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Bootstrapping (computing)
In general, bootstrapping usually refers to a self-starting process that is supposed to proceed without external input
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Bootstrap (front-end Framework)
Bootstrap is a free and open-source front-end library for designing websites and web applications. It contains HTML- and CSS-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, navigation and other interface components, as well as optional JavaScript
JavaScript
extensions. Unlike many web frameworks, it concerns itself with front-end development only. Bootstrap is the second most-starred project on GitHub, with more than 123,000 stars.[2]Contents1 Origins 2 Features 3 Structure and function3.1 Stylesheets 3.2 Re-usable components 3.3 JavaScript
JavaScript
components4 Bootstrap 4 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOrigins[edit] Bootstrap, originally named Twitter
Twitter
Blueprint, was developed by Mark Otto and Jacob Thornton at Twitter
Twitter
as a framework to encourage consistency across internal tools
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Chicken Or The Egg
The chicken or the egg causality dilemma is commonly stated as "which came first: the chicken or the egg?". The dilemma stems from the observation that all chickens hatch from eggs and all chicken eggs are laid by chickens. "Chicken-and-egg" is a metaphoric adjective describing situations where it is not clear which of two events should be considered the cause and which should be considered the effect, or to express a scenario of infinite regress. Plutarch
Plutarch
posed the question as a philosophical matter in his essay "The Symposiacs", written in the 1st century
1st century
CE.[1][2]Contents1 Ancient paradox 2 Scientific resolutions 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingAncient paradox[edit] The question represents an ancient folk paradox addressing the problem of origins and first cause.[3] Aristotle, writing in the fourth century B.C., would describe the problem
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Compiler
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language). Compilers
Compilers
are a type of translator that support digital devices, primarily computers. The name compiler is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly language, object code, or machine code) to create an executable program.[1] However, there are many different types of compilers. If the compiled program can run on a computer whose CPU or operating system is different from the one on which the compiler runs, the compiler is a cross-compiler. A bootstrap compiler is written in the language that it intends to compile. A program that translates from a low-level language to a higher level one is a decompiler
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Linker (computing)
In computing, a linker or link editor is a computer utility program that takes one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines them into a single executable file, library file, or another 'object' file. A simpler version that writes its output directly to memory is called the loader, though loading is typically considered a separate process.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 Dynamic linking 3 Static linking 4 Relocation 5 Linkage editor 6 See also 7 References7.1 Citations 7.2 Sources8 External linksOverview[edit] Computer programs typically are composed of several parts or modules; these parts/modules need not all be contained within a single object file, and in such cases refer to each other by means of symbols. Typically, an object file can contain three kinds of symbols:defined "external" symbols, sometimes called "public" or "entry" symbols, which allow it to be called by other modules, undefined "external" symbols, which reference othe
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IBM 650
The IBM
IBM
650 Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine is one of IBM's early computers, and the world’s first mass-produced computer.[1][2] It was announced in 1953 and in 1956 enhanced as the IBM
IBM
650 RAMAC with the addition of up to four disk storage units.[3] Almost 2,000 systems were produced, the last in 1962.[4] Support for the 650 and its component units was withdrawn in 1969. The 650 was a two-address, bi-quinary coded decimal computer (both data and addresses were decimal), with memory on a rotating magnetic drum. Character support was provided by the input/output units converting punched card alphabetical and special character encodings to/from a two-digit decimal code
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Assembly Language
An assembly (or assembler) language,[1] often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture's machine code instructions. Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture. In contrast, most high-level programming languages are generally portable across multiple architectures but require interpreting or compiling. Assembly language
Assembly language
may also be called symbolic machine code.[2] Assembly language
Assembly language
is converted into executable machine code by a utility program referred to as an assembler. The conversion process is referred to as assembly, or assembling the source code
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Symbolic Optimal Assembly Program
The IBM
IBM
650 Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine is one of IBM's early computers, and the world’s first mass-produced computer.[1][2] It was announced in 1953 and in 1956 enhanced as the IBM
IBM
