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Boot Sector
A boot sector is a region of a hard disk, floppy disk, optical disc, or other data storage device that contains machine code to be loaded into random-access memory (RAM) by a computer system's built-in firmware. The purpose of a boot sector is to allow the boot process of a computer to load a program (usually, but not necessarily, an operating system) stored on the same storage device
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Memory Address
In computing, a memory address is a reference to a specific memory location used at various levels by software and hardware
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Physical Memory
Computer
Computer
data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers.[1]:15–16 The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy,[1]:468–473 which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU
CPU
and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage". In the Von Neumann architecture, the CPU
CPU
consists of two main parts: The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
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Partition Table
A partition is a fixed-size subset of a disk drive which is treated as a unit by the operating system.[1] A partition table is a table maintained on disk by the operating system describing the partitions on that disk. The terms partition table and partition map are most commonly associated with the MBR partition table
MBR partition table
of a Master Boot Record (MBR) in IBM PC compatibles, but it may be used generically to refer to other "formats" that divide a disk drive into partitions, such as: GUID Partition Table
GUID Partition Table
(GPT), Apple partition map (APM),[2] or BSD disklabel.[3] Partitions can be created, resized, or deleted. This is called disk partitioning
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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USB Flash Drive
A USB
USB
flash drive, also variously known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key, flash-drive, memory stick or USB
USB
memory,[a] is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB
USB
interface. It is typically removable, rewritable and much smaller than an optical disc. Most weigh less than 30 g (1 ounce). Since first appearing on the market in late 2000, as with virtually all other computer memory devices, storage capacities have risen while prices have dropped
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Volume Table Of Contents
In the IBM mainframe
IBM mainframe
storage architecture, Volume Table of Contents, or VTOC, is a data structure that provides a way of locating the data sets that reside on a particular disk volume. It is the functional equivalent of both the Master Boot Record
Master Boot Record
(MBR) or GUID Partition Table (GPT) on a desktop PC, and the root directory of a mass storage device (floppy, jump drive, hard disk, etc.) on a PC or minicomputer, e.g. / on Unix
Unix
or Linux, C: on DOS
DOS
or Windows. It lists the names of each data set on the volume as well as size, location, and permissions. Additionally, it contains an entry for every area of contiguous free space on the volume. The third record on the first track of the first cylinder of any volume of DASD (i.e. disk pack) is known as the volume label and must contain a pointer to the location of the VTOC
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Magic Number (programming)
In computer programming, the term magic number has multiple meanings. It could refer to one or more of the following:A constant numerical or text value used to identify a file format or protocol; for files, see List of file signatures Distinctive unique values that are unlikely to be mistaken for other meanings (e.g., Globally Unique Identifiers) Unique values with unexplained meaning or multiple occurrences which could (preferably) be replaced with named constantsContents1 Format indicator1.1 Magic number origin 1.2 Magic numbers in files 1.3 Magic numbers in protocols 1.4 Magic numbers in other uses2 Data type limits 3 Unnamed numerical constants3.1 Accepted limited use of magic numbers4 Magic GUIDs 5 Magic debug values 6 See also 7 ReferencesFormat indicator[edit] Magic number origin[edit] The format indicator type of magic number was first found in early Seventh Edition source code of the
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Commodore DOS
Commodore DOS, aka CBM DOS, is the disk operating system used with Commodore's 8-bit computers. Unlike most other DOS
DOS
systems, which are loaded from disk into the computer's own RAM and executed there, CBM DOS
DOS
is executed internally in the drive: the DOS
DOS
resides in ROM chips inside the drive, and is run there by one or more dedicated MOS 6502 family CPUs
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Commodore 64
The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10, 1982).[5] It has been listed in the Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records
as the highest-selling single computer model of all time,[6] with independent estimates placing the number sold between 10 and 17 million units.[3] Volume production started in early 1982, marketing in August for US$595 (equivalent to $1,509 in 2017).[7][8] Preceded by the Commodore VIC-20
Commodore VIC-20
and Commodore PET, the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes (65,536 bytes) of RAM
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Commodore 128
The Commodore 128, also known as the C128, C-128, C= 128,[n 1] or occasionally CBM 128, is the last 8-bit home computer that was commercially released by Commodore Business Machines (CBM). Introduced in January 1985 at the CES in Las Vegas, it appeared three years after its predecessor, the bestselling Commodore 64. The C128 is a significantly expanded successor to the C64, with nearly full compatibility. The newer machine has 128 kB of RAM
RAM
in two 64 kB banks, and an 80-column color video output. It has a redesigned case and keyboard. Also included is a Zilog Z80
Zilog Z80
CPU which allows the C128 to run CP/M, as an alternative to the usual Commodore BASIC environment
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El Torito (CD-ROM Standard)
The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM
CD-ROM
specification. It is designed to allow a computer to boot from a CD-ROM. It was announced in November 1994[1] and first issued in January 1995 as a joint proposal by IBM
IBM
and BIOS
BIOS
manufacturer Phoenix Technologies.Contents1 Boot modes 2 Etymology 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksBoot modes[edit] According to the El Torito specification, a 32-bit
32-bit
CPU
CPU
PC BIOS
BIOS
will search for boot code on an ISO 9660
ISO 9660
CD-ROM. The standard allows for booting in two different modes
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Bootstrapping (computing)
In general, bootstrapping usually refers to a self-starting process that is supposed to proceed without external input
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ROM BASIC
The IBM
IBM
Personal Computer Basic, commonly shortened to IBM
IBM
BASIC, is a programming language first released by IBM
IBM
with the IBM
IBM
Personal Computer (model 5150) in 1981. IBM
IBM
released four different versions of the Microsoft BASIC interpreter, licensed from Microsoft
Microsoft
for the PC and PCjr. They are known as Cassette BASIC, Disk BASIC, Advanced BASIC (BASICA), and Cartridge BASIC. Versions of Disk BASIC
BASIC
and Advanced BASIC
BASIC
were included with IBM
IBM
PC DOS
PC DOS
up to PC DOS
PC DOS
4
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Partition (Computing)
Disk partitioning
Disk partitioning
or disk slicing[1] is the creation of one or more regions on a hard disk or other secondary storage, so that an operating system can manage information in each region separately.[2] Partitioning is typically the first step of preparing a newly manufactured disk, before any files or directories have been created. The disk stores the information about the partitions' locations and sizes in an area known as the partition table that the operating system reads before any other part of the disk. Each partition then appears in the operating system as a distinct "logical" disk that uses part of the actual disk. System administrators use a program called a partition editor to create, resize, delete, and manipulate the partitions.[3]When a hard drive is installed in a computer, it must be partitioned before you can format and use it
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Intel
Coordinates: 37°23′16.54″N 121°57′48.74″W / 37.3879278°N 121.9635389°W / 37.3879278; -121.9635389 Intel
Intel
Corporation Intel
Intel
Corporation's current logo, used since 2006Intel's headquarters in Santa Clara, Cali
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