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Bromeliad
The Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae
(the bromeliads) are a family of monocot flowering plants of 51 genera and around 3475 known species[2] native mainly to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa, Pitcairnia
Pitcairnia
feliciana.[3] They are among the basal families within the Poales
Poales
and are the only family within the order that has septal nectaries and inferior ovaries.[4] These inferior ovaries characterize the Bromelioideae, a subfamily of the Bromeliaceae.[5] The family includes both epiphytes, such as Spanish moss
Spanish moss
( Tillandsia
Tillandsia
usneoides), and terrestrial species, such as the pineapple ( Ananas
Ananas
comosus). Many bromeliads are able to store water in a structure formed by their tightly-overlapping leaf bases
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Lithophyte
Lithophytes are plants that grow in or on rocks. Those that grow on rocks are also known as epipetric or epilithic plants. Lithophytes that grow on land feed off nutrients from rain water and nearby decaying plants, including their own dead tissue. Chasmophytes grow in fissures in rocks where soil or organic matter has accumulated. Examples of lithophytes include several Paphiopedilum
Paphiopedilum
orchids, ferns, many algae and liverworts. Species that only grow on rock or gravel are obligate lithophytes. Species that grow on rocky substrate and elsewhere are facultative lithophytes.Rock Felt Fern, Elkhorn fern, Birds Nest Fern
Fern
and moss growing on Hawkesbury Sandstone
Hawkesbury Sandstone
at Chatswood West, AustraliaAs nutrients tend to be rarely available to lithophytes or chasmophytes, many species of carnivorous plants can be viewed as being pre-adapted to life on rocks
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Ostracod
  Myodocopa Sars, 1866 Myodocopida
Myodocopida
Sars, 1866 Halocyprida Dana, 1853  Podocopa Sars, 1866 Platycopida Sars, 1866 Podocopida Sars, 1866Ostracods, or ostracodes, are a class of the Crustacea (class Ostracoda), sometimes known as seed shrimp. Some 70,000 species (only 13,000 of which are extant) have been identified,[1] grouped into several orders. They are small crustaceans, typically around 1 mm (0.039 in) in size, but varying from 0.2 to 30 mm (0.0079 to 1.1811 in) in the case of Gigantocypris. Their bodies are flattened from side to side and protected by a bivalve-like, chitinous or calcareous valve or "shell". The hinge of the two valves is in the upper (dorsal) region of the body
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Ovary (plants)
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. Specifically, it is the part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. The pistil may be made up of one carpel or of several fused carpels (e.g. dicarpel or tricarpel), and therefore the ovary can contain part of one carpel or parts of several fused carpels. Above the ovary is the style and the stigma, which is where the pollen lands and germinates to grow down through the style to the ovary, and, for each individual pollen grain, to fertilize one individual ovule
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Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.[1] The leaves and stem together form the shoot.[2] Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage".[3][4]Diagram of a simple leaf.Apex Midvein (Primary vein) Secondary vein. Lamina. Leaf
Leaf
margin Petiole Bud StemAlthough leaves can be seen in many different shapes, sizes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll, is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf[1] but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus,[5] palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral
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Trichome
Trichomes (/ˈtraɪkoʊmz/ or /ˈtrɪkoʊmz/), from the Greek τρίχωμα (trichōma) meaning "hair", are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants, algae, lichens, and certain protists. They are of diverse structure and function. Examples are hairs, glandular hairs, scales, and papillae. A covering of any kind of hair on a plant is an indumentum, and the surface bearing them is said to be pubescent.Contents1 Algal trichomes 2 Plant
Plant
trichomes2.1 Aerial surface hairs3 Trichome
Trichome
and Root
Root
Hair
Hair
Development 4 Significance for taxonomy 5 Significance for plant molecular biology 6 Uses 7 Defense7.1 Stinging trichomes8 See also 9 ReferencesAlgal trichomes[edit] Certain, usually filamentous, algae have the terminal cell produced into an elongate hair-like structure called a trichome
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Inflorescence
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connations and reduction of main and secondary axes. Inflorescence
Inflorescence
can also be defined as the reproductive portion of a plant that bears a cluster of flowers in a specific pattern. The stem holding the whole inflorescence is called a peduncle and the major axis (incorrectly referred to as the main stem) holding the flowers or more branches within the inflorescence is called the rachis. The stalk of each single flower is called a pedicel
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Ecuador
