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Book Of Kells
The Book
Book
of Kells (Latin: Codex Cenannensis; Irish: Leabhar Cheanannais; Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I. [58], sometimes known as the Book
Book
of Columba) is an illuminated manuscript Gospel
Gospel
book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament
New Testament
together with various prefatory texts and tables. It was created in a Columban monastery in either Britain or Ireland and may have had contributions from various Columban institutions from both Britain and Ireland. It is believed to have been created c. 800 AD. The text of the Gospels is largely drawn from the Vulgate, although it also includes several passages drawn from the earlier versions of the Bible known as the Vetus Latina. It is a masterwork of Western calligraphy
Western calligraphy
and represents the pinnacle of Insular illumination
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Saint Cuthbert
Cuthbert
Cuthbert
(c. 634 – 20 March 687) is a saint of the early Northumbrian church in the Celtic tradition. He was a monk, bishop and hermit, associated with the monasteries of Melrose and Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
in what might loosely be termed the Kingdom of Northumbria
Kingdom of Northumbria
in the North East of England[5] and the South East of Scotland. After his death he became one of the most important medieval saints of Northern England, with a cult centred on his tomb at Durham Cathedral. Cuthbert
Cuthbert
is regarded as the patron saint of Northern England. His feast days are 20 March ( Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Church of England), also 31 August (Episcopal Church (USA)) and 4 September (Church in Wales). Cuthbert
Cuthbert
grew up near Melrose Abbey, a daughter-house of Lindisfarne, today in Scotland
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Durham Dean And Chapter Library
The Durham Dean and Chapter Library
Durham Dean and Chapter Library
(also Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral
Library) is located in Durham Cathedral, Durham, England. Founded in 995 AD, it is one of the largest English cathedral libraries. William de St-Calais donated 46 books[1] In the 19th century it was located in the Old Frater House, or Monk's Hall, on the south side of the cathedral's cloisters, situated there in 1680 by the Dean of Durham
Dean of Durham
John Sudbury, who fitted up the building. [2] Holdings[edit] There are 75,000 volumes and 60 incunabula. Of the 2,000 manuscripts, 360 are of the medieval era. The special collections contain early music.Christian writingsThe Durham Gospels, a very incomplete late 7th century insular Gospel Book (MS A. II
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Monastery
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits). A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, and may also serve as an oratory. Monasteries vary greatly in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex typically comprises a number of buildings which include a church, dormitory, cloister, refectory, library, balneary and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may also include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community
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Hiberno-Scottish Mission
The Hiberno-Scottish mission
Hiberno-Scottish mission
was a series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.[1] There was no overall coordinated mission, but there were nevertheless sporadic missions initiated by Gaelic monks from Ireland and the western coast of modern-day Scotland, which contributed to the spread of Christianity
Christianity
and established monasteries in Britain and continental Europe during the Middle Ages. The earliest recorded Irish mission can be dated to 563 with the foundation of Iona
Iona
by the Irish monk Saint Columba
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Anglo-Saxon Mission
Anglo-Saxon missionaries were instrumental in the spread of Christianity
Christianity
in the Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire
during the 8th century, continuing the work of Hiberno-Scottish missionaries which had been spreading Celtic
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Cathach Of St. Columba
The Cathach of St. Columba
Columba
(Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, s. n.) is a late 6th century Insular psalter. An Cathach (meaning "the Battler") was a very important relic used by the Clan Ó Domhnaill (O’Donnell Clan), the old Gaelic royal family in Tír Chonaill, as a rallying cry and protector in battle. It is the oldest surviving manuscript in Ireland, and the second oldest Latin psalter in the world.[1]Contents1 The manuscript 2 History 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksThe manuscript[edit] The Cathach of St. Columba
Columba
is traditionally associated with St. Columba
Columba
(d. AD 597), and was identified as the copy made by him of a book loaned to him by St. Finnian, and which led to the Battle of Cúl Dreimhne in 561 in Cairbre Drom Cliabh
Cairbre Drom Cliabh
(now in Co
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Ambrosiana Orosius
