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Bronze Age
The Bronze
Bronze
Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze
Bronze
Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze- Iron
Iron
system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze
Bronze
Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere
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Jōmon Period
The Jōmon period
Jōmon period
(縄文時代, Jōmon jidai) is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between c. 14,000–300 BCE,[1][2] recently refined to about 1000 BCE,[1][3][4] during which Japan
Japan
was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity
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East Asia
East Asia
Asia
or Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical[3] or pan-ethno-cultural[4] terms.[5][6] Geographically and geopolitically, the region constitutes Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.[7][8][9][10][11][3][12][13][14][15] The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as Ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[16][17] East Asia
Asia
was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Majiayao Culture
The Majiayao culture
Majiayao culture
was a group of neolithic communities who lived primarily in the upper Yellow River
Yellow River
region in eastern Gansu, eastern Qinghai
Qinghai
and northern Sichuan, China.[1] The culture existed from 3300 to 2000 BC
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Asia Minor
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Canegrate Culture
The Canegrate
Canegrate
culture was a civilization of Prehistoric Italy
Prehistoric Italy
who developed from the recent Bronze Age (13th cen
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Bronze Age Caucasus
The history of the Caucasus
Caucasus
region may be divided into the history of the Northern Caucasus
Caucasus
(Ciscaucasia), historically in the sphere of influence of Scythia
Scythia
and of Southern Russia (Eastern Europe), and that of the Southern Caucasus
Caucasus
(Transcaucasia; Caucasian Albania, Georgia, Armenia), Azerbaijan) in the sphere of influence of Persia, Anatolia and for a very brief time Assyria. Up to including the early 19th century, the Southern Caucasus
Caucasus
and a part of the Northern Caucasus
Caucasus
(Dagestan) all formed part of the Persian Empire
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Siwa Culture
The Siwa culture
Siwa culture
(Chinese: 寺洼文化; pinyin: Sìwā wénhuà) was a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
culture in southeast Gansu
Gansu
Province, China. It was discovered by Swedish geologist Johan Gunnar Andersson
Johan Gunnar Andersson
in 1924 at Mount Siwa (寺洼山) in Lintao County, hence its name.[1] It flourished circa 14th to 11th century BC,[2] it is tentatively attributed to the cultures of the Di (氐) and Qiang (羌) peoples.[3]Contents1 Context 2 Geography 3 References 4 Further readingContext[edit] The neighbouring Xindian culture
Xindian culture
was roughly contemporary with the Siwa culture, and was influenced by it. Some scholars hold that Siwa culture descended from the Qijia culture.[4] Geography[edit] Siwa culture
Siwa culture
is divided into two types – Siwa and Anguo
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Jiroft Civilization
A "Jiroft culture"[1] has been postulated as an early Bronze Age (late 3rd millennium BC) archaeological culture, located in the territory of present-day Balochistan and Kermān Provinces of Iran. The hypothesis is based on a collection of artifacts that were confiscated in Iran and accepted by many to have derived from the Jiroft area in south central Iran, reported by online Iranian news services, beginning in 2001. The proposed type site is Konar Sandal, near Jiroft in the Halil River area. Other significant sites associated with the culture include; Shahr-e Sukhteh (Burnt City), Tepe Bampur, Espiedej, Shahdad, Tal-i-Iblis and Tepe Yahya. The proposition of grouping these sites as an "independent Bronze Age civilization with its own architecture and language", intermediate between Elam to the west and the Indus Valley Civilization to the east, is due to Yusef Majidzadeh, head of the archaeological excavation team in Jiroft
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Xindian Culture
Xindian culture
Xindian culture
(Chinese: 辛店文化; pinyin: Xīndiàn wénhuà) was a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
culture in the Gansu
Gansu
and Qinghai
Qinghai
provinces of China. Xindian culture
Xindian culture
is dated ca. 1500–1000 BCE, a radiocarbon testing of an artefact produced a date around 1000 BCE,[1] which roughly corresponds to the Western Zhou
Western Zhou
period of the Central Plain area (in the middle and lower course of the Yellow River).Contents1 Geography 2 Cultural context 3 Notes 4 External linksGeography[edit] The Xindian culture
Xindian culture
is named after a site discovered in 1923–24 in Xindian, Lintao County, Gansu
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Hallstatt Culture
The Hallstatt
Hallstatt
culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe
Europe
from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the
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Erligang Culture
Coordinates: 34°45′14″N 113°40′34″E / 34.754°N 113.676°E / 34.754; 113.676 The Erligang
Erligang
culture[a] is a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
urban civilization and archaeological culture in China
China
that existed from approximately 1510 to 1460 BC. The primary site, Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Shang City, was discovered at Erligang, within the modern city of Zhengzhou, Henan, in 1951.Contents1 Major sites1.1 Zhengzhou 1.2 Panlongcheng2 Bronze vessels 3 Relation to traditional accounts 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further readingMajor sites[edit] The culture was centered in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley. In its early years, it expanded rapidly, reaching the Yangtze River
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Gojoseon
Gojoseon, originally named Joseon, was an ancient Korean kingdom. The addition of Go (고, 古), meaning "ancient", distinguishes it from the later Joseon
Joseon
kingdom (1392–1897). The founding legend of Gojoseon, which is recorded in the Samguk Yusa (1281), states that the country was established in 2333 BC by Dangun, said to be the offspring of a heavenly prince and a bear-woman in the work. Though a mythological figure for whom no concrete evidence has been found,[1] the account has played an important role in developing Korean identity. Today, the founding date of Gojoseon
Gojoseon
is officially celebrated as the National Foundation Day in North Korea[2] and South Korea. Some of the same sources relate that in the 12th century BC Gija, a man from the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
of China, immigrated to Gojoseon and founded Gija
Gija
Joseon
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Cemetery H Culture
The Cemetery H culture
Cemetery H culture
was a Bronze Age culture in the Punjab region of what is now Pakistan
Pakistan
and north-western India, from about 1900 BCE until about 1300 BCE. It was a regional form of the late phase of the Harappan (Indus Valley) civilisation (alongside the Jhukar culture of Sindh and Rangpur culture of Gujarat), and it has also been connected with the early stages of the Indo-Aryan migrations.Contents1 Origins 2 Features 3 Archeology 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksOrigins[edit] The Cemetery H culture
Cemetery H culture
was located in and around the Punjab region
Punjab region
in present-day India
India
and Pakistan. It was named after a cemetery found in "area H" at Harappa
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Wucheng Culture
The Wucheng culture
Wucheng culture
(吳城文化) was a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
archaeological culture in Jiangxi, China. The initial site, spread out over 4 km2 (1.5 sq mi), was discovered at Wucheng, Zhangshu. Located on the Gan River, the site was first excavated in 1973. The Wucheng culture
Wucheng culture
probably developed in response to cultural contacts with the expanding Erligang culture, melding Erligang influences with local traditions. The Wucheng culture
Wucheng culture
was a distinct contemporary of Sanxingdui
Sanxingdui
and Yinxu
Yinxu
(Anyang). The site at Wucheng was a regional protoporcelain production center; the culture is known for its distinctive geometric pottery. The Wucheng culture
Wucheng culture
is also known for its bronze bells, the clapperless nao
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