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British Iron Age
Iron Age
Iron Age
metallurgy Ancient iron production↓ Ancient historyMediterranean, Greater Persia, South Asia, ChinaHistoriographyGreek, Roman, Chinese, MedievalThe British Iron Age
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Gaulish Language
Gaulish is an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire. In the narrow sense, Gaulish was the language spoken by the Celtic inhabitants of Gaul
Gaul
(modern France, Belgium and Northern Italy). In a wider sense, it also comprises varieties of Celtic that were spoken across much of central Europe ("Noric"), parts of the Balkans, and Asia Minor ("Galatian"), which are thought to have been closely related.[2][3] The more divergent Lepontic of Northern Italy
Northern Italy
has also sometimes been subsumed under Gaulish.[4][5] Together with Lepontic and the Celtiberian language
Celtiberian language
spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, Gaulish forms the geographic group of Continental Celtic languages
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Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology,[1] is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.[2][3] In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology,[4] while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi
Lomekwi
in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, the study of fossil remains
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Achaemenid Persia
The Achaemenid Empire
Empire
(/əˈkiːmənɪd/ c. 550–330 BC), also called the First Persian Empire,[11] was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans
Balkans
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army
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Middle Kingdoms Of India
The Middle kingdoms of India
India
were the political entities in India
India
from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. The period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire, and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty, beginning with Simuka, from 230 BCE
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Imperial China
The earliest known written records of the history of China
China
date from as early as 1250 BC,[1][2] from the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(c. 1600–1046 BC).[3] Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (c. 100 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang
Shang
writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia.[3][4] The Shang
Shang
ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic
Neolithic
civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River
Yellow River
and Yangtze
Yangtze
River
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Historiography
Historiography
Historiography
is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic – such as the "historiography of the United Kingdom", the "historiography of Canada", "historiography of the British Empire", the "historiography of early Islam", the "historiography of China" – and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the ascent of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature
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Greek Historiography
Greek historiography refers to Hellenic efforts to track and record history. By the 5th century BC, it became an integral part of ancient Greek literature and held a prestigious place in later Byzantine literature. The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals, chronicles, king lists, and pragmatic epigraphy. Herodotus
Herodotus
is widely known as the "father of history", his Histories being eponymous of the entire field
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Roman Historiography
Roman historiography is indebted to the Greeks, who invented the form. The Romans had great models to base their works upon, such as Herodotus
Herodotus
(c. 484 – 425 BC) and Thucydides
Thucydides
(c. 460 – c. 395 BC). Roman historiographical forms are different from the Greek ones however, and voice very Roman concerns. Unlike the Greeks, Roman historiography did not start out with an oral historical tradition. The Roman style of history was based on the way that the Annals
Annals
of the Pontifex Maximus, or the Annales Maximi, were recorded. The Annales Maximi include a wide array of information, including religious documents, names of consuls, deaths of priests, and various disasters throughout history
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Chinese Historiography
Chinese historiography
Chinese historiography
is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.Contents1 Overview of Chinese history 2 Key organizing concepts2.1 Dynastic cycle 2.2 Multi-ethnic history 2.3 Marxism 2.4 Modernization 2.5 Hydraulic despotism 2.6 Convergence 2.7 Anti-imperialism 2.8 Republican 2.9 Postmodernism3 Recent trends 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References and further reading 7 External linksOverview of Chinese history[edit] The recording of Chinese history
Chinese history
dates back to the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(c. 1600–1046 BC). Although they are not literature as such, many written examples survive of ceremonial inscriptions, divinations and records of family names, which were carved or painted onto tortoise shell or bones.[1][2] The oldest surviving history texts of China were compiled in the Shujing (Book of Documents, 書經)
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Medieval Historiography
This is a list of historians. The names are grouped by order of the historical period in which they were living and producing works, which is not necessarily the same as the period in which they specialize.[1] Chroniclers and annalists, though they are not historians in the true sense, are also listed here for convenience
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Great Britain
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), Great Britain is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, and the ninth-largest island in the world.[5][note 1] In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan.[7][8] The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago.[9] The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and constitutes most of its territory.[10] Most of England, Scotland, and Wales are on the island
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Ancient Iron Production
Ancient iron production refers to iron working in times from prehistory to the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
where knowledge of production processes is derived from archaeological investigation. Slag, the byproduct of iron-working processes such as smelting or smithing, is left at the iron-working site rather than being moved away with the product. It also weathers well and hence it is readily available for study
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Prehistoric
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago and the invention of writing systems. The earliest writing systems appeared c. 5,300 years ago, but writing was not used in some human cultures until the 19th century or even later. The end of prehistory therefore came at very different dates in different places, and the term is less often used in discussing societies where prehistory ended relatively recently. Sumer
Sumer
in Mesopotamia, the Indus valley civilisation
Indus valley civilisation
and ancient Egypt were the first civilisations to develop their own scripts, and to keep historical records; this took place already during the early Bronze Age. Neighbouring civilizations were the first to follow. Most other civilizations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron
Iron
Age
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Protohistoric
Protohistory is a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings. For example, in Europe, the Celts and the Germanic tribes are considered to have been protohistoric when they began appearing in Greek and Roman sources. Protohistoric may also refer to the transition period between the advent of literacy in a society and the writings of the first historians. The preservation of oral traditions may complicate matters as these can provide a secondary historical source for even earlier events. Colonial sites involving a literate group and a non-literate group are also studied as protohistoric situations. It can also refer to a period in which fragmentary or external historical documents, not necessarily including a developed writing system, have been found
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Culture
Culture
Culture
(/ˈkʌltʃər/) is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture
Culture
is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Some aspects of human behavior, social practices such as culture, expressive forms such as art, music, dance, ritual, religion, and technologies such as tool usage, cooking, shelter, and clothing are said to be cultural universals, found in all human societies
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