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Brothers Grimm
The BROTHERS GRIMM (die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm
Wilhelm Grimm
(1786–1859), were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century. They were among the best-known storytellers of folk tales, and popularized stories such as " Cinderella
Cinderella
" ("Aschenputtel"), "The Frog Prince " ("Der Froschkönig"), " The Goose-Girl
The Goose-Girl
" ("Die Gänsemagd"), " Hansel and Gretel
Hansel and Gretel
" ("Hänsel und Gretel"), " Rapunzel
Rapunzel
", " Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
" ("Rumpelstilzchen"), " Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty
" ("Dornröschen"), and " Snow White " ("Schneewittchen")
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Lotte Reiniger
CHARLOTTE "LOTTE" REINIGER (2 June 1899 – 19 June 1981) was a German film director and the foremost pioneer of silhouette animation . Reiniger made more than 40 films over her career, all using her invention. Her best known films are The Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926 ) – the oldest surviving feature-length animated film, preceding Walt Disney's feature-length Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 ) by over ten years – and Papageno (1935 ), featuring music by Mozart . Reiniger is also noted for devising a predecessor to the first multiplane camera
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Walt Disney
WALTER ELIAS DISNEY (/ˈdɪzni/ ; December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry , he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons . As a film producer, Disney holds the record for most Academy Awards
Academy Awards
earned by an individual, having won 22 Oscars from 59 nominations. He was presented with two Golden Globe Special
Special
Achievement Awards and an Emmy Award
Emmy Award
, among other honors. Several of his films are included in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
. Born in Chicago
Chicago
in 1901, Disney developed an early interest in drawing. He took art classes as a boy and got a job as a commercial illustrator at the age of 18
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William I, Elector Of Hesse
WILLIAM I, ELECTOR OF HESSE (German: Wilhelm I., Kurfürst von Hessen; 3 June 1743 – 27 February 1821) was the eldest surviving son of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) and Princess Mary of Great Britain , the daughter of George II . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Marriage * 1.3 Reign * 2 Issue * 3 See also * 4 Ancestry * 5 References * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFEWilliam was born in Kassel
Kassel
, Hesse in 1743. His father, landgrave Frederick II (who died in 1785), had in 1747 abandoned the family and reverted to Catholicism. In 1755 he formally annulled his marriage. William's grandfather, Landgrave William, granted the newly acquired principality of Hanau
Hanau
to his daughter-in-law and grandsons. Technically, young William became the reigning prince of Hanau, while under his mother's regency
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Ludwig Emil Grimm
LUDWIG EMIL GRIMM (14 March 1790 – 4 April 1863) was a German painter, art professor, etcher and copper engraver . His brothers were the well-known folklorists Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
Wilhelm Grimm
. CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 Writings * 3 Selected works * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links LIFE AND WORKHe was born in Hanau
Hanau
. Grimm developed an interest in nature early in life and began his studies at the Academy in Kassel
Kassel
and took lessons from Philip Otto Runge . From 1809 to 1817, he studied at the newly founded Academy of Fine Arts Munich , interrupted only by a brief stint as an officer in the 1814 campaign against Napoleon
Napoleon
and a study trip to Italy in 1816. While there, he learned engraving from Carl Ernst Christoph Hess
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University Of Marburg
The PHILIPPS UNIVERSITY OF MARBURG (German : Philipps-Universität Marburg), was founded in 1527 by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse
Hesse
(usually called the Magnanimous , although the updated meaning "haughty" is sometimes given) as one of Germany's oldest universities, dating back to a Protestant
Protestant
foundation. As a state university it no longer has any religious affiliation. It was the main university of the principality of Hesse
Hesse
and remains a public university of that state . It now has about 25,000 students and 7,500 employees, making Marburg
Marburg
, a town of 72,000 inhabitants, the proverbial "university town" (Universitätsstadt). Though most subjects are grouped, the University of Marburg
Marburg
is not a campus university in the broader sense. About 12% of the students are international, the highest percentage in Hesse
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Lady-in-waiting
A LADY-IN-WAITING or COURT LADY is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal , attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman . Historically, in Europe, a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman from a family in "good society", but who was of lower rank than the woman on whom she attended. Although she may or may not have received compensation for the service she rendered, a lady-in-waiting was considered more of a companion to her mistress than a servant . In other parts of the world outside Europe, the lady-in-waiting, often referred to as palace woman, was often in practice a servant or a slave rather than a high ranking woman, but still had about the same tasks, functioning as companion and secretary to her mistress. In courts where polygamy was practiced, a court lady was formally available to the monarch for sexual services, and she could become his wife or concubine
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Lutherans
LUTHERANISM is a major branch of Protestant
Protestant
Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar , ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire . Beginning with the Ninety-Five Theses , first published in 1517, Luther's writings were disseminated internationally, spreading the early ideas of the Reformation
Reformation
beyond the influence and control of the Roman Curia and the Holy Roman Emperor
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin
Latin
: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German : Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany
Kingdom of Germany
, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
, the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe , more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Magistrate
The term MAGISTRATE is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome , a magistratus was one of the highest ranking government officers, and possessed both judicial and executive powers. In other parts of the world, such as China
China
, a magistrate was responsible for administration over a particular geographic area. Today, in some jurisdictions, a magistrate is a judicial officer who hears cases in a lower court, and typically deals with more minor or preliminary matters. In other jurisdictions (e.g., England and Wales ), magistrates may be volunteers without formal legal training who perform a judicial role with regard to minor matters
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Landgraviate Of Hesse-Kassel
The LANDGRAVIATE OF HESSE-KASSEL (German : Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), known as HESSE-CASSEL during its existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
directly subject to the Emperor that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse
Landgraviate of Hesse
was divided in 1567 upon the death of Philip I, Landgrave
Landgrave
of Hesse . His eldest son William IV inherited the northern half and the capital of Kassel
Kassel
. The other sons received the Landgraviate of Hesse-Marburg , the Landgraviate of Hesse-Rheinfels and the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt
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Amtmann
The AMTMANN or AMMANN (in Switzerland
Switzerland
) was an official in German-speaking countries of Europe and in some of the Nordic countries from the time of the Middle Ages whose office was akin to that of a bailiff . He was the most senior retainer ( Dienstmann ) of an Amt ; the administrative office of a territorial lord ( Landesherr ) created to manage the estates of manors (Gutshöfe), castles and villages. The estates were both administrative as well as juridical districts. The Amtmann
Amtmann
was usually a member of the nobility or a cleric. In towns, he was also often a member of the wealthy classes amongst the citizenship. He resided in an Amthaus or Amtshaus and collected taxes from the district (Amtsbezirk), administered justice and maintained law and order with a small, armed unit
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Nazi Germany
NAZI GERMANY is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany
Germany
was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP). Under Hitler's rule, Germany
Germany
was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
took totalitarian control over nearly all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich ("Greater German Reich") from 1943 to 1945. The period is also known under the names the THIRD REICH (German : Drittes Reich) and the NATIONAL SOCIALIST PERIOD (German : Zeit des Nationalsozialismus, abbreviated as NS-Zeit)
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Jurist
A JURIST (from medieval Latin) is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence (theory of law). Such a person can work as an academic, legal writer or law lecturer. In the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and in many other Commonwealth countries, the word jurist sometimes refers to an illustrious barrister, whereas in the United States of America and Canada it often refers to a judge. Thus a jurist, someone who studies, analyses and comments on law, stands in contrast with a lawyer , someone who applies law on behalf of clients and thinks about it in practical terms. It is important to note the fundamental difference between the work of the lawyer and that of the jurist. Many legal scholars and authors have explained that a person may be both a lawyer and a jurist, but a jurist is not necessarily a lawyer, nor a lawyer necessarily a jurist. Both must possess an acquaintance with the term "law"
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Friedrich Carl Von Savigny
FRIEDRICH CARL VON SAVIGNY (21 February 1779 – 25 October 1861) was a German jurist and historian . CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Work * 3 Ideas and influence * 4 Notes * 5 References EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONSavigny was born at Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, of a family recorded in the history of Lorraine , deriving its name from the castle of Savigny near Charmes in the valley of the Moselle
Moselle
. Left an orphan at the age of 13, Savigny was brought up by a guardian until, in 1795, he entered the University of Marburg
University of Marburg
, where, though in poor health, he studied under Professors Anton Bauer and Philipp Friedrich Weiss , the former a pioneer in the reform of the German criminal law, the latter distinguished for his knowledge of medieval jurisprudence
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Jérôme Bonaparte
JéRôME-NAPOLéON BONAPARTE (born GIROLAMO BUONAPARTE; 15 November 1784 – 24 June 1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon
Napoleon
I and reigned as JEROME I (formally HIERONYMUS NAPOLEON), King
King
of Westphalia , between 1807 and 1813. From 1816 onward, he bore the title of Prince of Montfort . After 1848, when his nephew, Louis Napoleon
Napoleon
, became President of the French Second Republic
French Second Republic
, he served in several official roles, including Marshal of France from 1850 onward, and President of the Senate in 1852
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