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Bootkit
A root kit is a collection of computer software, typically malicious, designed to enable access to a computer or areas of its software that is not otherwise allowed (for example, to an unauthorized user) and often masks its existence or the existence of other software.[1] The term rootkit is a concatenation of "root" (the traditional name of the privileged account on Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems) and the word "kit" (which refers to the software components that implement the tool). The term "rootkit" has negative connotations through its association with malware.[1] Rootkit
Rootkit
installation can be automated, or an attacker can install it after having obtained root or Administrator access. Obtaining this access is a result of direct attack on a system, i.e
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Kernel (computing)
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.[1] On most systems, it is one of the first programs loaded on start-up (after the bootloader). It handles the rest of start-up as well as input/output requests from software, translating them into data-processing instructions for the central processing unit. It handles memory and peripherals like keyboards, monitors, printers, and speakers.A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer.The critical code of the kernel is usually loaded into a protected area of memory, which prevents it from being overwritten by applications or other, more minor parts of the operating system. The kernel performs its tasks, such as running processes and handling interrupts, in kernel space. In contrast, everything a user does is in user space: writing text in a text editor, running programs in a GUI, etc
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Password
A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access. The use of passwords is known to be ancient. Sentries would challenge those wishing to enter an area or approaching it to supply a password or watchword, and would only allow a person or group to pass if they knew the password. In modern times, user names and passwords are commonly used by people during a log in process that controls access to protected computer operating systems, mobile phones, cable TV decoders, automated teller machines (ATMs), etc
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Authentication
Authentication
Authentication
(from Greek: αὐθεντικός authentikos, "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης authentes, "author") is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data claimed true by an entity. In contrast with identification, which refers to the act of stating or otherwise indicating a claim purportedly attesting to a person or thing's identity, authentication is the process of actually confirming that identity. It might involve confirming the identity of a person by validating their identity documents, verifying the authenticity of a website with a digital certificate,[1] determining the age of an artifact by carbon dating, or ensuring that a product is what its packaging and labeling claim to be
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Software
Computer software, or simply software, is a part of a computer system that consists of data or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware
Computer hardware
and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own. At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor—typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state
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Concatenation
In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings end-to-end. For example, the concatenation of "snow" and "ball" is "snowball". In some but not all formalisations of concatenation theory, also called string theory, string concatenation is a primitive notion.Contents1 Syntax 2 Implementation 3 Concatenation of sets of strings 4 Algebraic properties 5 Applications5.1 Audio/telephony 5.2 Database theory6 See also 7 ReferencesSyntax[edit] In many programming languages, string concatenation is a binary infix operator. The + (plus) operator is often overloaded to denote concatenation for string arguments: "Hello, " + "World" has the value "Hello, World". In other languages there is a separate operator, particularly to specify implicit type conversion to string, as opposed to more complicated behavior for generic plus. Examples include . in Edinburgh IMP, Perl, and PHP, .
