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Bore (engine)
The bore or cylinder bore is a part of a piston engine. The bore also represents the size, in terms of diameter, of the cylinder in which a piston travels. The value of a cylinders bore, and stroke, is used to establish the displacement of an engine.[1] The term "bore" can also be applied to the bore of a locomotive cylinder or steam engine pistons. References[edit]^ Schwaller, Anthony (1999). Motor Automotive Technology
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Reciprocating Engine
A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is typically a heat engine (although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion. This article describes the common features of all types. The main types are: the internal combustion engine, used extensively in motor vehicles; the steam engine, the mainstay of the Industrial Revolution; and the niche application Stirling engine
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Steam Engine
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam
Steam
engines are external combustion engines,[2] where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In the cycle, water is heated and changes into steam in a boiler operating at a high pressure. When expanded using pistons or turbines mechanical work is done. The reduced-pressure steam is then exhausted to the atmosphere, or condensed and pumped back into the boiler. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either complete steam plants (including boilers etc.) such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine
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Rotary Engine
The rotary engine was an early type of internal combustion engine, usually designed with an odd number of cylinders per row in a radial configuration, in which the crankshaft remained stationary in operation, with the entire crankcase and its attached cylinders rotating around it as a unit. Its main application was in aviation, although it also saw use before its primary aviation role, in a few early motorcycles and automobiles. This type of engine was widely used as an alternative to conventional inline engines (straight or V) during World War I
World War I
and the years immediately preceding that conflict
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Diameter
In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle. It can also be defined as the longest chord of the circle. Both definitions are also valid for the diameter of a sphere. In more modern usage, the length of a diameter is also called the diameter. In this sense one speaks of the diameter rather than a diameter (which refers to the line itself), because all diameters of a circle or sphere have the same length, this being twice the radius r. d = 2 r ⇒ r = d 2 . displaystyle d=2rquad Rightarrow quad r= frac d 2 . For a convex shape in the plane, the diameter is defined to be the largest distance that can be formed between two opposite parallel lines tangent to its boundary, and the width is often defined to be the smallest such distance
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Aircraft Engine
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power
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Electric Generator
In electricity generation, a generator[1] is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit. Sources of mechanical energy include steam turbines, gas turbines, water turbines, internal combustion engines and even hand cranks. The first electromagnetic generator, the Faraday disk, was built in 1831 by British scientist Michael Faraday. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities
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Tappet
A tappet is a projection that imparts a linear motion to some other component within a mechanism.Contents1 Beam engines 2 Internal combustion engines2.1 Adjustment 2.2 Hydraulic tappets 2.3 Sidevalve engines 2.4 Overhead cam
Overhead cam
engines 2.5 Overhead rockers3 Other uses 4 Notes 5 ReferencesBeam engines[edit]Adjustable tappet block on the vertical plug rod of a beam engine at Leawood Pump House. It acts on the curved horn beneath itThe term is first recorded as part of the valve gear of Thomas Newcomen's atmospheric beam engine, a precursor to the steam engine. The first Newcomen engines had manually worked valves, but within a few years, by 1715, this repetitive task had been automated. The beam of the engine had a vertical 'plug rod' hung from it, alongside the cylinder
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Alternator (automotive)
Alternators are used in modern automobiles to charge the battery and to power the electrical system when its engine is running. Until the 1960s, automobiles used DC dynamo generators with commutators. With the availability of affordable silicon diode rectifiers, alternators were used instead
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Capacitor Discharge Ignition
Capacitor
Capacitor
discharge ignition (CDI) or thyristor ignition is a type of automotive electronic ignition system which is widely used in outboard motors, motorcycles, lawn mowers, chainsaws, small engines, turbine-powered aircraft, and some cars. It was originally developed to overcome the long charging times associated with high inductance coils used in inductive discharge ignition (IDI) systems, making the ignition system more suitable for high engine speeds (for small engines, racing engines and rotary engines)
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Dual Ignition
Dual Ignition is a system for spark-ignition engines, whereby critical ignition components, such as spark plugs and magnetos, are duplicated. Dual ignition
Dual ignition
is most commonly employed on aero engines,[1][2] and is sometimes found on cars and motorcycles. Dual ignition
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Air-cooled Engine
Air-cooled engines rely on the circulation of air directly over hot parts of the engine to cool them.A cylinder from an air-cooled aviation engine, a Continental C85. Notice the rows of fins on both the steel cylinder barrel and the aluminum cylinder head. The fins provide additional surface area for air to pass over the cylinder and absorb heat.Contents1 Introduction 2 Applications2.1 Road vehicles 2.2 Aviation 2.3 Diesel engines 2.4 Stationary or portable engines3 References 4 Bibliography4.1 Cited sources 4.2 Further readingIntroduction[edit] Most modern internal combustion engines are cooled by a closed circuit carrying liquid coolant through channels in the engine block and cylinder head, where the coolant absorbs heat, to a heat exchanger or radiator where the coolant releases heat into the air (or raw water, in the case of marine engines)
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Main Bearing
In a piston engine, the main bearings are the bearings on which the crankshaft rotates, usually plain or journal bearings. The bearings hold the crankshaft in place and prevent the forces created by the piston and transmitted to the crankshaft by the connecting rods from dislodging the crankshaft, instead forcing the crank to convert the reciprocating movement into rotation. While some small single-cylinder engines have only one main bearing, designed to deal with the bending moment exerted by the crank as a result of the force from the connecting rod, most engines have at least two main bearings, one at each end of the crank shaft and may have as many as one more than the number of crank pins. Increasing the number of bearings in an engine will generally increase the size and cost of the engine, but also provides stability to the crankshaft, which would otherwise have to endure greater bending moments from having the crank pin further from a bearing
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Aircraft Engine Starting
Many variations of aircraft engine starting have been used since the Wright brothers
Wright brothers
made their first powered flight in 1903. The methods used have been designed for weight saving, simplicity of operation and reliability. Early piston engines were started by hand, with geared hand starting, electrical and cartridge-operated systems for larger engines being developed between the wars. Gas turbine
Gas turbine
aircraft engines such as turbojets, turboshafts and turbofans often use air/pneumatic starting, with the use of bleed air from built-in auxiliary power units (APUs) or external air compressors now seen as a common starting method. Often only one engine needs be started using the APU (or remote compressor)
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Four-stroke Engine
A four-stroke (also four-cycle) engine is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction. The four separate strokes are termed:Intake: also known as induction or suction. This stroke of the piston begins at top dead center (T.D.C.) and ends at bottom dead center (B.D.C.). In this stroke the intake valve must be in the open position while the piston pulls an air-fuel mixture into the cylinder by producing vacuum pressure into the cylinder through its downward motion. The piston is moving down as air is being sucked in by the downward motion against the piston Compression: This stroke begins at B.D.C, or just at the end of the suction stroke, and ends at T.D.C. In this stroke the piston compresses the air-fuel mixture in preparation for ignition during the power stroke (below)
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Horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower
(hp) is a unit of measurement of power (the rate at which work is done). There are many different standards and types of horsepower. Two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower (or imperial horsepower), which is 745.7 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt
Watt
to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses. It was later expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery.[1][2] The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power
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