The Bobbio Orosius (Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana MS D. 23. Sup.) is an early 7th century Insular manuscript of the Chronicon of Paulus Orosius. The manuscript has 48 folios and measures 210 by 150 mm. It is thought to have been produced at the scriptorium of Bobbio Abbey. It contains the earliest surviving carpet page in Insular art. The carpet page is on folio 1v. Although it is simpler in design than later carpet pages and contains motifs not found in later carpet pages, it shows a subtlety of pattern and alternation of colors common to Insular manuscripts. It consists of a large central rosette surrounded by four corner rosettes, all contained within a rectangular frame. The vertical panels of the frame contain cable motifs; the frame on the left has a single larger cable of white on pink, while the frame on the right has two smaller cables of white on pink separated by a yellow bar. The upper and lower panels are broken into smaller square panels separated by thin bars
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Durham Gospels
The Durham Gospels
Durham Gospels
is a very incomplete late 7th century insular Gospel Book, now kept in the Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral
Dean and Chapter Library (MS A.II.17). A single folio of this manuscript is now in Magdalene College, Cambridge (Pepysian MS 2981). Only two of the fully decorated pages survive: a Crucifixion
Crucifixion
(the oldest in English art) and the initial to John, and both of these are in poor condition. There were probably originally evangelist portraits and carpet pages, as in other Insular Gospel books conceived on a similar scale. The book was produced at Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
and brought to Durham when the monks of Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
removed to Durham because of Viking
Viking
attacks
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Iron Gall Ink
Iron
Iron
gall ink (also known as iron gall nut ink, oak gall ink, and common ink) is a purple-black or brown-black ink made from iron salts and tannic acids from vegetable sources. It was the standard writing and drawing ink in Europe, from about the 5th century to the 19th century, and remained in use well into the 20th century.Contents1 Preparation and use 2 Chemistry 3 History 4 Wane 5 Fountain pens5.1 German regulation for Urkundentinte inks (1933) 5.2 U.S. government "standard ink" formula (1935) 5.3 Indian Standard 220 (1988)6 See also 7 References 8 External linksPreparation and use[edit]Homemade ink. On left, a solution of iron (from nails) and vinegar. On right, oak extraction. The two are mixed immediately prior to use to produce the ink, centre.The ink was traditionally prepared by adding some iron(II) sulphate (FeSO4) to a solution of tannic acid (C76H52O46), but any iron ion donor can be used
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Echternach Gospels
The Echternach Gospels
Echternach Gospels
(Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 9389) were produced, presumably, at Lindisfarne Abbey
Lindisfarne Abbey
in Northumbria
Northumbria
around the year 690.[1] This location was very significant for the production of Insular manuscripts, such as the Durham Gospels
Durham Gospels
(ms. A.II.17) and the Lindisfarne Gospels
Lindisfarne Gospels
(ms. Cotton Nero D. IV)
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St. Gall Gospel Book
The St. Gall Gospel Book
Gospel Book
or Codex Sangallensis 51 is an 8th-century Insular Gospel
Gospel
Book, written either in Ireland
Ireland
or by Irish monks in the Abbey of St. Gall
Abbey of St. Gall
in Switzerland, where it is now in the Abbey library of St. Gallen as MS 51.[1] It has 134 folios (so 268 pages). Amongst its 11 illustrated pages are a Crucifixion, a Last Judgement, a Chi Rho
Chi Rho
monogram page, a carpet page, and Evangelist portraits. It is designated by 48 on the Beuron system, and is an 8th-century Latin
Latin
manuscript of the New Testament. The text, written on vellum, is a version of the old Latin. The manuscript contains the text of the four Gospels on 134 parchment leaves (29 ½ × 22 ½ cm). It is written in two columns, in Irish semi-uncials
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Incipit
The incipit (/ˈɪnsɪpɪt/)[1] of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition, an incipit is an initial sequence of notes, having the same purpose. The word incipit comes from Latin
Latin
and means "it begins". Before the development of titles, texts were often referred to by their incipits, as with for example Agnus Dei. During the medieval period in Europe, incipits were often written in a different script or colour from the rest of the work of which they were a part, and "incipit pages" might be heavily decorated with illumination. Though the word incipit is Latin, the practice of the incipit predates classical antiquity by several millennia and can be found in various parts of the world
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Paleography
Palaeography
Palaeography
(UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from Greek: παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents). Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts,[2] and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing and books were produced, and the history of scriptoria.[3] The discipline is important for understanding, authenticating, and dating ancient texts
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Viking Expansion
Viking expansion
Viking expansion
is the process by which the Vikings[a] sailed most of the North Atlantic, reaching south to North Africa
North Africa
and east to Russia, Constantinople
Constantinople
and the Middle East
Middle East
as looters, traders, colonists and mercenaries
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