "calcite". Other polymorphs of calcium carbonate are the minerals aragonite and vaterite. Aragonite
Aragonite
will change to calcite over timescales of days or less at temperatures exceeding 300°C[5][6], and vaterite is even less stable.Contents1 Etymology1.1 "Alabaster", as used by archaeologists2 Properties 3 Use and applications 4 Natural occurrence 5 Formation processes 6 In Earth history 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 Further readingEtymology[edit] Calcite
Calcite
is derived from the German Calcit, a term coined in the 19th century from the Latin word for lime, calx (genitive calcis) with the suffix -ite used to name minerals
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Clay Minerals
Clay
Clay
minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces. Clay
Clay
minerals form in the presence of water[1] and have been important to life, and many theories of abiogenesis involve them. They are important constituents of soils, and have been useful to humans since ancient times in agriculture and manufacturing.Contents1 Properties 2 Occurrence 3 Classification 4 History 5 Structure 6 See also 7 ReferencesProperties[edit]Hexagonal sheets of a clay mineral (kaolinite) (SEM image, ×1340 magnification)Clays form flat hexagonal sheets similar to the micas. Clay
Clay
minerals are common weathering products (including weathering of feldspar) and low-temperature hydrothermal alteration products
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PH
In chemistry, pH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. More precisely it is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion.[1] Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic
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Phosphorite
Phosphorite, phosphate rock or rock phosphate is a non-detrital sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of phosphate minerals. The phosphate content of phosphorite (or grade of phosphate rock) varies greatly, from 4%[1] to 20% phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5). Marketed phosphate rock is enriched ("beneficiated") to at least 28%, often more than 30% P2O5. This occurs through washing, screening, de-liming, magnetic separation or flotation.[1] By comparison, the average phosphorus content of sedimentary rocks is less than 0.2%.[2] The phosphate is present as fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F typically in cryptocrystalline masses (grain sizes < 1 μm) referred to as collophane-sedimentary apatite deposits of uncertain origin.[2] It is also present as hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH or Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, which is often dissolved from vertebrate bones and teeth, whereas fluorapatite can originate from hydrothermal veins
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