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Brahman
In Hinduism , BRAHMAN (/brəhmən/ ; ब्रह्मन्) connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe . In major schools of Hindu philosophy , it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists. It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind the diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen , as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas , and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads . The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as _Sat-cit-ānanda _ (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality
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Brahma
BRAHMA (/ˈbrəhmɑː/ ; Sanskrit : ब्रह्म, IAST : Brahmā) is the god of creation and he is attributed to the creation of the brahmãnd (entire universe). He is also a part of Trimurti in Hinduism along with Vishnu and Shiva . Brahma is also known as _ Svayambhu _ (self-born), _Vāgīśa_ (Lord of Speech), and is the creator of the four Vedas , one from each of his mouths. Brahma is identified with the Vedic god Prajapati , as well as linked to Kama and Hiranyagarbha (the cosmic egg) . He is more prominently mentioned in the post-Vedic Hindu epics and the mythologies in the Puranas . In the epics, he is conflated with Purusha . Although, Brahma is part of the "Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva" trimurti, ancient Hindu scriptures mention multiple trinities of gods or goddesses which do not include Brahma. Several puranas describe him emerging from a lotus, connected to the navel of Lord Vishnu. Other Puranas suggest that he is born from Shiva or his aspects, or he is a supreme god in diverse versions of Hindu mythology. Brahma, along with all deities, is sometimes viewed as a form (sarguna ) of the otherwise formless (nirguna ) Brahman , the ultimate metaphysical reality and cosmic soul in Advaita philosophy
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Brahmana
DIVISIONS * Samhita
Samhita
* Brahmana * Aranyaka * Upanishads Upanishads RIG VEDIC * Aitareya * Kaushitaki SAMA VEDIC * Chandogya * Kena YAJUR VEDIC * Brihadaranyaka * Isha * Taittiriya * Katha * Shvetashvatara * Maitri ATHARVA VEDIC * Mundaka * Mandukya * Prashna Other scriptures * Bhagavad Gita * Agamas RELATED HINDU TEXTS Vedangas * Shiksha
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Brahmanism
BRAHMANISM is the religion that developed out of the historical Vedic religion in ancient India, and was followed between very roughly 1000 BCE and 500 BCE. The term is different from Brahminism , the latter is sometimes used to identify a ritualistic system led by the Brahmin priests in the Hindu
Hindu
society. The term Brahmanism is derived from the central metaphysical and pantheistic concept of Brahman that developed during the Vedic era, which was posited as that which existed before the creation of the universe, which constitutes all of existence thereafter, and into which the universe will dissolve into, followed by similar endless creation-maintenance-destruction cycles. The term Brahmanism is considered synonymous with Hinduism , by some scholars. Others consider the transition from ancient Brahmanism into schools of Hinduism that emerged later as a form of evolution, which happened imperceptibly, and one that preserved many of the central ideas and theosophy in the Vedas, and synergistically integrated new ideas. Of the major traditions that emerged from Brahmanism are the six darshanas , particular the Vedanta , Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
schools of Hinduism
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Brahmin
BRAHMIN (/ˈbrɑːmənə/ ; ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya ) (yogi )and protectors of sacred learning across generations. Brahmins were traditionally responsible for religious rituals in temples, as intermediaries between temple deities and devotees, as well as rite of passage rituals such as solemnising a wedding with hymns and prayers. Theoretically, the Brahmins were the highest ranking of the four social classes. In practice, Indian texts suggest that Brahmins were agriculturalists, warriors, traders and have held a variety of other occupations in India
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Brahman (other)
BRAHMAN is a term in Hinduism for the metaphysical ultimate reality, the highest unchanging Universal Principle in the universe. BRAHMAN may also refer to: * Brahman languages , a hypothetical Trans–New Guinea family of languages spoken in Madang Province in Papua New Guinea * Brahman (band) , a Japanese indie rock band * Brahman (cattle) is a breed of cattle descended from the Bos indicusSEE ALSO * Brahmin
Brahmin
, a priestly varna/caste * Brahmana , an important layer of Hindu canonical text that is part of each of the Vedas * Bramman , a 2014 Indian film directed by Socrates * Brahm (other) * Brahma (other) * Brahmin
Brahmin
(other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title BRAHMAN. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Brahman_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Hinduism
HINDUISM is a religion, or a way of life, widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent . Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as _Sanātana Dharma _, "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This " Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE). Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology , shared textual resources , and pilgrimage to sacred sites . Hindu texts are classified into Shruti ("heard") and Smriti ("remembered"). These texts discuss theology , philosophy , mythology , Vedic yajna , Yoga , agamic rituals , and temple building , among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads , the Bhagavad Gita , and the Agamas . Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is also a strong Hindu tradition of the questioning of this authority, to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition
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Hindu
HINDU ( pronunciation (help ·info )) refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism . It has historically been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people indigenous to South Asia . The historical meaning of the term _Hindu_ has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu ( Indus ) river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims. The historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu- Muslim wars. A sense of Hindu identity and the term _Hindu_ appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages
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History Of Hinduism