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Internet Security
Internet
Internet
security is a branch of computer security specifically related to the Internet, often involving browser security but also network security on a more general level, as it applies to other applications or operating systems as a whole. Its objective is to establish rules and measures to use against attacks over the Internet.[1] The Internet
Internet
represents an insecure channel for exchanging information leading to a high risk of intrusion or fraud, such as phishing[2], online viruses, trojans, worms and more. Many methods are used to protect the transfer of data, including encryption and from-the-ground-up engineering
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Superuser
In computing, the superuser is a special user account used for system administration. Depending on the operating system (OS), the actual name of this account might be root, administrator, admin or supervisor. In some cases, the actual name of the account is not the determining factor; on Unix-like
Unix-like
systems, for example, the user with a user identifier (UID) of zero is the superuser, regardless of the name of that account;[1] and in systems which implement a role based security model, any user with the role of superuser (or its synonyms) can carry out all actions of the superuser account
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UNIX-like
A Unix-like
Unix-like
(sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix
Unix
system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX
UNIX
Specification. A Unix-like
Unix-like
application is one that behaves like the corresponding Unix
Unix
command or shell
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Denial Of Service
In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet. Denial of service is typically accomplished by flooding the targeted machine or resource with superfluous requests in an attempt to overload systems and prevent some or all legitimate requests from being fulfilled.[1] In a distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack), the incoming traffic flooding the victim originates from many different sources. This effectively makes it impossible to stop the attack simply by blocking a single source. A DoS or DDoS attack is analogous to a group of people crowding the entry door of a shop, making it hard for legitimate customers to enter, disrupting trade. Criminal perpetrators of DoS attacks often target sites or services hosted on high-profile web servers such as banks or credit card
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Logic Bomb
A logic bomb is a piece of code intentionally inserted into a software system that will set off a malicious function when specified conditions are met. For example, a programmer may hide a piece of code that starts deleting files (such as a salary database trigger), should they ever be terminated from the company. Software
Software
that is inherently malicious, such as viruses and worms, often contain logic bombs that execute a certain payload at a pre-defined time or when some other condition is met. This technique can be used by a virus or worm to gain momentum and spread before being noticed. Some viruses attack their host systems on specific dates, such as Friday the 13th
Friday the 13th
or April Fools' Day. Trojans that activate on certain dates are often called "time bombs". To be considered a logic bomb, the payload should be unwanted and unknown to the user of the software
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Backdoor (computing)
A backdoor is a method, often secret, of bypassing normal authentication or encryption in a computer system, a product, or an embedded device (e.g. a home router), or its embodiment, e.g. as part of a cryptosystem, an algorithm, a chipset, or a "homunculus computer"[1] (such as that as found in Intel's AMT technology). Backdoors are often used for securing remote access to a computer, or obtaining access to plaintext in cryptographic systems. A backdoor may take the form of a hidden part of a program one uses,[2] a separate program (e.g. Back Orifice may subvert the system through a rootkit), or code in the firmware of ones hardware[3] or parts of ones operating system such as Microsoft Windows.[4][5][6] Although normally surreptitiously installed, in some cases backdoors are deliberate and widely known
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Exploit (computer Security)
An exploit (from the English verb to exploit, meaning "to use something to one’s own advantage") is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized). Such behavior frequently includes things like gaining control of a computer system, allowing privilege escalation, or a denial-of-service (DoS or related DDoS) attack.Contents1 Classification1.1 Types 1.2 Pivoting2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesClassification[edit] There are several methods of classifying exploits. The most common is by how the exploit communicates to the vulnerable software
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Screen Scrape
Data
Data
scraping is a technique in which a computer program extracts data from human-readable output coming from another program.Contents1 Description 2 Technical variants2.1 Screen scraping 2.2 Web scraping 2.3 Report mining3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingDescription[edit] Normally, data transfer between programs is accomplished using data structures suited for automated processing by computers, not people. Such interchange formats and protocols are typically rigidly structured, well-documented, easily parsed, and keep ambiguity to a minimum. Very often, these transmissions are not human-readable at all.[1] Thus, the key element that distinguishes data scraping from regular parsing is that the output being scraped was intended for display to an end-user, rather than as input to another program, and is therefore usually neither documented nor structured for convenient parsing
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Encryption
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot. Encryption
Encryption
does not itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor. In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm. It is in principle possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, but, for a well-designed encryption scheme, considerable computational resources and skills are required
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Privilege Escalation
Privilege escalation
Privilege escalation
is the act of exploiting a bug, design flaw or configuration oversight in an operating system or software application to gain elevated access to resources that are normally protected from an application or user. The result is that an application with more privileges than intended by the application developer or system administrator can perform unauthorized actions.Contents1 Background 2 Vertical2.1 Examples 2.2 Jailbreaking 2.3 Mitigation strategies3 Horizontal3.1 Examples4 See also 5 ReferencesBackground[edit] Most computer systems are designed for use with multiple user accounts, each of which has abilities known as privileges. Common privileges include viewing and editing files, or modifying system files. Privilege escalation
Privilege escalation
means a user receives privileges they are not entitled to
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