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Bolometric Magnitude
Absolute magnitude
Absolute magnitude
is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale. An object's absolute magnitude is defined to be equal to the apparent magnitude that the object would have if it were viewed from a distance of exactly 10 parsecs (32.6 light years), with no extinction (or dimming) of its light due to absorption by interstellar dust particles. By hypothetically placing all objects at a standard reference distance from the observer, their luminosities can be directly compared on a magnitude scale. As with all astronomical magnitudes, the absolute magnitude can be specified for different wavelength ranges corresponding to specified filter bands or passbands; for stars a commonly quoted absolute magnitude is the absolute visual magnitude, which uses the visual (V) band of the spectrum (in the UBV photometric system)
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Absolute Magnitude (magazine)
Absolute Magnitude is a discontinued, semi-professional science fiction magazine started in 1993[citation needed] under the name Harsh Mistress. However, in 1994 after only two issues the name was changed to Absolute Magnitude. In 2002 the name was changed again to Absolute Magnitude & Aboriginal Science Fiction when the publishers acquired the rights to Aboriginal Science Fiction. Absolute Magnitude was published by DNA Publications and edited by Warren Lapine. Although it was supposed to be a quarterly magazine its actual releases were irregular
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K Correction
K correction is a correction to an astronomical object's magnitude (or equivalently, its flux) that allows a measurement of a quantity of light from an object at a redshift z to be converted to an equivalent measurement in the rest frame of the object. If one could measure all the light from an object at all wavelengths (a bolometric flux), a K correction would not be required. If one measures the light emitted in an emission line, a K-correction is not required. The need for a K-correction arises because an astronomical measurement through a single filter or a single bandpass only sees a fraction of the total spectrum, redshifted into the frame of the observer
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Deneb
Deneb
Deneb
(/ˈdɛnɛb/), also designated α Cygni (Latinised alpha Cygni, abbreviated Alpha Cyg, α Cyg), is the brightest star in the constellation of Cygnus. It is one of the vertices of the asterism known as the Summer Triangle
Summer Triangle
and forms the 'head' of the neck-less Northern Cross (also depicted as a swan (cygnus) with wings outstretched). It is the 19th brightest star in the night sky, with an apparent magnitude of 1.25. A blue-white supergiant, Deneb
Deneb
is also one of the most luminous stars
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Zeta Puppis
Zeta  Puppis
Puppis
(ζ Puppis, abbreviated Zeta Pup, ζ Pup), also named Naos,[10] is a star in the constellation of Puppis. The spectral class of O4 means this is one of the hottest, and most luminous, stars visible to the naked eye. It is one of the sky's few naked-eye class O-type stars as well as one of the closest to Earth.[6] It is a blue supergiant, one of the most luminous stars in the Milky Way. Visually it is over 10,000 times brighter than the Sun, but its high temperature means that most of its radiation is in the ultraviolet and its bolometric luminosity is over 500,000 times that of the Sun
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Betelgeuse
Coordinates: 05h 55m 10.3053s, +07° 24′ 25.426″This orange blob shows the nearby star Betelgeuse, as seen by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). This is the first time that ALMA has ever observed the surface of a star and this first attempt has resulted in the highest-resolution image of Betelgeuse available.Betelgeuse, also designated Alpha Orionis (α Orionis, abbreviated Alpha Ori, α Ori), is the ninth-brightest star in the night sky and second-brightest in the constellation of Orion. It is distinctly reddish, and is a semiregular variable star whose apparent magnitude varies between 0.0 and 1.3, the widest range of any first-magnitude star. Betelgeuse
Betelgeuse
is one of three stars that make up the Winter Triangle asterism, and it marks the center of the Winter Hexagon
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Sirius
Sirius
Sirius
(/ˈsɪriəs/, a romanization of Greek Σείριος, Seirios, lit. "glowing" or "scorching") is a star system and the brightest star in the Earth's night sky. With a visual apparent magnitude of −1.46, it is almost twice as bright as Canopus, the next brightest star. The system has the Bayer designation
Bayer designation
Alpha Canis Majoris (α CMa). What the naked eye perceives as a single star is a binary star system, consisting of a white main-sequence star of spectral type A0 or A1, termed Sirius
Sirius
A, and a faint white dwarf companion of spectral type DA2, called Sirius
Sirius
B. The distance separating Sirius
Sirius
A from its companion varies between 8.2 and 31.5 AU.[24] Sirius
Sirius
appears bright because of its intrinsic luminosity and its proximity to Earth
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Fifth Magnitude Star
