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Borama Alphabet
The Borama alphabet
Borama alphabet
(Borama: ) or more generally known as the Gadabuursi
Gadabuursi
script,[1] is a writing script for the Somali language. It was devised around 1933 by Sheikh Abdurahman Sh. Nur of the Gadabuursi clan.[2]Contents1 History 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit]A qasida in the Borama script.Though not as widely known as Osmanya, the other major orthography for transcribing Somali, Borama has produced a notable body of literature mainly consisting of qasidas.[3] A quite accurate phonetic writing system,[2] the Borama script was principally used by Nuur and his circle of associates in his native city of Borama.[1][2] See also[edit]Kaddare Osmanya Somali orthographyNotes[edit]^ a b Somali alphabets, pronunciation and language ^ a b c David D. Laitin (1 May 1977). Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali Experience. University of Chicago Press
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Alphabet
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language. This is in contrast to other types of writing systems, such as syllabaries (in which each character represents a syllable) and logographies (in which each character represents a word, morpheme, or semantic unit). The Proto-Canaanite script, later known as the Phoenician alphabet, is the first fully phonemic script. Thus the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
is considered to be the first alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Greek, Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew, and possibly Brahmic.[1][2] Under a terminological distinction promoted by Peter T
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Old North Arabian Script
U+10A80– U+10A9F Final Accepted Script ProposalThe Ancient North Arabian alphabets are a group of related alphabets used to write all of the Ancient North Arabian dialects except Hasaitic, which used the Ancient South Arabian alphabet.[1] The names of the alphabets match the names of the dialects they represent.Contents1 Letters 2 Direction 3 Punctuation 4 Numbers 5 Unicode 6 ReferencesLetters[edit] Taymanitic had twenty-six or twenty-seven letters while the other alphabets generally used twenty-eight letters. All the letters represent consonants
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Arabic Script
The Arabic
Arabic
script is the writing system used for writing Arabic language and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.[1] Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish and prior to the Turkish language
Turkish language
reform was written in Perso- Arabic
Arabic
script.[2] It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after Latin and Chinese characters.[3] The Arabic
Arabic
script is written from right to left in a cursive style. In most cases the letters transcribe consonants, or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic
Arabic
alphabets are abjads.[citation needed] The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Qurʼān, the holy book of Islam
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Pitman Shorthand
Pitman shorthand
Pitman shorthand
is a system of shorthand for the English language developed by Englishman Sir Isaac Pitman
Isaac Pitman
(1813–1897), who first presented it in 1837.[1] Like most systems of shorthand, it is a phonetic system; the symbols do not represent letters, but rather sounds, and words are, for the most part, written as they are spoken.[2] As of 1996[update], Pitman shorthand
Pitman shorthand
was the most popular shorthand system used in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the second most popular in the United States.[3] One characteristic feature of Pitman shorthand
Pitman shorthand
is that unvoiced and voiced pairs of sounds (such as /p/ and /b/ or /t/ and /d/) are represented by strokes which differ only in thickness; the thin stroke representing "light" sounds such as /p/ and /t/; the thick stroke representing "heavy" sounds such as /b/ and /d/
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Hebrew Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCE Arabic
Arabic
4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c
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Ashuri Alphabet
The Ashuri script
Ashuri script
(Hebrew: כְּתָב אַשּׁוּרִי‬, ktav ashurí), translated either as "Assyrian alphabet" or "beautiful alphabet,"[1] is a traditional calligraphic form of the alphabet shared between Hebrew and Aramaic
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Cursive Hebrew
Cursive
Cursive
Hebrew (Hebrew: כת ב
ב
עברי רהוט‎ ktav ivri rahut) is a collective designation for several styles of handwriting the Hebrew alphabet. Modern Hebrew, especially in informal use in Israel, is handwritten with the Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
cursive script that had developed in Central Europe
Central Europe
by the 13th century.[1] This is also a mainstay of handwritten Yiddish.[2] It was preceded by a Sephardi
Sephardi
