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Branch (computer Science)
A branch is an instruction in a computer program that can cause a computer to begin executing a different instruction sequence and thus deviate from its default behavior of executing instructions in order.[a] Branch (or branching, branched) may also refer to the act of switching execution to a different instruction sequence as a result of executing a branch instruction. A branch instruction can be either an unconditional branch, which always results in branching, or a conditional branch, which may or may not cause branching, depending on some condition. Branch instructions are used to implement control flow in program loops and conditionals (i.e., executing a particular sequence of instructions only if certain conditions are satisfied).Contents1 Implementation1.1 Examples2 Performance problems with branch instructions 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksImplementation[edit] Mechanically, a branch instruction can change the program counter (PC) of a CPU
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6502
The MOS Technology
MOS Technology
6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two")[3] is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by a small team led by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology. When it was introduced in 1975, the 6502 was, by a considerable margin, the least expensive microprocessor on the market. It initially sold for less than one-sixth the cost of competing designs from larger companies, such as Motorola
Motorola
and Intel, and caused rapid decreases in pricing across the entire processor market. Along with the Zilog Z80, it sparked a series of projects that resulted in the home computer revolution of the early 1980s. Popular home video game consoles and computers, such as the Atari 2600, Atari 8-bit family, Apple II, Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment System, Commodore 64, and others, used the 6502 or variations of the basic design
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Flag Register
A status register, flag register, or condition code register is a collection of status flag bits for a processor. An example is the FLAGS register of the x86 architecture or flags in a program status word (PSW) register. The status register is a hardware register that contains information about the state of the processor. Individual bits are implicitly or explicitly read and/or written by the machine code instructions executing on the processor. The status register lets an instruction take action contingent on the outcome of a previous instruction. Typically, flags in the status register are modified as effects of arithmetic and bit manipulation operations. For example, a Z bit may be set if the result of the operation is zero and cleared if it is nonzero. Other classes of instructions may also modify the flags to indicate status
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RISC
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk', /ɹɪsk/), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).[1] Various suggestions have been made regarding a precise definition of RISC, but the general concept is that such a computer has a small set of simple and general instructions, rather than a large set of complex and specialized instructions. Another common RISC trait is their load/store architecture,[2] in which memory is accessed through specific instructions rather than as a part of most instructions. Although a number of computers from the 1960s and '70s have been identified as forerunners of RISCs, the modern concept dates to the 1980s
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Bitwise Operation
In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits
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Donald Knuth
Donald Ervin Knuth (/kəˈnuːθ/[3] kə-NOOTH; born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the 1974 recipient of the ACM Turing Award, informally considered the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
of computer science.[4][5] He is the author of the multi-volume work The Art of Computer Programming. He contributed to the development of the rigorous analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms and systematized formal mathematical techniques for it. In the process he also popularized the asymptotic notation
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Instruction Pipeline
In the fourth clock cycle (the green column), the earliest instruction is in MEM stage, and the latest instruction has not yet entered the pipeline. Instruction pipelining
Instruction pipelining
is a technique for implementing instruction-level parallelism within a single processor. Pipelining attempts to keep every part of the processor busy with some instruction by dividing incoming instructions into a series of sequential steps (the eponymous "pipeline") performed by different processor units with different parts of instructions processed in parallel
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Computer Program
A computer program is a structured collection of instruction sequences[1][2] that perform a specific task when executed by a computer. A computer requires programs to function. A computer program is usually written by a computer programmer in a programming language. From the program in its human-readable form of source code, a compiler can derive machine code—a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute. Alternatively, a computer program may be executed with the aid of an interpreter. The evolution of a process is directed by a pattern of rules called a program. People create programs to direct processes. A formal model of some part of a computer program that performs a general and well-defined task is called an algorithm. A collection of computer programs, libraries, and related data are referred to as software
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Mnemonic
A mnemonic (/nəˈmɒnɪk/,[1] the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory. Mnemonics make use of elaborative encoding, retrieval cues, and imagery as specific tools to encode any given information in a way that allows for efficient storage and retrieval. Mnemonics aid original information in becoming associated with something more accessible or meaningful—which, in turn, provides better retention of the information. Commonly encountered mnemonics are often used for lists and in auditory form, such as short poems, acronyms, or memorable phrases, but mnemonics can also be used for other types of information and in visual or kinesthetic forms
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Out-of-order Execution
In computer engineering, out-of-order execution (or more formally dynamic execution) is a paradigm used in most high-performance central processing units to make use of instruction cycles that would otherwise be wasted
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Execution Unit
In computer engineering, an execution unit (also called a functional unit) is a part of the central processing unit (CPU) that performs the operations and calculations as instructed by the computer program. It may have its own internal control sequence unit, which is not to be confused with the CPU's main control unit, some registers, and other internal units such as an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), address generation unit (AGU), floating-point unit (FPU), load-store unit (LSU), branch execution unit (BEU)[1] or some smaller and more specific components.[2] It is common for modern CPUs to have multiple parallel execution units, which is referred to as superscalar design. The simplest arrangement is to use one, the bus manager, to manage the memory interface, and the others to perform calculations
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Computer Architecture
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems
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Spaghetti Code
Spaghetti code is a pejorative phrase for unstructured and difficult to maintain source code, broadly construed
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Memory (computing)
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage". Computer
Computer
memory operates at a high speed, for example random-access memory (RAM), as a distinction from storage that provides slow-to-access information but offers higher capacities. If needed, contents of the computer memory can be transferred to secondary storage, through a memory management technique called "virtual memory". An archaic synonym for memory is store.[1] The term "memory", meaning "primary storage" or "main memory", is often associated with addressable semiconductor memory, i.e. integrated circuits consisting of silicon-based transistors, used for example as primary storage but also other purposes in computers and other digital electronic devices. There are two main kinds of semiconductor memory, volatile and non-volatile
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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The Art Of Computer Programming
The Art of Computer Programming
The Art of Computer Programming
(sometimes known by its initials TAOCP) is a comprehensive monograph written by Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth
that covers many kinds of programming algorithms and their analysis. Knuth began the project, originally conceived as a single book with twelve chapters, in 1962. The first three volumes of what was then expected to be a seven-volume set were published in 1968, 1969, and 1973. The first published installment of Volume 4 appeared in paperback as Fascicle 2 in 2005. The hardback Volume 4A, combining Volume 4, Fascicles 0–4, was published in 2011. Volume 4, Fascicle 6 ("Satisfiability") was released in December 2015, to be followed by Volume 4, Fascicle 5 ("Mathematical Preliminaries Redux; Backtracking; Dancing Links") in June 2018
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