HISTORY OF HINDUISM denotes a wide variety of related Hindu denominations native to the Indian Subcontinent , most of whom live in modern-day India , Nepal , Pakistan , Bangladesh and Afghanistan . Adherents are also found in the Indonesian island of Bali . Its history overlaps or coincides with the development of Indian religions since Iron Age India . It has thus been called the "oldest living religion" in the world. Scholars regard Hinduism as a synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no single founder or source. The history of Hinduism is often divided into periods of development, with the first period being that of the historical Vedic religion dated from about 1900 BCE to 1400 BCE. The subsequent period, between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, is "a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions", and a formative period for Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Epic and Early Puranic period, from c. 200 BCE to 500 CE, saw the classical "Golden Age" of Hinduism (c. 320-650 CE), which coincides with the Gupta Empire . In this period the six branches of Hindu philosophy evolved, namely Samkhya , Yoga , Nyaya , Vaisheshika , Mīmāṃsā , and Vedanta
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Hindu Philosophy
VEDANTA * _Advaita _ * _ Vishishtadvaita _ * _ Dvaita Vedanta _ * _ Bhedabheda _ * _ Dvaitadvaita _ * _ Achintya Bheda Abheda _ * _ Shuddhadvaita _ HETERODOX * CHARVAKA * ĀJīVIKA * BUDDHISM * JAINISM OTHER SCHOOLS * Vaishnava * Smarta * Shakta * Shaiva : Pratyabhijña * Pashupata * Siddhanta *
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Ishvara
ISHVARA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: ईश्वर, _Īśvara_) is a concept in Hinduism , with a wide range of meanings that depend on the era and the school of Hinduism. In ancient texts of Indian philosophy, depending on the context, _Ishvara_ can mean supreme soul, ruler, lord, king, queen or husband. In medieval era Hindu
Hindu
texts, depending on the school of Hinduism, _Ishvara_ means God, Supreme Being, personal god, or special Self . In Shaivism
Shaivism
, _Ishvara_ is synonymous with " Shiva
Shiva
", sometimes as _Maheshvara_ or _Parameshvara_ meaning the "Supreme lord", or as an Ishta-deva (personal god). In Vaishnavism , it is synonymous with Vishnu
Vishnu
. In traditional Bhakti
Bhakti
movements, Ishvara
Ishvara
is one or more deities of an individual's preference from Hinduism's polytheistic canon of deities. In modern sectarian movements such as Arya Samaj and Brahmoism , Ishvara
Ishvara
takes the form of a monotheistic God. In Yoga school of Hinduism, it is any "personal deity" or "spiritual inspiration". In Advaita Vedanta school, Ishvara
Ishvara
is a monistic Universal Absolute that connects and is the Oneness in everyone and everything
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God In Hinduism
HINDUISM is a religion, or a way of life, widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent . Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as _Sanātana Dharma _, "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This " Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE). Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology , shared textual resources , and pilgrimage to sacred sites . Hindu texts are classified into Shruti ("heard") and Smriti ("remembered"). These texts discuss theology , philosophy , mythology , Vedic yajna , Yoga , agamic rituals , and temple building , among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads , the Bhagavad Gita , and the Agamas . Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is also a strong Hindu tradition of the questioning of this authority, to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition
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God And Gender In Hinduism
In Hinduism , there are diverse approaches to conceptualizing GOD AND GENDER . Many Hindus focus upon impersonal Absolute ( Brahman ) which is genderless. Other Hindu traditions conceive God as androgynous (both female and male), alternatively as either male or female, while cherishing gender henotheism , that is without denying the existence of other Gods in either gender. The Shakti tradition conceives of God as a female. Other Bhakti traditions of Hinduism have both male and female gods. In ancient and medieval Indian mythology, each masculine deva of the Hindu pantheon is partnered with a feminine devi
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Ātman (Hinduism)
ĀTMAN (/ˈɑːtmən/ ) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word that means inner self or soul . In Hindu
Hindu
philosophy , especially in the Vedanta school of Hinduism , Ātman is the first principle , the true self of an individual beyond identification with phenomena, the essence of an individual. In order to attain liberation (moksha) , a human being must acquire self-knowledge (atma jnana ), which is to realize that one's true self (Ātman) is identical with the transcendent self Brahman . The six orthodox schools of Hinduism believe that there is Ātman (soul, self) in every being, a major point of difference with Buddhism , which does not believe that there is either soul or self
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Maya (illusion)
_MAYA_ (IAST: _māyā_), literally "illusion" or "magic", has multiple meanings in Indian philosophies depending on the context. In ancient Vedic literature, Māyā literally implies extraordinary power and wisdom. In later Vedic texts and modern literature dedicated to Indian traditions, Māyā connotes a "magic show, an illusion where things appear to be present but are not what they seem". Māyā is also a spiritual concept connoting "that which exists, but is constantly changing and thus is spiritually unreal", and the "power or the principle that conceals the true character of spiritual reality". In Buddhism, Maya is the name of Gautama Buddha's mother. In Hinduism , Maya is also an epithet for goddess, and the name of a manifestation of Lakshmi
Lakshmi
, the goddess of "wealth, prosperity and love". Maya is also a name for girls
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Karma
KARMA (Sanskrit : कर्म, translit. _karma_; IPA: ( listen ); Pali : kamma;) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect). Good intent and good deed contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deed contribute to bad karma and future suffering. Karma
Karma
is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Asian religions. In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality of future lives - one's saṃsāra . With origins in ancient India, karma is a key concept in Hinduism , Buddhism
Buddhism
, Jainism
Jainism
, Sikhism , and Taoism
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