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Broadcast License
A broadcast license is a type of spectrum license granting the licensee permission to use a portion of the radio frequency spectrum in a given geographical area for broadcasting purposes. The licenses generally include restrictions, which vary from band to band.[1] Spectrum may be divided according to use. As indicated in a graph from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration
National Telecommunications and Information Administration
(NTIA), frequency allocations may be represented by different types of services which vary in size.[2] Many options exist when applying for a broadcast license; the FCC determines how much spectrum to allot to licensees in a given band,[3] according to what is needed for the service in question.[1] The determination of frequencies used by licensees is done through frequency allocation, which in the United States
United States
is specified by the FCC in a table of allotments
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Mutually Exclusive
In logic and probability theory, two propositions (or events) are mutually exclusive or disjoint if they cannot both be true (occur). A clear example is the set of outcomes of a single coin toss, which can result in either heads or tails, but not both. In the coin-tossing example, both outcomes are, in theory, collectively exhaustive, which means that at least one of the outcomes must happen, so these two possibilities together exhaust all the possibilities.[1] However, not all mutually exclusive events are collectively exhaustive. For example, the outcomes 1 and 4 of a single roll of a six-sided die are mutually exclusive (both cannot happen at the same time) but not collectively exhaustive (there are other possible outcomes; 2,3,5,6).Contents1 Logic 2 Probability 3 Statistics 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesLogic[edit] In logic, two mutually exclusive propositions are propositions that logically cannot be true in the same sense at the same time
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Computer Modeling
Computer simulations reproduce the behavior of a system using a mathematical model. Computer simulations have become a useful tool for the mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics (computational physics), astrophysics, climatology, chemistry and biology, human systems in economics, psychology, social science, and engineering. Simulation of a system is represented as the running of the system's model. It can be used to explore and gain new insights into new technology and to estimate the performance of systems too complex for analytical solutions.[1] Computer simulations are computer programs that can be either small, running almost instantly on small devices, or large-scale programs that run for hours or days on network-based groups of computers. The scale of events being simulated by computer simulations has far exceeded anything possible (or perhaps even imaginable) using traditional paper-and-pencil mathematical modeling
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Radio Act Of 1927
The Federal Radio
Radio
Commission (FRC) was a government body that regulated radio use in the United States
United States
from its creation in 1926 until its replacement by the Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) in 1934. The Commission was created to regulate radio use "as the public interest, convenience, or necessity" requires. The Radio
Radio
Act of 1927 superseded the Radio
Radio
Act of 1912, which had given regulatory powers over radio communication to the Secretary of Commerce and Labor
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Media Market
A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area (DMA), television market area, or simply market is a region where the population can receive the same (or similar) television and radio station offerings, and may also include other types of media including newspapers and Internet
Internet
content. They can coincide or overlap with one or more metropolitan areas, though rural regions with few significant population centers can also be designated as markets. Conversely, very large metropolitan areas can sometimes be subdivided into multiple segments. Market regions may overlap, meaning that people residing on the edge of one media market may be able to receive content from other nearby markets. They are widely used in audience measurements, which are compiled in the United States
United States
by Nielsen Media Research
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Metropolitan Area
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.[1] A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs, cities, towns, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts
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RF Interference
Electromagnetic interference
Electromagnetic interference
(EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.[1] The disturbance may degrade the performance of the circuit or even stop it from functioning. In the case of a data path, these effects can range from an increase in error rate to a total loss of the data.[2] Both man-made and natural sources generate changing electrical currents and voltages that can cause EMI: ignition systems, cellular network of mobile phones, lightning, solar flares, and auroras (Northern/Southern Lights)
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Tolerance (engineering)
Engineering
Engineering
tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in:a physical dimension; a measured value or physical property of a material, manufactured object, system, or service; other measured values (such as temperature, humidity, etc.); in engineering and safety, a physical distance or space (tolerance), as in a truck (lorry), train or boat under a bridge as well as a train in a tunnel (see structure gauge and loading gauge); in mechanical engineering the space between a bolt and a nut or a hole, etc..Dimensions, properties, or conditions may have some variation without significantly affecting functioning of systems, machines, structures, etc
