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Boxing The Compass
The POINTS OF THE COMPASS, specifically on the compass rose , mark divisions of a compass ; such divisions may be referred to as "winds" or "directions". A compass point allows reference to a specific heading (or course or azimuth ) in a general or colloquial fashion, without having to compute or remember degrees. A compass is primarily divided into the four cardinal points —north , south , east , and west . These are often further subdivided by the addition of the four intercardinal (or ordinal) directions—northeast (NE) between north and east, southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW)—to indicate the eight principal winds. In meteorological usage, further intermediate points between cardinal and ordinal points, such as north-northeast (NNE) between north and northeast, are added to give the sixteen points of a wind compass . At the most complete division in European tradition, are the full thirty-two points of the mariner\'s compass , which adds points such as north by east (NbE) between north and north-northeast, and northeast by north (NEbN) between north-northeast and northeast. Although the European nautical tradition retained the term "one point" to describe  1⁄32 of a circle (in such phrases as "two points to starboard"), by the middle of the eighteenth century, the 32-point system was further extended with half- and quarter-points to allow 128 directions to be differentiated
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Compass Point (other)
COMPASS POINT may refer to: * Cardinal direction , north, south, east or west * Compass point , a direction on a traditional compass * Compass Point (David Allan Coe album) * Compass Point Shopping Centre , a shopping mall in Singapore * Compass Point Studios , a studio in Nassau, Bahamas This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title COMPASS POINT. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Compass_Point additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Southeastern (train Operating Company)
LONDON the Chatham Main Line between London Victoria and Dover/ Ramsgate via the Medway towns ; and High Speed 1 from London St. Pancras . On 1 April 2006 it became the franchisee for the new Integrated Kent franchise (IKF), replacing the publicly owned South Eastern Trains on the former South Eastern franchise . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History of the franchise * 2.1 Javelin shuttle * 3 Southeastern sub-brands * 3.1 Highspeed * 3.2 Mainline * 3.3 Metro * 4 Routes * 5 Ticketing * 6 Performance * 6.1 Future of the franchise * 7 Rolling stock * 7.1 Current fleet * 7.2 Past fleet * 7.3 Future fleet * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links OVERVIEWSoutheastern serves the main London stations of Charing Cross , Victoria , Blackfriars , Cannon Street , London Bridge , Waterloo East and St Pancras . The Southeastern network has a route mileage of 540, with 179 stations. About 70% of its services run to and from London. It is owned by Govia , a joint venture between Go-Ahead Group and Keolis , which also operates the neighbouring Southern franchise, which overlaps with Southeastern in some areas. The company's formal name, under which it mounted its bid for the franchise, is LONDON AND SOUTH EASTERN RAILWAY (LSER). The managing director is David Statham, formerly MD of First Capital Connect
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Hastings West-Northwest Journal Of Environmental Law And Policy
The _HASTINGS WEST-NORTHWEST JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND POLICY_ (_ Bluebook _ abbreviation: _Hastings W.-N.W. J. Envtl. L. -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;"> * ^ _A_ _B_ _Journal Information_, 21 Hastings W.-Nw. J. Envt'l L. ">Hastings W.-Nw. J. Envt'l L. ">Philippine Laws and Jurisprudence Databank, Online Legal Publications: Hastings West-Northwest Journal of Environmental Law and Policy; see also _Introduction_, 3 Hastings W.-Nw. J. Envt'l L. & Pol'y xi (1995-1996). * ^ Brian King ">Hastings W.-Nw. J. Envt'l L. ">Hastings W.-Nw. J. Envt'l L. "> California Water Law Symposium, Past Symposia. * ^ "Law Journals: Submission and Ranking, 2008-2015," Washington _Boston Gas Co. v. Century Indem. Co._, 454 Mass. 337 (2009); _EnergyNorth Natural Gas, Inc. v. Certain Underwriters at Lloyd's_, 156 N.H. 333 (2007); _High Plains A _Fletcher Hill, Inc. v. Crosbie_, 178 Vt. 77 (2005); _Spaulding Composites Co., Inc. v. Aetna Cas. and Sur. Co._, 176 N.J. 25 (2003). * ^ See, e.g., American Jurisprudence, Chapter 212, Public Lands, 15A Am. Jur. Legal Forms 2d Ch. 212. * ^ Kurtis A. Kemper, _Delisting of Species Protected Under Endangered Species Act_, 54 A.L.R. Fed
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Compass Rose
A COMPASS ROSE, sometimes called a WINDROSE, or ROSE OF THE WINDS, is a figure on a compass , map , nautical chart , or monument used to display the orientation of the cardinal directions : North, East, South, and West—and their intermediate points. It is also the term for the graduated markings found on the traditional magnetic compass . Today, the idea of a compass rose is found on, or featured in, almost all navigation systems, including nautical charts , non-directional beacons (NDB), VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) systems, global-positioning systems ( GPS ), and similar equipment. Compass rose with the eight principal winds The modern compass rose has eight principal winds
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Compass
