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Blue
BLUE is the colour between violet and green on the spectrum of visible light . Human eyes perceive blue when observing light with a wavelength between 450 and 495 nanometres . Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength appear more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength gradually appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometres. In painting and traditional colour theory , blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments, along with red and yellow, which can be mixed to form a wide gamut of colours. Red and blue mixed together form violet, blue and yellow together form green. Blue is also a primary colour in the RGB colour model , used to create all the colours on the screen of a television or computer monitor
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Old Saxon
OLD SAXON, also known as OLD LOW GERMAN, is a Germanic language
Germanic language
and the earliest recorded form of Low German
Low German
(spoken nowadays in Northern Germany
Germany
, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
). It belongs to the West Germanic branch and is closely related to the Anglo-Frisian
Anglo-Frisian
languages. It is documented from the 8th century until the 12th century, when it evolved into Middle Low German
Middle Low German
. It was spoken on the north-west coast of Germany
Germany
and in the Netherlands
Netherlands
by Saxon peoples
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Old Frisian
OLD FRISIAN is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine
Rhine
and Weser on the European North Sea
North Sea
coast. The Frisian settlers on the coast of South Jutland (today's Northern Friesland) also spoke Old Frisian but no medieval texts of this area are known. The language of the earlier inhabitants of the region between the Zuiderzee and Ems River (the Frisians famously mentioned by Tacitus
Tacitus
) is attested in only a few personal names and place-names. Old Frisian evolved into Middle Frisian , spoken from the 16th to the 19th century
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Old High German
OLD HIGH GERMAN (OHG, German : Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language
German language
, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050. Coherent written texts do not appear until the second half of the 8th century , and some treat the period before 750 as "prehistoric" and date the start of Old High German proper to 750 for this reason. There are, however, a number of Elder Futhark inscriptions dating to the 6th century (notably the Pforzen buckle ), as well as single words and many names found in Latin
Latin
texts predating the 8th century
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Middle English
MIDDLE ENGLISH (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
(1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500. This stage of the development of the English language
English language
roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages . Middle English
Middle English
developed out of Late Old English
Old English
, seeing many dramatic changes in its grammar, pronunciation and orthography . Writing customs during Middle English
Middle English
times varied widely, but by the end of the period, about 1470, aided by the invention of the printing press , a standard based on the London
London
dialect (Chancery Standard) had become established
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Modern English
MODERN ENGLISH (sometimes NEW ENGLISH or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English
Old English
) is the form of the English language
English language
spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550
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Oxygen
OXYGEN is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table , a highly reactive nonmetal , and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds . By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium . At standard temperature and pressure , two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen , a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth\'s atmosphere . As compounds including oxides, the element makes up almost half of the Earth\'s crust
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Atmospheric Perspective
AERIAL PERSPECTIVE or ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE refers to the effect the atmosphere has on the appearance of an object as it is viewed from a distance. As the distance between an object and a viewer increases, the contrast between the object and its background decreases, and the contrast of any markings or details within the object also decreases. The colours of the object also become less saturated and shift towards the background colour, which is usually blue, but under some conditions may be some other colour (for example, at sunrise or sunset distant colours may shift towards red)
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES (or MEDIEVAL PERIOD) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Judaism
JUDAISM (originally from Hebrew יהודה‬, Yehudah, "Judah "; via Latin
Latin
and Greek ) is an ancient, monotheistic , Abrahamic religion with the Torah
Torah
as its foundational text. It encompasses the religion , philosophy and culture of the Jewish people . Judaism
Judaism
is considered by religious Jews
Jews
to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of Israel
Israel
. Judaism
Judaism
includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. The Torah
Torah
is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash
Midrash
and the Talmud
Talmud

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The Renaissance
The RENAISSANCE (UK : /rᵻˈneɪsəns/ , US : /rɛnəˈsɑːns/ ) was a period in European history , from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and modern history . It started as a cultural movement in Italy
Italy
in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe, marking the beginning of the Early Modern Age . The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism , derived from the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras
Protagoras
, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete
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Afghanistan
Coordinates : 33°N 65°E / 33°N 65°E / 33; 65 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan * د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت ( Pashto
Pashto
) * Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat * جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان (Dari ) * Jomhūrīyyeh Eslāmīyyeh Afġānestān Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله "Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh" "There is no god but God; Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God
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Human Eyes
The HUMAN EYE is an organ which reacts to light and pressure. As a sense organ , the mammalian eye allows vision . Human eyes help provide a three dimensional, moving image, normally coloured in daylight. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth. The human eye can differentiate between about 10 million colors and is possibly capable of detecting a single photon . Similar to the eyes of other mammals , the human eye's non-image-forming photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina receive light signals which affect adjustment of the size of the pupil, regulation and suppression of the hormone melatonin and entrainment of the body clock
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Old French
OLD FRENCH (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d\'oïl , contrasting with the langue d\'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French , the language of the French Renaissance
French Renaissance
, specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France
Île-de-France
region
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Terahertz (unit)
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven
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Nanometre
The NANOMETRE (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures ; SI symbol: NM) or NANOMETER (American spelling ) is a unit of length in the metric system , equal to one billionth of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms . When used as a prefix for something other than a unit of measure (as in "nanoscience"), NANO refers to nanotechnology , or phenomena typically occurring on a scale of nanometres (see nanoscopic scale )
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