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International Border
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities. Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; the creation of these agreements is called boundary delimitation. Some borders—such as a state's internal administrative border, or inter-state borders within the Schengen Area—are often open and completely unguarded. Other borders are partially or fully controlled, and may be crossed legally only at designated border checkpoints and border zones may be controlled. Borders may even foster the setting up of buffer zones
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Frequency Coordination
Frequency
Frequency
Coordination is a technical and regulatory process that removes or mitigates radio-frequency interference between different radio systems that operate on the same frequency. Normally frequency coordination is a function of an administration, such as a governmental spectrum regulator, as part of a formal regulatory process under the procedures of the Radio Regulations (an intergovernmental treaty text that regulates the radio frequency spectrum.[1] Before an administrations lets an operator operate a new rad
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Broadcast Range
A broadcast range (also listening range or listening area for radio, or viewing range or viewing area for television) is the service area that a broadcast station or other transmission covers via radio waves (or possibly infrared light, which is closely related). It is generally the area in which a station's signal strength is sufficient for most receivers to decode it. However, this also depends on interference from other stations.Contents1 Legal definitions 2 Practical application 3 Edge-of-range issues 4 Digital versus analogLegal definitions[edit] The "primary service area" is the area served by a station's strongest signal. The "city-grade contour" is 70 dBµ (decibels relative to one microvolt per meter of signal strength) or 3.16mV/m (millivolts per meter) for FM stations in the United States, according to Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations
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Public Policy
Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.Contents1 Overview 2 Government
Government
actions and process 3 Academic discipline 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingOverview[edit] The foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations. Further substrates include both judicial interpretations and regulations which are generally authorized by legislation
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Radio Antenna
In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.[1] In transmission, a radio transmitter supplies an electric current to the antenna's terminals, and the antenna radiates the energy from the current as electromagnetic waves (radio waves). In reception, an antenna intercepts some of the power of an electromagnetic wave in order to produce an electric current at its terminals, that is applied to a receiver to be amplified. Antennas are essential components of all radio equipment, and are used in radio broadcasting, broadcast television, two-way radio, communications receivers, radar, cell phones, satellite communications and other devices. An antenna is an array of conductors (elements), electrically connected to the receiver or transmitter
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HAAT
Height above average terrain
Height above average terrain
(HAAT) (or less popularly, EHAAT, Effective Height Above Average Terrain) is a measure of how high an antenna site is above the surrounding landscape. HAAT is used extensively in FM radio
FM radio
and television, as it is more important than effective radiated power (ERP) in determining the range of broadcasts (VHF and UHF in particular, as they are line of sight transmissions). For international coordination, it is officially measured in meters, even by the Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
in the United States, as Canada
Canada
and Mexico
Mexico
have extensive border zones where stations can be received on either side of the international boundaries
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Directional Antenna
A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates or receives greater power in specific directions allowing increased performance and reduced interference from unwanted sources. Directional antennas provide increased performance over dipole antennas – or omnidirectional antennas in general – when greater concentration of radiation in a certain direction is desired. A high-gain antenna (HGA) is a directional antenna with a focused, narrow radiowave beam width. This narrow beam width allows more precise targeting of the radio signals. Most commonly referred to during space missions, these antennas are also in use all over Earth, most successfully in flat, open areas where no mountains lie to disrupt radiowaves. By contrast, a low-gain antenna (LGA) is an omnidirectional antenna with a broad radiowave beam width, that allows the signal to propagate reasonably well even in mountainous regions and is thus more reliable regardless of terrain
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Radiation Pattern
In the field of antenna design the term radiation pattern (or antenna pattern or far-field pattern) refers to the directional (angular) dependence of the strength of the radio waves from the antenna or other source.[1][2][3] Particularly in the fields of fiber optics, lasers, and integrated optics, the term radiation pattern may also be used as a synonym for the near-field pattern or Fresnel pattern.[4] This refers to the positional dependence of the electromagnetic field in the near-field, or Fresnel region of the source
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