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Breech-loading Weapon
A breech-loading gun is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel. Modern mass production firearms are breech-loading (though mortars are generally muzzle-loaded), except those which are intended specifically by design to be muzzle-loaders, in order to be legal for certain types of hunting. Early firearms, on the other hand, were almost entirely muzzle-loading. The main advantage of breech-loading is a reduction in reloading time – it is much quicker to load the projectile and the charge into the breech of a gun or cannon than to try to force them down a long tube, especially when the bullet fit is tight and the tube has spiral ridges from rifling
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Patrick Ferguson
Patrick Ferguson (1744 – 7 October 1780) was a Scottish officer in the British Army, an early advocate of light infantry and the designer of the Ferguson rifle. He is best known for his service in the 1780 military campaign of Charles Cornwallis during the American Revolutionary War in the Carolinas, in which he aggressively recruited Loyalists and harshly treated Patriot sympathisers. Some[who?] dispute this characterization of Ferguson as showing pro-Patriot bias, however, and other accounts praise him for his humanity and unwillingness to follow orders he considered barbaric. Ultimately, his activities led to a Patriot militia uprising against him, and he was killed in the Battle of Kings Mountain, at the border between the colonies of North and South Carolina. Leading a group of Loyalists whom he had recruited, he was the only regular army officer participating on either side of the conflict
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Gallery Gun
A gallery gun, Flobert gun, saloon gun, or parlor gun is a type of firearm designed for indoor shooting.[1][2] These guns were first developed in 1845 when French inventor Louis Nicolas Flobert modified a percussion cap to hold a small lead bullet.Contents1 Flobert guns 2 Gallery guns 3 Parlour pistols 4 Saloon gun 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksFlobert guns[edit] In 1845, French inventor Louis Nicolas Flobert modified a percussion cap to hold a small lead bullet. Flobert modified the cap further by creating a rim at the edge so that the cap and bullet could fit in a chamber of a pistol. The round contained no powder and was designed to be a toy
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Philip V Of Spain
Philip V (Spanish: Felipe V, French: Philippe, Italian: Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain
King of Spain
from 1 November 1700 to 15 January 1724, when he abdicated in favour of his son Louis, and from 6 September 1724, when he reassumed the throne upon his son's death, to his own death 9 July 1746. Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France
France
as a grandson of King Louis XIV. His father, Louis, the Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain
Spain
when it became vacant in 1700. However, since neither the Grand Dauphin nor Philip's older brother, Louis, Duke of Burgundy, could be displaced from their place in the succession to the French throne, the Grand Dauphin's maternal uncle (Philip's granduncle) King Charles II of Spain
Spain
named Philip as his heir in his will
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Madrid
Madrid
Madrid
(/məˈdrɪd/, Spanish: [maˈðɾið], locally [maˈðɾi(θ)]) is the capital of Spain
Spain
and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid
Community of Madrid
and Spain
Spain
as a whole. The city has almost 3.166 million[4] inhabitants with a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million
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Miquelet
Miquelet lock is a modern term used by collectors and curators, largely in the English-speaking world, for a type of firing mechanism used in muskets and pistols. It is a distinctive form of snaplock, originally as a flint-against-steel ignition form, once prevalent in Spain, Portugal, Italy, the Balkans, North Africa, the Ottoman Empire and throughout Spain's colonies from the late 16th to the mid 19th centuries. The term miquelet lock was not recorded until the 19th century, long after the appearance of the mechanism in the 16th century, and is of uncertain origin
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Propellant
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object. Common propellants are energetic materials and consist of a fuel like gasoline, jet fuel, rocket fuel, and an oxidizer. Propellants are burned or otherwise decomposed to produce the propellant gas. Other propellants are simply liquids that can readily be vaporized. In rockets and aircraft, propellants are used to produce a gas that can be directed through a nozzle, thereby producing thrust. In rockets, rocket propellant produces an exhaust, and the exhausted material is usually expelled under pressure through a nozzle. The pressure may be from a compressed gas, or a gas produced by a chemical reaction. The exhaust material may be a gas, liquid, plasma, or, before the chemical reaction, a solid, liquid, or gel
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Rimfire Ammunition
Rimfire is a method of ignition for metallic firearm cartridges as well as the cartridges themselves. It is called rimfire because the firing pin of a gun strikes and crushes the base's rim to ignite the primer. The rim of the rimfire cartridge is essentially an extended and widened percussion cap which contains the priming compound, while the cartridge case itself contains the propellant powder and the projectile (bullet). Once the rim of the cartridge has been struck and the bullet discharged, the cartridge cannot be reloaded, because the head has been deformed by the firing pin impact. While many other different cartridge priming methods have been tried since the 19th century, only rimfire technology and centerfire technology survive today in significant use. Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Flobert invented the first rimfire metallic cartridge in 1845
