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Breast Cancer
Breast
Breast
cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.[9] Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, a newly inverted nipple, or a red or scaly patch of skin.[1][2] In those with distant spread of the disease, there may be bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, shortness of breath, or yellow skin.[10] Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity, lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation,
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Symptom
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls",[1] from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease. A symptom is subjective,[2] observed by the patient,[3] and cannot be measured directly,[4] whereas a sign is objectively observable by others. For example, paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), whereas erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual). Symptoms and signs are often nonspecific, but often combinations of them are at least suggestive of certain diagnoses, helping to narrow down what may be wrong
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Five-year Survival Rate
The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.[1] Lead time bias
Lead time bias
from earlier diagnosis can affect interpretation of the five-year survival rate.[2] There are absolute and relative survival rates, but the latter are more useful and commonly used. Relative and absolute rates[edit] Five-year relative survival rates are more commonly cited in cancer statistics.[3] Five-year absolute survival rates may sometimes also be cited.[4]Five-year absolute survival rates describe the percentage of patients alive five years after the disease is diagnosed. Five-year relative survival rates describe the percentage of patients with a disease alive five years after the disease is diagnosed, divided by the percentage of the general population of corresponding sex and age alive after five years
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Developed World
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living.[1] Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. Developed countries have post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector. They are contrasted with developing countries, which are in the process of industrialization, or undeveloped countries, which are pre-industrial and almost entirely agrarian
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Cochrane Review
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.[4][5] Cochrane includes 53 review groups that are based at research institutions worldwide
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Biopsy
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease. The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be analyzed chemically. When an entire lump or suspicious area is removed, the procedure is called an excisional biopsy. An incisional biopsy or core biopsy samples a portion of the abnormal tissue without attempting to remove the entire lesion or tumor. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle in such a way that cells are removed without preserving the histological architecture of the tissue cells, the procedure is called a needle aspiration biopsy
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Pre-invasive Lesions
A precancerous condition or premalignant condition, sometimes called a potentially precancerous condition or potentially premalignant condition, is a term used to describe certain conditions or lesions involving abnormal cells which are associated with an increased risk of developing into cancer[1][2][3]. Clinically, precancerous conditions encompass a variety of conditions or lesions with an increased risk of developing into cancer. Some of the most common precancerous conditions include certain colon polyps, which can progress into colon cancer, monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, which can progress into multiple myeloma or myelodysplastic syndrome.[4] and cervical dysplasia, which can progress into cervical cancer[5]
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Lobules
In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension[1] of an organ (as seen for example in the brain, the lung, liver or the kidney) that can be determined without the use of a microscope at the gross anatomy level
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Heredity
Heredity
Heredity
is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents. Through heredity, variations between individuals can accumulate and cause species to evolve by natural selection. The study of heredity in biology is genetics.Contents1 Overview 2 Relation to theory of evolution 3 History3.1 Gregor Mendel: father of genetics 3.2 Modern development of genetics and heredity 3.3 Common genetic disorders4 Types4.1 Dominant and recessive alleles5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOverview[edit] Heredity
Heredity
of phenotypic traits: Father
Father
and son with prominent ears and crowns. DNA
DNA
structure
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Alcoholic Drink
An alcoholic drink, or alcoholic beverage, is a drink that contains alcohol (ethanol), a depressant which in low doses causes euphoria, reduced anxiety, and sociability and in higher doses causes drunkenness, stupor and unconsciousness. Long-term use can lead to alcohol abuse, physical dependence, and alcoholism. Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages.[1] Some countries ban such activities entirely, but alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2014.[2] Alcohol
Alcohol
is one of the most widely used recreational drugs in the world
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Jaundice
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.[2][5] It is commonly associated with itchiness.[1] The feces may be pale and the urine dark.[3] Jaundice
Jaundice
in babies occurs in over half in the first week following birth and in most is not a problem.[2][5] If bilirubin levels in babies are very high for too long, a type of brain damage, known as kernicterus, may occur.[6] Causes of jaundice vary from non-serious to potentially fatal.[7] Levels of bilirubin in blood are normally below 1.0 mg/dL (17 µmol/L) and levels over 2–3
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Lymph Node
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body. They are linked by the lymphatic vessels as a part of the circulatory system. Lymph
Lymph
nodes are major sites of B and T lymphocytes, and other white blood cells. Lymph
Lymph
nodes are important for the proper functioning of the immune system, acting as filters for foreign particles and cancer cells. Lymph
Lymph
nodes do not have a detoxification function, which is primarily dealt with by the liver and kidneys. In the lymphatic system the lymph node is a secondary lymphoid organ.[3] A lymph node is enclosed in a fibrous capsule and is made up of an outer cortex and an inner medulla.[3] Lymph
Lymph
nodes also have clinical significance
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Bone Pain
Bone
Bone
pain (also known medically by several other names) is pain coming from a bone. It occurs as a result of a wide range of diseases and/or physical conditions and may severely impair the quality of life for patients who suffer from it.[1] Bone
Bone
pain belongs to the class of deep somatic pain, often experienced as a dull pain that cannot be localized accurately by the patient. This is in contrast with the pain which is mediated by superficial receptors in, e.g., the skin. Bone pain can have several possible causes ranging from extensive physical stress to serious diseases such as cancer.[2][3] For many years it has been known that bones are innervated with sensory neurons
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Shortness Of Breath
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is a feeling like one cannot breathe well enough. The American Thoracic Society defines it as "a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity", and recommends evaluating dyspnea by assessing the intensity of the distinct sensations, the degree of distress involved, and its burden or impact on activities of daily living. Distinct sensations include effort/work, chest tightness, and air hunger (the feeling of not enough oxygen).[1] Dyspnea is a normal symptom of heavy exertion but becomes pathological if it occurs in unexpected situations[2] or light exertion
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Alcoholic Beverage
An alcoholic drink, or alcoholic beverage, is a drink that contains alcohol (ethanol), a depressant which in low doses causes euphoria, reduced anxiety, and sociability and in higher doses causes drunkenness, stupor and unconsciousness. Long-term use can lead to alcohol abuse, physical dependence, and alcoholism. Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages.[1] Some countries ban such activities entirely, but alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2014.[2] Alcohol
Alcohol
is one of the most widely used recreational drugs in the world
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