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Book Of Kells
The BOOK OF KELLS ( Latin : Codex Cenannensis; Irish : Leabhar Cheanannais; Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I. , sometimes known as the BOOK OF COLUMBA) is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin , containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables. It was created in a Columban monastery in Ireland or may have had contributions from various Columban institutions from both Britain and Ireland. It is believed to have been created c. 800 AD. The text of the Gospels is largely drawn from the Vulgate , although it also includes several passages drawn from the earlier versions of the Bible known as the Vetus Latina . It is a masterwork of Western calligraphy and represents the pinnacle of Insular illumination . It is also widely regarded as Ireland's finest national treasure
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Anglo-Saxon Mission
ANGLO-SAXON MISSIONARIES were instrumental in the spread of Christianity
Christianity
in the Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire
during the 8th century, continuing the work of Hiberno-Scottish missionaries which had been spreading Celtic Christianity
Christianity
across the Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire
as well as in Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England itself during the 6th century (see Anglo-Saxon Christianity
Christianity
)
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Cathach Of St. Columba
The CATHACH OF ST. COLUMBA ( Dublin
Dublin
, Royal Irish Academy
Royal Irish Academy
, s. n.) is a late 6th century Insular psalter . An Cathach (meaning "the Battler") was a very important relic used by the Clan Ó Domhnaill (O’Donnell Clan) , the old Gaelic royal family in Tír Chonaill , as a rallying cry and protector in battle. It is the oldest surviving manuscript in Ireland, and the second oldest Latin psalter in the world. CONTENTS * 1 The manuscript * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links THE MANUSCRIPTThe Cathach of St. Columba is traditionally associated with St. Columba (d. AD 597), and was identified as the copy made by him of a book loaned to him by St. Finnian , and which led to the Battle of Cúl Dreimhne in 561 in Cairbre Drom Cliabh (now in Co
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Ambrosiana Orosius
The BOBBIO OROSIUS (Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana
Biblioteca Ambrosiana
MS D. 23. Sup.) is an early 7th century Insular manuscript of the Chronicon of Paulus Orosius . The manuscript has 48 folios and measures 210 by 150 mm. It is thought to have been produced at the scriptorium of Bobbio Abbey
Bobbio Abbey
. It contains the earliest surviving carpet page in Insular art. The carpet page is on folio 1v. Although it is simpler in design than later carpet pages and contains motifs not found in later carpet pages, it shows a subtlety of pattern and alternation of colors common to Insular manuscripts. It consists of a large central rosette surrounded by four corner rosettes, all contained within a rectangular frame. The vertical panels of the frame contain cable motifs; the frame on the left has a single larger cable of white on pink, while the frame on the right has two smaller cables of white on pink separated by a yellow bar
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Hiberno-Scottish Mission
The HIBERNO-SCOTTISH MISSION was a series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert. There was no overall coordinated mission , but there were nevertheless sporadic missions initiated by Gaelic monks from Ireland and the western coast of modern-day Scotland, which contributed to the spread of Christianity
Christianity
and established monasteries in Britain and continental Europe during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. The earliest recorded Irish mission can be dated to 563 with the foundation of Iona
Iona
by the Irish monk Saint Columba . Columba is said by Bede
Bede
and Adamnán to have ministered to the Gaels
Gaels
of Dál Riada and converted the northern Pictish kingdoms
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Monastery
A MONASTERY is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics , monks or nuns , whether living in communities or alone (hermits ). A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church or temple, and may also serve as an oratory . Monasteries vary greatly in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex typically comprises a number of buildings which include a church, dormitory , cloister , refectory , library , balneary and infirmary . Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may also include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community
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Iron Gall Ink
IRON GALL INK (also known as IRON GALL NUT INK, OAK GALL INK, and COMMON INK) is a purple-black or brown-black ink made from iron salts and tannic acids from vegetable sources. It was the standard writing and drawing ink in Europe
Europe
, from about the 5th century to the 19th century, and remained in use well into the 20th century. CONTENTS * 1 Preparation and use * 2 Chemistry
Chemistry
* 3 History * 4 Wane * 5 Fountain pens * 5.1 German regulation for Urkundentinte inks (1933) * 5.2 U.S. government "standard ink" formula (1935) * 5.3 Indian Standard 220 (1988) * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links PREPARATION AND USE Homemade ink. On left, a solution of iron (from nails) and vinegar . On right, oak extraction. The two are mixed immediately prior to use to produce the ink, centre
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Circa
CIRCA (from Latin , meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated C., CA or CA. (also CIRC. or CCA.), means "approximately" in several European languages including English, usually in reference to a date. Circa
