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Bris Milah
The BRIT MILAH (Hebrew : בְּרִית מִילָה‎, pronounced ; Ashkenazi pronunciation: , "covenant of circumcision "; Yiddish pronunciation: bris ) is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel ("circumciser") on the eighth day of a male infant's life. The brit milah is followed by a celebratory meal (seudat mitzvah )
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Talmud
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— * Jerusalem Ta
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Midrash
In Judaism , the MIDRASH (/ˈmɪdrɑːʃ/ ; Hebrew : מִדְרָשׁ‎; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah
Oral Torah
(spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah ) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha ), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture ( Tanakh ). The Midrash, capitalized, refers to a specific compilation of these writings, primarily from the first ten centuries CE . The purpose of midrash was to resolve problems in the interpretation of difficult passages of the text of the Hebrew Bible, using Rabbinic principles of hermeneutics and philology to align them with the religious and ethical values of religious teachers
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta—— Amoraic ( Gemara ) —— * Jerusalem Talmud * Babylonian Talmud —— Later —— * Minor Tractates HALAKHIC MIDRASH —— Exodus —— * Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael *
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Mishneh Torah
The MISHNEH TORAH (Hebrew : מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה‎‎, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled SEFER YAD HA-HAZAKA (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law ( Halakha ) authored by Maimonides
Maimonides
( Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam"), one of history's foremost rabbis. The Mishneh Torah was compiled between 1170 and 1180 (4930–4940), while Maimonides
Maimonides
was living in Egypt
Egypt
, and is regarded as Maimonides' magnum opus . Accordingly, later sources simply refer to the work as "Maimon", "Maimonides" or "RaMBaM", although Maimonides
Maimonides
composed other works. Mishneh Torah consists of fourteen books, subdivided into sections, chapters, and paragraphs
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Rabbinic Literature
RABBINIC LITERATURE, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term SIFRUT HAZAL (Hebrew : ספרות חז"ל‎‎ "Literature sages," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim , Midrash
Midrash
(Hebrew : מדרש‎‎), and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts. This article discusses rabbinic literature in both senses
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Zohar
The ZOHAR ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: זֹהַר‎, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah . It is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah
Torah
(the five books of Moses
Moses
) and scriptural interpretations as well as material on mysticism , mythical cosmogony , and mystical psychology . The Zohar
Zohar
contains discussions of the nature of God
God
, the origin and structure of the universe, the nature of souls, redemption, the relationship of Ego to Darkness and "true self" to "The Light of God", and the relationship between the "universal energy" and man. Its scriptural exegesis can be considered an esoteric form of the Rabbinic literature known as Midrash
Midrash
, which elaborates on the Torah
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Ketuvim
KETUVIM (/kətuːˈviːm, kəˈtuːvɪm/ ; Biblical Hebrew : כְּתוּבִים‎‎ Kəṯûḇîm, "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh
Tanakh
( Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
), after Torah (instruction) and Nevi\'im (prophets). In English translations of the Hebrew Bible, this section is usually entitled "Writings". Another name used for this section is Hagiographa . The Ketuvim
Ketuvim
are believed to have been written under divine inspiration , but with one level less authority than that of prophecy . Found among the Writings within the Hebrew scriptures, I and II Chronicles form one book, along with Ezra and Nehemiah
Nehemiah
which form a single unit entitled " Ezra–Nehemiah "
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Chumash (Judaism)
The Hebrew term CHUMASH (also ḤUMASH; Hebrew : חומש‎, pronounced or pronounced or Yiddish
Yiddish
: pronounced ) is a Torah
Torah
in printed form (i.e. codex ) as opposed to a sefer Torah
Torah
, which is a scroll . The word comes from the Hebrew word for five, ḥamesh (חמש‎). A more formal term is Ḥamishah Ḥumshei Torah, "five fifths of Torah". It is also known by the Latinised Greek term Pentateuch in common printed editions. CONTENTS * 1 Origin of the term * 2 Usage * 3 Various publications * 4 References * 5 External links ORIGIN OF THE TERM The Artscroll Chumash The word "ḥumash" may be a vowel alteration of ḥomesh, meaning "one-fifth", alluding to any one of the five books: as the Hebrew חומש‎ has no vowel signs, it could be read either way. It could also be regarded as a back-formed singular of ḥumashim/ḥumshei (which is in fact the plural of ḥomesh)
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Siddur
A SIDDUR (Hebrew : סדור‎‎ ; plural SIDDURIM סדורים, ) is a Jewish prayer book , containing a set order of daily prayers . The word siddur comes from the Hebrew root Hebrew : ס.ד.ר‎‎ meaning "order"
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Piyyut
A PIYYUT or PIYUT (plural PIYYUTIM or PIYUTIM, Hebrew פּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פּיּוּטִ / פיוט pronounced ; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services . Piyyutim have been written since Temple times. Most piyyutim are in Hebrew or Aramaic , and most follow some poetic scheme, such as an acrostic following the order of the Hebrew alphabet or spelling out the name of the author. Many piyyutim are familiar to regular attendees of synagogue services. For example, the best-known piyyut may be Adon Olam ("Master of the World"), sometimes (but almost certainly wrongly) attributed to Solomon ibn Gabirol in 11th century Spain
Spain

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Arba'ah Turim
ARBA\'AH TURIM (Hebrew : אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‎‎‎), often called simply the TUR, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher ( Cologne
Cologne
, 1270 – Toledo, Spain c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the TUR and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
. CONTENTS * 1 Meaning of the name * 2 Arrangement and contents * 3 Later developments * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links MEANING OF THE NAMEThe title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest\'s breastplate
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Shulchan Aruch
The SHULCHAN ARUCH (Hebrew : שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך‎ , literally: "Set Table"), also known by various Jewish communities but not all as "the CODE OF JEWISH LAW," is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism. It was authored in Safed (today in Israel
Israel
) by Yosef Karo
Yosef Karo
in 1563 and published in Venice
Venice
two years later. Together with its commentaries, it is the most widely accepted compilation of Jewish law ever written. The halachic rulings in the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
generally follow Sephardic law and customs , whereas Ashkenazi Jews will generally follow the halachic rulings of Moses Isserles , whose glosses to the Shulchan Aruch note where the Sephardic and Ashkenazi customs differ
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Four Holy Cities
The FOUR HOLY CITIES (Hebrew : ארבע ערי הקודש‎‎, Yiddish
Yiddish
: פיר רוס שטעט‎) is the collective term in Jewish tradition applied to the cities of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Hebron
Hebron
, Safed
Safed
and, later, Tiberias
Tiberias
, the four main centers of Jewish life after the Ottoman conquest of Israel
Israel
. The "holy cities" concept dates to the 1640s, with