A COMPASS is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points). Usually, a diagram called a compass rose shows the directions north , south , east , and west on the compass face as abbreviated initials. When the compass is used, the rose can be aligned with the corresponding geographic directions; for example, the "N" mark on the rose really points northward. Compasses often display markings for angles in degrees in addition to (or sometimes instead of) the rose. North
North
corresponds to 0°, and the angles increase clockwise , so east is 90° degrees, south is 180°, and west is 270°. These numbers allow the compass to show azimuths or bearings , which are commonly stated in this notation. Among the Four Great Inventions , the magnetic compass was first invented as a device for divination as early as the Chinese Han Dynasty (since c. 206 BC), and later adopted for navigation by the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
Chinese during the 11th century. The first usage of a compass recorded in Western Europe
Western Europe
and the Islamic world occurred around the early 13th century
13th century

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Course (navigation)
In navigation , a vessel 's or aircraft 's COURSE is the cardinal direction along which the vessel or aircraft is to be steered. It is to be distinguished from the vessel or aircraft's HEADING, which is the compass direction in which the craft's bow or nose is pointed. CONTENTS * 1 Course, track, route and heading * 2 Relationship between true and magnetic direction * 3 Aircraft
Aircraft
heading * 4 Relationship between course and heading * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References COURSE, TRACK, ROUTE AND HEADINGThe line connecting the object's consecutive positions on the ground is referred to as the GROUND TRACK . The track the object was intended to follow is called the ROUTE. For ships and aircraft, the route is represented by the great circle line that connects the previous waypoint with the next waypoint. The responsibility of a navigator is to make the track coincide as much as possible with the route. The direction of the route is called the ROUTE COURSE. "Course" exceptionally, and arguably erroneously, may also refer to the route, such as in a course deviation indicator , in which case it no longer constitutes an angle but rather a line. The direction of the great circle line that runs from the current position to the next waypoint is called the COURSE TO STEER, or the BEARING to that waypoint. The TRACKING ANGLE is the angle between the course to steer and the course
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Colloquialism
EVERYDAY LANGUAGE, EVERYDAY SPEECH, COMMON PARLANCE, INFORMAL LANGUAGE, COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE, GENERAL PARLANCE, CASUALISM, or VERNACULAR (but this has other meanings too) is the most used variety of a language , which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations. Interestingly, there is no well established term for this in everyday speech and writing in English, and many different terms are used, even more than those listed here. An individual example of such language is called a COLLOQUIALISM or casualism. The most common term used by dictionaries to label such an expression is COLLOQUIAL. Many people however misunderstand this label and confuse it with the word local because it sounds somewhat similar and because informal expressions are often only used in certain regions. (But a regionalism is not the same thing as a colloquialism, and a regionalism can be local formal speech). Much of the misunderstanding is ironically caused by the dictionary label itself being formal and not part of everyday speech. As a result, there is widespread confusion between colloquialisms and regionalisms and idioms even among dictionary users and perhaps especially among them. In addition to the problematic colloquial, Wiktionary also uses the universally understood label informal but doesn't define any difference between them
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Cardinal Point
The four CARDINAL DIRECTIONS or CARDINAL POINTS are the directions north , east , south , and west , commonly denoted by their initials, N, E, S, W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east. Points between the cardinal directions form the points of the compass . The INTERMEDIATE (_INTERCARDINAL_ or _ORDINAL_) DIRECTIONS are northeast (NE), southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW). The intermediate direction of every set of intercardinal and cardinal direction is called a secondary-intercardinal direction, the eight shortest points in the compass rose that is shown to the right—i.e., NNE, ENE, ESE, etc. CONTENTS* 1 Locating the directions * 1.1 Direction versus bearing * 1.2 Magnetic compass * 1.3 The Sun * 1.4 Watch face * 1.5 Sundial * 1.6 Astronomy * 1.7 Gyrocompass * 1.8 Satellite navigation * 2 Additional points * 3 Usefulness of cardinal points * 4 Beyond geography * 5 Germanic origin of names * 6 Cultural variations * 6.1 Northern Eurasia * 6.2 Arabic world * 6.3 Native Americans * 6.4 Indigenous Australia * 7 Unique (non-compound) names of intercardinal directions * 8 Non-compass directional systems * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References LOCATING THE DIRECTIONS _ THIS SECTION HAS MULTIPLE ISSUES
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North
NORTH is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. It is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions . It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to east and west . North
North