Circa
is widely used in genealogy and historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty. Circa
Circa
should only be used for dates that have occurred in the past. For example: * 1732–1799 or 1732–99: both years are known precisely. * c. 1732 – 1799: only the end year is known accurately; the start year is approximate. * 1732 – c. 1799: only the start year is known accurately; the end year is approximate. * c. 1732 – c. 1799: both years are approximate.SEE ALSO * Floruit REFERENCES * ^ "circa"
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Durham Dean And Chapter Library
The DURHAM DEAN AND CHAPTER LIBRARY (also DURHAM CATHEDRAL LIBRARY) is located in Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral
, Durham , England. Founded in 995 AD, it is one of the largest English cathedral libraries. William de St-Calais donated 46 books In the 19th century it was located in the Old Frater House, or Monk's Hall, on the south side of the cathedral's cloisters , situated there in 1680 by the Dean of Durham
Dean of Durham
John Sudbury , who fitted up the building. HOLDINGSThere are 75,000 volumes and 60 incunabula. Of the 2,000 manuscripts, 360 are of the medieval era. The special collections contain early music . Christian writings The Durham Gospels, a very incomplete late 7th century insular Gospel Book (MS A. II. 17), and the Durham Gospel Fragment , a very incomplete late 7th century insular Gospel Book , are part of the library's holdings
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Durham Gospels
The DURHAM GOSPELS is a very incomplete late 7th century insular Gospel Book , now kept in the Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral
Dean and Chapter Library (MS A.II.17). A single folio of this manuscript is now in Magdalene College, Cambridge (Pepysian MS 2981). Only two of the fully decorated pages survive: a Crucifixion
Crucifixion
(the oldest in English art) and the initial to John, and both of these are in poor condition. There were probably originally evangelist portraits and carpet pages , as in other Insular Gospel books conceived on a similar scale. The book was produced at Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
and brought to Durham when the monks of Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
removed to Durham because of Viking
Viking
attacks. The Durham Gospels were written by the same scribe that wrote the Echternach Gospels
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Viking Expansion
norse vikings * Petty kingdoms of Norway * Kingdom of Norway (from 872 ) * Earldom of Orkney and Shetlands * Faroe Islands
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Relic
In religion, a RELIC usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial. Relics are an important aspect of some forms of Buddhism
Buddhism
, Christianity
Christianity
, Islam
Islam
, Hinduism
Hinduism
, Shamanism , and many other religions. Relic
Relic
derives from the Latin
Latin
reliquiae, meaning "remains", and a form of the Latin verb relinquere, to "leave behind, or abandon". A reliquary is a shrine that houses one or more religious relics
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Scriptorium
SCRIPTORIUM, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes . Written accounts, surviving buildings, and archaeological excavations all show, however, that contrary to popular belief such rooms rarely existed: most monastic writing was done in cubicle-like recesses in the cloister , or in the monks' own cells (Schwakhofer, Melinda. "Scriptorium." Inspiraculum. 30 July 2012.) (better citation needed). References in modern scholarly writings to 'scriptoria' more usually refer to the collective written output of a monastery, rather than to a physical room. A scriptorium was a necessary adjunct to a library; wherever there was a library it can ordinarily be assumed that there was a scriptorium
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Paleography
PALAEOGRAPHY (UK ) or PALEOGRAPHY (US ; ultimately from Greek : παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents). Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts, and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing and books were produced, and the history of scriptoria . The discipline is important for understanding, authenticating, and dating ancient texts. However, it cannot in general be used to pinpoint dates with high precision
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Incipit
The INCIPIT (English: /ˈɪnsɪpɪt/ ) of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition , an incipit is an initial sequence of notes , having the same purpose. The word incipit comes from Latin and means "it begins". Before the development of titles , texts were often referred to by their incipits, as with for example Agnus Dei . During the medieval period in Europe, incipits were often written in a different script or colour from the rest of the work of which they were a part, and "incipit pages" might be heavily decorated with illumination. Though the word incipit is Latin, the practice of the incipit predates classical antiquity by several millennia and can be found in various parts of the world. Although not always called by the name of incipit today, the practice of referring to texts by their initial words remains commonplace
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Echternach Gospels
The ECHTERNACH GOSPELS (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 9389) were produced, presumably, at Lindisfarne Abbey in Northumbria
Northumbria
around the year 690. This location was very significant for the production of Insular manuscripts, such as the Durham Gospels (ms. A.II.17) and the Lindisfarne Gospels
Lindisfarne Gospels
(ms. Cotton Nero D. IV). The scribe of the Durham Gospels is believed to have created the Echternach Gospels
Echternach Gospels
as well. The Echternach Gospels
Echternach Gospels
are now in the collection of France’s