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British Army
The British Army
Army
is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2017, the British Army comprises just over 80,000 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 26,500 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.[4] Since April 2013, Ministry of Defence publications have not reported the entire strength of the Regular Reserve; instead, only Regular Reserves serving under the fixed-term reserve contracts have been counted.[5] The modern British Army
Army
traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army
Army
that was created during the Restoration in 1660
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Battle Of Brandywine
 United States Canadian auxiliaries Great Britain Hesse-KasselCommanders and leaders George Washington Nathanael Greene John Sullivan Lord Stirling Adam Stephen Anthony Wayne Casimir Pulaski Moses Hazen Sir William Howe Charles Cornwallis Wilhelm KnyphausenStrength14,600[2] 15,500 and 47 guns[2]Casualties and lossesTotal: 1,300 300 killed 600 wounded 400 captured[3] Total: 587 93 killed 488 wounded 6 missing[3]Pennsylvania Historical MarkerDesignated March 18, 1952[4]v t ePhiladelphia campaign 1777–1778Bound Brook Short Hills Staten Island Cooch's Bridge Brandywine Clouds Paoli Germantown Red Bank Fort Mifflin Gloucester White Marsh Matson's Ford Valley Forge Conway Cabal Quinton's Bridge Clow Rebellion Crooked Billet Barren Hill Carlisle Peace Commission MonmouthThe Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the Amer
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Henry VIII Of England
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England
Church of England
and dissolved convents and monasteries. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic
Catholic
theological teachings.[2] Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England
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American Revolutionary War
Allied victory:Peace of Paris British recognition of American independence End of the First British Empire British retention of Canada
Canada
and GibraltarTerritorial changesGreat Britain cedes to the United States
United States
the area east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and south of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and St
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Brown Bess
"Brown Bess" is a nickname of uncertain origin for the British Army's muzzle-loading smoothbore Land Pattern Musket
Musket
and its derivatives. This musket was used in the era of the expansion of the British Empire and acquired symbolic importance at least as significant as its physical importance. It was in use for over a hundred years with many incremental changes in its design. These versions include the Long Land Pattern, the Short Land Pattern, the India Pattern, the New Land Pattern Musket
Musket
and the Sea Service Musket. The Long Land Pattern musket and its derivatives, all .75 caliber flintlock muskets, were the standard long guns of the British Empire's land forces from 1722 until 1838, when they were superseded by a percussion cap smoothbore musket. The British Ordnance System converted many flintlocks into the new percussion system known as the Pattern 1839 Musket
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Lefaucheux M1858
The Lefaucheux M1858
Lefaucheux M1858
was a French military revolver developed for the navy, chambered for the 12 mm pinfire cartridge, and based on a design by Casimir Lefaucheux
Casimir Lefaucheux
and his son, Eugene (also a gun designer). The 1854 model was the first metallic-cartridge revolver adopted by a national government; the 1858 was the first variant fielded[1] It was first issued in 1858 by the French Navy (as either the Lefaucheux de Marine mle 1858 or simply M1858), and though never issued by the French Army, it was used in limited numbers by the French Cavalry during their 1862 deployment to Mexico.[2] The 1858 was later upgraded in the late 1860s as the Lefaucheux de Marine 1870. It was accepted by the French Navy, but only 150 copies were delivered by 1872.[3] Models of the 1858 were also purchased by Spain, Sweden, Italy, Russia, and Norway. Most were produced either at the state arsenal in St
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François Prélat
François Prélat was a French gunsmith and inventor. He is thought to have invented the first fully contained cartridge in 1808, as well as the percussion cap in 1818. In association with the Swiss gunsmith Jean Samuel Pauly, François Prélat invented from 1808 to 1812 the first totally contained cartridge, incorporating in one package a fulminate primer, black powder and a round bullet. A percussion pin would provoke ignition.[1] This was a marked improvement over the invention of Jean Lepage, in which the fulminate was simply poured into a pan near the breech. The new cartridge was particularly considered useful for cavalry firearms, as the motion of the horse and the difficulty of movement rendered conventional loading extremely difficult
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Jean Samuel Pauly
Jean Samuel Pauly (1766 – c.1821), born Samuel Johannes Pauli, was a Swiss inventor and gunsmith of the early 19th century. Parish records show that he was baptised in Vechigen near Bern, Switzerland on 13 April 1766, the son of Johann Pauli and Veronika Christine (née Pulfer).[1][2] Career[edit] Switzerland Pauly started working as a carriage builder and mechanic in his father's workshop; he was constantly looking for technical improvements (such as a self-lubricating axle) and also to increase the comfort of passengers
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