650 RAMAC with the addition of up to four disk storage units.[3] Almost 2,000 systems were produced, the last in 1962.[4] Support for the 650 and its component units was withdrawn in 1969. The 650 was a two-address, bi-quinary coded decimal computer (both data and addresses were decimal), with memory on a rotating magnetic drum. Character support was provided by the input/output units converting punched card alphabetical and special character encodings to/from a two-digit decimal code
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Doug Engelbart
Douglas Carl Engelbart (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer. He is best known for his work on founding the field of human–computer interaction, particularly while at his Augmentation Research Center Lab in SRI International, which resulted in creation of the computer mouse, and the development of hypertext, networked computers, and precursors to graphical user interfaces. These were demonstrated at The Mother of All Demos
The Mother of All Demos
in 1968. Engelbart's Law, the observation that the intrinsic rate of human performance is exponential, is named after him. In the early 1950s, he decided that instead of "having a steady job" – such as his position at Ames Research Center
Ames Research Center
– he would focus on making the world a better place
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SRI International
SRI International
SRI International
(SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California. The trustees of Stanford University established SRI in 1946 as a center of innovation to support economic development in the region. The organization was founded as the Stanford Research
Research
Institute. SRI formally separated from Stanford University
Stanford University
in 1970 and became known as SRI International
SRI International
in 1977. SRI performs client-sponsored research and development for government agencies, commercial businesses, and private foundations. It also licenses its technologies,[2] forms strategic partnerships, sells products,[3] and creates spin-off companies.[4] SRI's annual revenue in 2014 was approximately $540 million. SRI's headquarters are located near the Stanford University
Stanford University
campus. William A
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NLS (computer System)
NLS, or the "oN-Line System", was a revolutionary computer collaboration system from the 1960s. Designed by Douglas Engelbart
Douglas Engelbart
and implemented by researchers at the Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), the NLS system was the first to employ the practical use of hypertext links, the mouse, raster-scan video monitors, information organized by relevance, screen windowing, presentation programs, and other modern computing concepts. It was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, NASA, and the U.S. Air Force.Contents1 Development 2 Firsts 3 Decline and succession 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksDevelopment[edit] Douglas Engelbart
Douglas Engelbart
developed his concepts while supported by the US Air Force from 1959 to 1960, and published a framework in 1962
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Bootstrapping (compilers)
In computer science, bootstrapping is the technique for producing a self-compiling compiler - that is, compiler (or assembler) written in the source programming language that it intends to compile
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Installation (computer Programs)
Installation (or setup) of a computer program (including device drivers and plugins), is the act of making the program ready for execution. Because the process varies for each program and each computer, programs (including operating systems) often come with an installer, a specialized program responsible for doing whatever is needed for their installation. Installation may be part of a larger software deployment process. Installation typically involves code being copied/generated from the installation files to new files on the local computer for easier access by the operating system. Because code is generally copied/generated in multiple locations, uninstallation usually involves more than just erasing the program folder
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High-level Programming Language
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. In comparison to low-level programming languages, it may use natural language elements, be easier to use, or may automate (or even hide entirely) significant areas of computing systems (e.g. memory management), making the process of developing a program simpler and more understandable relative to a lower-level language
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Setup.exe
Windows Installer (previously known as Microsoft
Microsoft
Installer,[3] codename Darwin[4][5]) is a software component and application programming interface (API) of Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
used for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software. The installation information, and optionally the files themselves, are packaged in installation packages, loosely relational databases structured as COM Structured Storages and commonly known as "MSI files", from their default filename extensions. Windows Installer contains significant changes from its predecessor, Setup API
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Bootstrapping Node
A bootstrapping node, also known as a rendezvous host,[1] is a node in an overlay network that provides initial configuration information to newly joining nodes so that they may successfully join the overlay network.[2][3] Bootstrapping
Bootstrapping
nodes are predominantly found in decentralized peer-to-peer (P2P) networks because of the dynamically changing identities and configurations of member nodes in these networks.Contents1 Overview 2 Identifying a bootstrapping node 3 Configuration information provided 4 Networks that use bootstrapping nodes 5 References 6 See alsoOverview[edit] When attemptin
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