cursive script, known as Solitreo that is still used for Ladino[3] and by Jewish communities in Africa.Contents1 Contemporary forms 2 Historical forms 3 History 4 See also 5 Notes 6 External linksContemporary forms[edit] As with all handwriting, cursive Hebrew displays considerable individual variation
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Rashi Script
Rashi
Rashi
script is a semi-cursive typeface for the Hebrew alphabet. It is named for Rashi, an author of rabbinic commentary on the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and the Talmud, and it is customarily used for printing his commentaries. The typeface (which was not used by Rashi
Rashi
himself) is based on 15th century Sephardic semi-cursive handwriting
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Solitreo
Solitreo is a cursive form of the Hebrew alphabet. Traditionally a Sephardi script, it is nonetheless the predecessor of the modern Ashkenazi Cursive
Cursive
Hebrew currently used for handwriting in modern Israel
Israel
and for Yiddish. The two forms differ from each other primarily in that Solitreo uses far more typographic ligatures than the Ashkenazi script, creating a more flowing style resembling Arabic. Historically, Solitreo was used in two parallel ways. In Judaeo-Spanish
Judaeo-Spanish
("Ladino") of the Balkans
Balkans
and Turkey, it served as the standard handwritten form that complemented the Rashi script
Rashi script
character set used for printing. In Sephardi communities in the Maghreb
Maghreb
and the Levant, it was used for manuscript documents in Hebrew and the Judeo-Arabic languages
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Tifinagh
Tifinagh
Tifinagh
(Berber pronunciation: [tifinaɣ]; also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ; Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⵊⵉⵏⵗ or ⵜⵊⵏⵗ) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.[1] A modern alphabetical derivative of the traditional script, known as Neo-Tifinagh, was introduced in the 20th century
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Manichaean Alphabet
U+10AC0–U+10AFF Final Accepted Script ProposalManichaean script is an abjad-based writing system rooted in the Semitic family of alphabets and associated with the spread of Manichaean religion from southwest to central Asia and beyond, beginning in the 3rd century CE. It bears a sibling relationship to early forms of the Pahlavi script, both systems having developed from the Imperial Aramaic
Imperial Aramaic
alphabet, in which the Achaemenid court rendered its particular, official dialect of the Aramaic language. Unlike Pahlavi, Manichaean script reveals influences from Sogdian script, which in turn descends from the Syriac branch of Aramaic. Manichaean script is so named because Manichaean texts attribute its design to Mani himself
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Nabataean Alphabet
U+10880–U+108AF Final Accepted Script ProposalHistory of the alphabet Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c
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Pahlavi Scripts
Phli, 131  (Inscriptional Pahlavi) Prti, 130  (Inscriptional Parthian) Phlp, 132  (Psalter Pahlavi) Phlv, 133  (Book Pahlavi) Unicode
Unicode
aliasInscriptional Pahlavi Unicode
Unicode
rangeU+10B60–U+10B7F Inscriptional Pahlavi U+10B40–U+10B5F Inscriptional Parthian U+10B80–U+10BAF Psalter PahlaviHistory of the alphabet Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCE Proto-Sinaitic
Proto-Sinaitic
19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c
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Aramaic Alphabet
Hebrew Palmyrene Mandaic Pahlavi Brāhmī Kharoṣṭhī Syriac  →Sogdian    →Old Uyghur      →Mongolian  →Nabataean alphabet    →Arabic alphabet      →N'Ko alphabetDirection Right-to-leftISO 15924 Armi, 124 Imperial Aramaic Unicode
Unicode
aliasImperial Aramaic Unicode
Unicode
rangeU+10840–U+1085FThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.History of the alphabet Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c
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Pegon Alphabet
Pegon is an Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
used to write the Javanese and Sundanese languages, as an alternative to the Roman alphabet or the Javanese script and the old Sundanese script. In particular, it was used for religious (Islamic) writing and poetry from the fifteenth century,[1] particularly in writing commentaries of Quran. The word Pegon originated from a Javanese word pégo, which means "deviate", due to the practice of writing Javanese language
Javanese language
with Arabic script, which was considered unconventional by Javanese people. The main difference between Jawi and Pegon is that the latter is almost always written with vocal signs. This is because the Javanese language contains more variations of aksara swara (vowel symbols) than their Malay counterpart resulting in vocal signs needing to be written to avoid phonetic confusion. If written without vocal signs, as in Jawi, the script is called Gundhul
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