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British East India Company
The EAST INDIA COMPANY (EIC), also known as the HONOURABLE EAST INDIA COMPANY (HEIC) or the BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY and informally as JOHN COMPANY, was an English and later British joint-stock company , which was formed to pursue trade with the " East Indies
East Indies
" (or Maritime Southeast Asia in present-day terms) but ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and Qing China
Qing China
. The historian William Dalrymple says: It was not the British government that seized India at the end of the 18th century, but a dangerously unregulated private company headquartered in one small office, five windows wide, in London, and managed in India by an unstable sociopath – Clive
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British Crown
THE CROWN is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies , provinces , or states). The term is metonym for both the state and the reigning monarch. A corporation sole , the Crown is the legal embodiment of executive, legislative , and judicial governance in the monarchy of each country. These monarchies are united by the personal union of their monarch , but they are independent states. The concept of the Crown developed first in England as a separation of the literal crown and property of the nation state from the person and personal property of the monarch. It spread through English and later British colonisation and is now rooted in the legal lexicon of the United Kingdom, its Crown dependencies, and the other 15 independent realms. It is not to be confused with any physical crown, such as those of the British regalia
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Silk
SILK is a natural protein fiber , some forms of which can be woven into textiles . The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture ). The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism -like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles , thus producing different colors. Silk
Silk
is produced by several insects, but generally only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing. There has been some research into other types of silk, which differ at the molecular level
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Indigo Dye
INDIGO DYE is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color (see indigo ). Historically, indigo was a natural dye extracted from the leaves of certain plants, and this process was important economically because blue dyes were once rare. A large percentage of indigo dye produced today – several thousand tons each year – is synthetic . It is the blue often associated with blue jeans
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Portuguese East India Company
The PORTUGUESE EAST INDIA COMPANY (Portuguese : Companhia do commércio da Índia or Companhia da Índia Oriental ) was a short-lived ill-fated attempt by Philip III of Portugal to create a national chartered company to look after interests in Portuguese India in the face on encroachment by the Dutch and English following the personal union of the Portuguese and Spanish Crowns . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Proposal * 3 The Company * 4 The end * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading BACKGROUNDPortuguese trade with India had been a crown monopoly since the Portuguese captain Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
opened the sea route to India in 1497-99. The monopoly had been managed by the Casa da Índia , the royal trading house founded around 1500. The Casa was responsible for the yearly India armadas
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Casa Da Índia
CASA DA ÍNDIA (Portuguese pronunciation: , India
India
House) was the Portuguese organization that managed all overseas territories during the heyday of the Portuguese Empire in the 16th century. It was both the central authority for managing all aspects of overseas trade, the central shipment point and clearing house. As an economic institution, it worked like a feitoria (factory, trading post) , being the most important economic institution in Portugal
Portugal
of the time. It was located at the Ribeira Palace , the royal palace in Terreiro do Paço square (modern Praça do Comércio
Praça do Comércio
), in Lisbon
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British Rule In Burma
Rangoon (1853–1948) LANGUAGES English (official) Burmese RELIGION Buddhism
Buddhism
, Christianity
Christianity
,
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Cotton
COTTON is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae
Malvaceae
. The fiber is almost pure cellulose . Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia
Australia
and Africa. Cotton
Cotton
was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds. The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile
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Indian Subcontinent
The INDIAN SUBCONTINENT or the SUBCONTINENT, also called the INDIAN CONTINENT, is a southern region of Asia
Asia
, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the Himalayas
Himalayas
. Geologically , the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically , it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia
Asia
delineated by the Himalayas
Himalayas
in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east
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Maritime Southeast Asia
MARITIME SOUTHEAST ASIA is the maritime region of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and comprises what is now Malaysia , Brunei
Brunei
, the Philippines
Philippines
, Singapore
Singapore
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, and Timor Leste
Timor Leste
. Maritime Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
is sometimes also referred to as "island Southeast Asia" or "insular Southeast Asia". The 16th century term EAST INDIES , and the later 19th-century term MALAY ARCHIPELAGO refers to a largely similar area
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William Dalrymple (historian)
WILLIAM DALRYMPLE FRSL , FRGS , FRAS (born WILLIAM HAMILTON-DALRYMPLE on 20 March 1965) is a Scottish historian and writer, art historian and curator, as well as a prominent broadcaster and critic. His books have won numerous awards and prizes, including the Duff Cooper Memorial Prize, the Thomas Cook Travel Book Award, the Sunday Times Young British Writer of the Year Award, the Hemingway, the Kapuściński and the Wolfson Prizes. He has been four times longlisted and once shortlisted for the Samuel Johnson Prize
Samuel Johnson Prize
for non-fiction. He is also one of the co-founders and co-directors of the annual Jaipur Literature Festival . In 2012 he was appointed a Whitney J. Oates Visiting Fellow in the Humanities by Princeton University . In the Spring of 2015 he was appointed the OP Jindal Distinguished Lecturer at Brown University
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Partition Of India
The PARTITION OF INDIA was the division of British India
British India
in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions , India and Pakistan
Pakistan
. The Dominion
Dominion
of India
India
is today the Republic of India
India
, and the Dominion
Dominion
of Pakistan
Pakistan
is today the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People\'s Republic of Bangladesh
Bangladesh

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Portuguese India
Also spoken; Konkani , Kannada , Gujarati , Marathi , Malayalam , others POLITICAL STRUCTURE Colony ; Overseas Province State of the Portuguese Empire HEAD OF STATE • King 1511–21 Manuel I of Portugal • President 1958–61 Américo Tomás
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Salt
TABLE SALT or COMMON SALT is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts ; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite . Salt
Salt
is present in vast quantities in seawater , where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per litre, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt
Salt
is essential for life in general , and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes . The tissues of animals contain larger quantities of salt than do plant tissues. Salt
Salt
is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation
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Aristocracy
ARISTOCRACY (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power ") is a form of government that places power in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class . The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best". At the time of the word's origins in ancient Greece , the Greeks conceived it as rule by the best qualified citizens—and often contrasted it favourably with monarchy , rule by an individual. In later times, aristocracy was usually seen as rule by a privileged group, the aristocratic class , and was contrasted with democracy . CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading CONCEPTThe concept evolved in Ancient Greece, whereby a council of leading citizens was commonly empowered and contrasted with representative democracy , in which a council of citizens was appointed as the "senate" of a city state or other political unit
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International Trade
INTERNATIONAL TRADE is the exchange of capital , goods , and services across international borders or territories. It is the exchange of goods and services among nations of the world. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade has existed throughout history (for example Uttarapatha , Silk Road
Silk Road
, Amber Road , scramble for Africa , Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
, salt roads ), its economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries
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