is a noun , adjective , or adverb indicating direction or geography . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Mapping * 3 Magnetic north and declination * 4 Roles of north as prime direction * 5 Roles of east and west as inherently subsidiary directions * 6 Cultural references * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ETYMOLOGY This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )The word north is related to the Old High German nord, both descending from the Proto-Indo-European unit ner-, meaning "down" (or "under"). (Presumably a natural primitive description of its concept is "to the left of the rising sun".) The Latin word borealis comes from the Greek boreas "north wind, north", which, according to Ovid
Ovid
, was personified as the son of the river-god Strymon , the father of Calais and Zetes
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South
SOUTH is one of the four cardinal directions or compass points . South
South
is the polar opposite of north and is perpendicular to east and west . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Navigation
Navigation
* 3 South Pole
South Pole
* 4 Geography * 5 Other uses * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word _south_ comes from Old English
Old English
_sūþ_, from earlier Proto-Germanic _*sunþaz_ ("south"), possibly related to the same Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
root that the word _sun_ derived from. NAVIGATIONBy convention , the bottom side of a map is south, although reversed maps exist that defy this convention. To go south using a compass for navigation , set a bearing or azimuth of 180°. Alternatively, in the Northern Hemisphere outside the tropics , the Sun
Sun
will be roughly in the south at midday . SOUTH POLETrue south is the direction towards the southern end of the axis about which the earth rotates, called the South Pole
South Pole
. The South
South
Pole is located in Antarctica
Antarctica
. Magnetic south is the direction towards the south magnetic pole , some distance away from the south geographic pole
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East
EAST is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass . It is the opposite direction from west . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Navigation
Navigation
* 3 Cultural * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word _east_ comes from Middle English _est_, from Old English _ēast_, which itself comes from the Proto-Germanic *_aus-to-_ or *_austra-_ "east, toward the sunrise", from Proto-Indo-European *aus- "to shine," or "dawn". This is similar to Old High German _*ōstar_ "to the east", Latin
Latin
_aurora_ "dawn", and Greek _ēōs_ or _heōs_. _ Ēostre
Ēostre
_, a Germanic goddess of dawn, might have been a personification of both dawn and the cardinal points. NAVIGATIONBy convention , the right hand side of a map is east. This convention has developed from the use of a compass, which places north at the top. To go east using a compass for navigation , one sets a bearing or azimuth of 90°. CULTURAL East
East
is the direction toward which the Earth
Earth
rotates about its axis , and therefore the general direction from which the Sun
Sun
appears to rise. The practice of praying towards the East
East
is older than Christianity, but has been adopted by this religion as the Orient was thought of as containing mankind's original home
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West
WEST is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass . It is the opposite direction from east . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Navigation
Navigation
* 3 Cultural * 4 Symbolic meanings * 5 References * 6 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word "West" is a Germanic word passed into some Romance languages (_ouest_ in French, _oest_ in Catalan, _ovest_ in Italian, _oeste_ in Spanish and Portuguese). As is apparent in the Gothic term _vasi_ ( Visigoths ), it stems from the same Indo-European root that gave the Sanskrit _vas-ati_ (night) and _vesper_ (evening) in Latin. NAVIGATIONTo go west using a compass for navigation , one needs to set a bearing or azimuth of 270°. West
West
is the direction opposite that of the Earth
Earth
's rotation on its axis, and is therefore the general direction towards which the Sun appears to constantly progress and eventually set. Moving continuously west is following a circle of latitude . CULTURALThe phrase "the West" is often spoken in reference to the Western world , which includes the European Union
European Union
(also the EFTA countries), the Americas, Israel, Australia, New Zealand and (in part) South Africa. The concept of the Western part of the earth has its roots in the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
and the Western Christianity
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Mariner's Compass
A COMPASS is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points). Usually, a diagram called a compass rose shows the directions north , south , east , and west on the compass face as abbreviated initials. When the compass is used, the rose can be aligned with the corresponding geographic directions; for example, the "N" mark on the rose really points northward. Compasses often display markings for angles in degrees in addition to (or sometimes instead of) the rose. North corresponds to 0°, and the angles increase clockwise , so east is 90° degrees, south is 180°, and west is 270°. These numbers allow the compass to show azimuths or bearings , which are commonly stated in this notation. Among the Four Great Inventions , the magnetic compass was first invented as a device for divination as early as the Chinese Han Dynasty (since c. 206 BC), and later adopted for navigation by the Song Dynasty Chinese during the 11th century. The first usage of a compass recorded in Western Europe and the Islamic world occurred around the early 13th century
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