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Bopomofo
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Syllable Rime
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter. A syllable is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants). Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words. They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic meter and its stress patterns. Syllabic writing
Syllabic writing
began several hundred years before the first letters. The earliest recorded syllables are on tablets written around 2800 BC in the Sumerian city of Ur. This shift from pictograms to syllables has been called "the most important advance in the history of writing".[1] A word that consists of a single syllable (like English dog) is called a monosyllable (and is said to be monosyllabic)
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Syllable Onset
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter. A syllable is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants). Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words. They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic meter and its stress patterns. Syllabic writing
Syllabic writing
began several hundred years before the first letters. The earliest recorded syllables are on tablets written around 2800 BC in the Sumerian city of Ur. This shift from pictograms to syllables has been called "the most important advance in the history of writing".[1] A word that consists of a single syllable (like English dog) is called a monosyllable (and is said to be monosyllabic)
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Beiyang Government
The Beiyang government
Beiyang government
(北洋政府), also sometimes spelled Peiyang Government (Chinese: 北洋政府; pinyin: běiyáng zhèngfǔ), refers to the government of the Republic of China, which was in place in the capital city Beijing
Beijing
from 1912 to 1928. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate Chinese government. The name derives from the Beiyang Army, which dominated its politics with the rise of Yuan Shikai, who was a general of the previous imperial Qing government. After his death the army fractured into competing factions. Although the government and the state were nominally under civilian control under a constitution, the Beiyang generals were effectively in charge of it, with various factions vying for power, contributing to internal instability
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Semisyllabary
A semi-syllabary is a writing system that behaves partly as an alphabet and partly as a syllabary. The term has traditionally been extended to abugidas, but for the purposes of this article it will be restricted to scripts where some characters are alphabetic and others are syllabic.Contents1 Iberian semi-syllabaries 2 Other semi-syllabaries 3 Further reading 4 External linksIberian semi-syllabaries[edit] The Paleohispanic semi-syllabaries are a family of scripts developed in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
at least from the 5th century BCE – possibly from the 7th century. Some researchers conclude that their origin lies solely with the Phoenician alphabet, while others believe the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
also had a role
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Kanji
Kanji
Kanji
(漢字; [kandʑi]  listen) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters
Chinese characters
that are used in the Japanese writing system.[1] They are used alongside hiragana and katakana
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Khitan Script
The Khitan scripts
Khitan scripts
were the writing systems for the now-extinct Para-Mongolic Khitan language[2] used in the 10th-12th century by the Khitan people
Khitan people
who had established the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
in Northeast China. There were two scripts, the large script and the small script. These were functionally independent and appear to have been used simultaneously. The Khitan scripts
Khitan scripts
continued to be in use to some extent by the Jurchen people
Jurchen people
for several decades after the fall of the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
until the Jurchens fully switched to a script of their own
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Chữ Nôm
Chữ Nôm
Chữ Nôm
(字喃, IPA: [tɕɨ̌ˀ nom], literally "Southern characters"[1]), in earlier times also called quốc âm or chữ nam, is a logographic writing system formerly used to write the Vietnamese language. It used the standard set of classical Chinese characters
Chinese characters
to represent Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary and some native Vietnamese words, while new characters were created on the Chinese model to represent other words. Although formal writing in Vietnam was done in literary Chinese,[2] until the early 20th century (except for two brief interludes), chữ Nôm was widely used between the 15th and 19th centuries by Vietnam's cultured elite, including women, for popular works, many in verse
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Hanja
Hanja
Hanja
(Hangul: 한자; Hanja: 漢字; Korean pronunciation: [ha(ː)nt͈ɕa]) is the Korean name
Korean name
for Chinese characters (Chinese: 漢字; pinyin: hànzì).[1] More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters
Chinese characters
borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language
Korean language
with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo (the latter is more used) refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja
Hanja
never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different
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Seal Script
Seal script
Seal script
(Chinese: 篆書; pinyin: zhuànshū) is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters
Chinese characters
that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC. It evolved organically out of the Zhou dynasty script. The Qin variant of seal script eventually became the standard, and was adopted as the formal script for all of China during the Qin dynasty. It was still widely used for decorative engraving and seals (name chops, or signets) in the Han dynasty
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Oracle Bone Script
Oracle bone
Oracle bone
script (Chinese: 甲骨文) was the form of Chinese characters used on oracle bones—animal bones or turtle plastrons used in pyromantic divination—in the late 2nd millennium BCE, and is the earliest known form of Chinese writing. The vast majority[a] were found at the Yinxu
Yinxu
site (in modern Anyang, Henan Province). They record pyromantic divinations of the last nine kings of the Shang dynasty, beginning with Wu Ding, whose accession is dated by different scholars at 1250 BCE or 1200 BCE.[1][2] After the Shang were overthrown by the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
in c
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Legge Romanization
Legge romanization is a transcription system for Mandarin Chinese, used by the prolific 19th century sinologist James Legge. It was replaced by the Wade–Giles system, which itself has been mostly supplanted by Pinyin. The Legge system is still to be found in Legge's widely available translation of the Yijing, and in some derivative works such as Aleister Crowley's version of the Yijing
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Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin (/ˈmændərɪn, -drɪn/ ( listen); simplified Chinese: 官话; traditional Chinese: 官話; pinyin: Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects (北方话; běifānghuà). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible
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Sichuanese Dialect
Sichuanese (simplified Chinese: 四川话; traditional Chinese: 四川話; Sichuanese Pinyin: Si4cuan1hua4; pinyin: Sìchuānhuà; Wade–Giles: Szŭ4-ch'uan1-hua4), or Sichuanese/Szechwanese Mandarin, (simplified Chinese: 四川官话; traditional Chinese: 四川官話; pinyin: Sìchuān Guānhuà) commonly known as Sichuanese, or Szechwanese is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan
Sichuan
and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan
Hunan
and Shaanxi. Although "Sichuanese" is often synonymous with the Chengdu- Chongqing
Chongqing
dialect, there is still a great amount of diversity among the Sichuanese dialects, some of which are mutually unintelligible with each other
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese
Cantonese
was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p
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