The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. The brighter an object appears, the lower its magnitude value (i.e. inverse relation). The Sun, at apparent magnitude of −27, is the brightest object in the sky. It is adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere. Furthermore, the magnitude scale is logarithmic. A difference of 1 in magnitude corresponds to a change in brightness by a factor of 5√100, or about 2.512. The measurement of apparent magnitudes or brightnesses of celestial objects is known as photometry. Apparent magnitudes are used to quantify the brightness of sources at ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths. An apparent magnitude is usually measured in a specific passband corresponding to some photometric system such as the UBV system
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Elliptical Galaxy M87
Messier 87
Messier 87
(also known as Virgo A or NGC 4486, and generally abbreviated to M87) is a supergiant elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo. One of the most massive galaxies in the local universe, it is notable for its large population of globular clusters—M87 contains about 12,000 compared to the 150–200 orbiting the Milky Way—and its jet of energetic plasma that originates at the core and extends outward at least 1,500 parsecs (4,900 light-years), travelling at relativistic speed. It is one of the brightest radio sources in the sky, and is a popular target for both amateur astronomy observations and professional astronomy study. French astronomer Charles Messier
Charles Messier
discovered M87 in 1781, cataloguing it as a nebulous feature while searching for objects that would confuse comet hunters
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Dark Nebula
A dark nebula or absorption nebula is a type of interstellar cloud that is so dense that it obscures the light from objects behind it, such as background stars and emission or reflection nebulae. The extinction of the light is caused by interstellar dust grains located in the coldest, densest parts of larger[clarification needed] molecular clouds. Clusters and large complexes of dark nebulae are associated with Giant Molecular Clouds. Isolated small dark nebulae are called Bok globules. Like other interstellar dust or material, things it obscures are only visible using radio waves in radio astronomy or infrared in infrared astronomy. Dark clouds appear so because of sub-micrometre-sized dust particles, coated with frozen carbon monoxide and nitrogen, which effectively block the passage of light at visible wavelengths
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General Relativity
General relativity
General relativity
(GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915[2] and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity
General relativity
has been described as the most beautiful of all existing physical theories.[3][4] General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present
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Cosmological Redshift
Hubble's law
Hubble's law
is the name for the observation in physical cosmology that:Objects observed in deep space - extragalactic space, 10 megaparsecs (Mpc) or more - are found to have a red shift, interpreted as a relative velocity away from Earth; This Doppler-shift-measured velocity of various galaxies receding from the Earth
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Stellar Parallax
Stellar parallax
Stellar parallax
is the apparent shift of position of any nearby star (or other object) against the background of distant objects. Created by the different orbital positions of Earth, the extremely small observed shift is largest at time intervals of about six months, when Earth arrives at exactly opposite sides of the Sun
Sun
in its orbit, giving a baseline distance of about two astronomical units between observations. The parallax itself is considered to be half of this maximum, about equivalent to the observational shift that would occur due to the different positions of Earth and the Sun, a baseline of one astronomical unit (AU). Stellar parallax
Stellar parallax
is so difficult to detect that its existence was the subject of much debate in astronomy for thousands of years
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Planet
Shown in order from the Sun
Sun
and in true color. Sizes are not to scale.A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant thatis massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.[a][1][2]The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, astrology, science, mythology, and religion. Several planets in the Solar System
Solar System
can be seen with the naked eye. These were regarded by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of deities. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
(IAU) officially adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System
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Distance Modulus
The distance modulus is a way of expressing distances that is often used in astronomy. It describes distances on a logarithmic scale based on the astronomical magnitude system.Contents1 Definition 2 Different kinds of distance moduli 3 Usage 4 ReferencesDefinition[edit] The distance modulus μ = m − M displaystyle mu =m-M is the difference between the apparent magnitude m displaystyle m (ideally, corrected from the effects of interstellar absorption) and the absolute magnitude M displaystyle M of an astronomical object
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Vega
Vega, also designated Alpha Lyrae (α Lyrae, abbreviated Alpha Lyr or α Lyr), is the brightest star in the constellation of Lyra, the fifth-brightest star in the night sky, and the second-brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere, after Arcturus
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