Coordinates: 2°00′S 77°30′W / 2.000°S 77.500°W / -2.000; -77.500Republic of Ecuador República del Ecuador  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Dios, patria y libertad" (Spanish) "Pro Deo, Patria et Libertate" (Latin) "God, homeland and freedom"Anthem: Salve, Oh Patria  (Spanish) Hail, Oh HomelandLocation of  Ecuador  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital Quito 00°9′S 78°21′W / 0.150°S 78.350°W / -0.150; -78.350Largest city GuayaquilOfficial languages Spanish[1]Recognized regional languages Kichwa
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Lowland
Upland and lowland
Upland and lowland
are conditional descriptions of a plain based on elevation above sea level. In studies of the ecology of freshwater rivers, habitats are classified as upland and lowland.Contents1 Definitions 2 Upland 3 Lowland 4 Lowland alluvial plains 5 See alsoDefinitions[edit] Upland and lowland
Upland and lowland
are portions of plain that are conditionally categorized by their elevation above the sea level. Lowlands are usually no higher than 200 m (660 ft), while uplands are somewhere around 200 m (660 ft) to 500 m (1,600 ft)
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Salamander
Cryptobranchoidea Salamandroidea SirenoideaNative distribution of salamanders (in green)Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults. All present-day salamander families are grouped together under the scientific name Urodela. Salamander diversity is most abundant in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and most species are found in the Holarctic
Holarctic
ecozone, with some species present in the Neotropical
Neotropical
zone. Salamanders rarely have more than four toes on their front legs and five on their rear legs, but some species have fewer digits and others lack hind limbs. Their permeable skin usually makes them reliant on habitats in or near water or other cool, damp places
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Basal (phylogenetics)
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram. Clade
Clade
C may be described as basal within a larger clade D if its root is directly linked (adjacent) to the root of D. If C is a basal clade within D that has the lowest taxonomic rank of all basal clades within D, C may be described as the basal taxon of that rank within D. While there must always be two or more equally basal clades sprouting from the root of every cladogram, those clades may differ widely in rank[n 1] and/or species diversity. Greater diversification may be associated with more evolutionary innovation, but ancestral characters should not be imputed to the members of a less species-rich basal clade without additional evidence, as there can be no assurance such an assumption is valid.[1][2][3][n 2] In general, clade A is more basal than clade B if B is a subgroup of the sister group of A
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Tree Frog
A tree frog is any species of frog that spends a major portion of its lifespan in trees, known as an arboreal state.[1] Several lineages of frogs among the Neobatrachia
Neobatrachia
have given rise to tree frogs, although they are not closely related to each other. Many millions of years of convergent evolution have resulted in almost identical morphology and ecologies. They are so similar as regards their ecological niche that in one biome where one group of tree frogs occurs, the other is almost always absent. The last common ancestor of some such tree frog groups lived long before the extinction of the dinosaurs.[citation needed]Contents1 Description 2 Family 3 Gallery 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksDescriptionRed-eyed tree frog, Osa Peninsula, Costa RicaGladiator tree frog (Hypsiboas rosenbergi), Osa Peninsula, Costa RicaAs the name implies, these frogs are typically found in trees or other high-growing vegetation
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Jamaica
Jamaica
Jamaica
(/dʒəˈmeɪkə/ ( listen)) is an island country situated in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles
Greater Antilles
and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica
Jamaica
lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
(the island containing the countries of Haiti
Haiti
and the Dominican Republic). Previously inhabited by the indigenous Arawak
Arawak
and Taíno
Taíno
peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494
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Crab
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (Greek: βραχύς, translit. brachys = short,[2] οὐρά / οura = tail[3]), usually entirely hidden under the thorax. They live in all the world's oceans, in fresh water, and on land, are generally covered with a thick exoskeleton and have a single pair of claws
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Larva
A larva (plural: larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle. The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies) including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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Bolivia
Coordinates: 16°42′43″S 64°39′58″W / 16.712°S 64.666°W / -16.712; -64.666Plurinational State of BoliviaEstado Plurinacional de Bolivia  (Spanish) Tetã Hetãvoregua Volívia  (Guaraní) Buliwya Mamallaqta  (Quechua) Wuliwya Suyu  (Aymara)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "La Unión es la Fuerza" (Spanish) "Unity is Strength"[1]Anthem: Himno Nacional de Bolivia  (Spanish)Location of  Bolivia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital Sucre
Sucre
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