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Blood Vessel
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.[1] There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart. The word vascular, meaning relating to the blood vessels, is derived from the Latin
Latin
vas, meaning vessel. A few structures (such as cartilage and the lens of the eye) do not contain blood vessels and are labeled.Contents1 Structure1.1 Types2 Function2.1 Vessel size 2.2 Blood
Blood
flow3 Disease 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] The arteries and veins have three layers. The middle layer is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins:The inner layer, Tunica intima, is the thinnest layer
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Vascular Plant
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species [5]) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta[6][4]:251 and Tracheobionta.[7]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Phylogeny 3 Nutrient distribution3.1 Transpiration 3.2 Absorption 3.3 Conduction4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyCharacteristics[edit] Vascular plants are distinguished by two primary characteristics:Vascular plants have vascular tissues which distribute resources through the plant
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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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Circulatory Anastomosis
A circulatory anastomosis is a connection (an anastomosis) between two blood vessels, such as between arteries (arterio-arterial anastomosis), between veins (veno-venous anastomosis) or between an artery and a vein (arterio-venous anastomosis). Anastomoses between arteries and between veins result in a multitude of arteries and veins, respectively, serving the same volume of tissue. Such anastomoses occur normally in the body in the circulatory system, serving as backup routes for blood to flow if one link is blocked or otherwise compromised, but may also occur pathologically.[1]Contents1 Physiologic1.1 Coronary1.1.1 Surgical intervention 1.1.2 Naturally occurring1.2 Arterio-venous2 Pathologic 3 ReferencesPhysiologic[edit] Arterio-arterial anastomoses include actual (e.g., palmar and plantar arches) and potential varieties (e.g., coronary arteries and cortical branch of cerebral arteries). There are many examples of normal arterio-arterial anastomoses in the body
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Elastic Artery
An elastic artery (conducting artery or conduit artery) is an artery with a large number of collagen and elastin filaments in the tunica media, which gives it the ability to stretch in response to each pulse.[1] This elasticity also gives rise to the Windkessel effect, which helps to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the arteries despite the pulsating nature of the blood flow. Elastic arteries include the largest arteries in the body, those closest to the heart. They give rise to medium-sized vessels known as distributing arteries (or muscular arteries). The pulmonary arteries, the aorta, and its branches together comprise the body's system of elastic arteries. Elastic arteries receive their own blood supply by the vasa vasorum unlike smaller blood vessels, which are supplied by diffusion References[edit]^ Shadwick RE (December 1999). "Mechanical design in arteries". J. Exp. Biol. 202 (Pt 23): 3305–13
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Distributing Artery
A distributing artery (or muscular artery) is a medium-sized artery that draws blood from an elastic artery and branch into "resistance vessels" including small arteries and arterioles. In contrast to the mechanism elastic arteries use to store energy generated by the heart's contraction, distributing arteries contain layers of smooth muscle. Under the microscope distributing arteries can be identified by their clearly defined internal elastic lamina. In constricted vessels the elastic lamina of distributing arteries appears thick and kinky
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Arteriole
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.[1] Arterioles have muscular walls (usually only one to two layers of smooth muscle) and are the primary site of vascular resistance. The greatest change in blood pressure and velocity of blood flow occurs at the transition of arterioles to capillaries.Contents1 Structure1.1 Microanatomy2 Physiology2.1 Blood pressure 2.2 Stretch3 Clinical significance3.1 Disease3.1.1 Arteriosclerosis 3.1.2 Arteritis3.2 Medication4 Metarterioles 5 See also 6 ReferencesStructure[edit] Microanatomy[edit] In a healthy vascular system the endothelium lines all blood-contacting surfaces, including arterioles, arteries, veins, capillaries, and heart chambers
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Venule
A venule is a very small blood vessel in the microcirculation that allows blood to return from the capillary beds to drain into the larger blood vessels, the veins. Venules range from 7μm to 1mm in diameter. Veins contain approximately 70% of total blood volume, 25% of which is contained in the venules.[1] Many venules unite to form a vein.Contents1 Structure 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksStructure[edit] Venule
Venule
walls have three layers: An inner endothelium composed of squamous endothelial cells that act as a membrane, a middle layer of muscle and elastic tissue and an outer layer of fibrous connective tissue. The middle layer is poorly developed so that venules have thinner walls than arterioles
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Subclavian Vein
The subclavian vein is a paired large vein, one on either side of the body. Their diameter is approximately that of the smallest finger.Contents1 Structure 2 Function 3 History 4 See also 5 Additional imagesStructure[edit] Each subclavian vein is a continuation of the axillary vein and runs from the outer border of the first rib to the medial border of anterior scalene muscle. From here it joins with the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein (also known as "innominate vein"). The angle of union is termed the venous angle. The subclavian vein follows the subclavian artery and is separated from the subclavian artery by the insertion of anterior scalene. Thus, the subclavian vein lies anterior to the anterior scalene while the subclavian artery lies posterior to the anterior scalene (and anterior to the middle scalene). Function[edit] The thoracic duct drains into the left subclavian vein, near its junction with the left internal jugular vein
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Jugular Vein
The jugular veins are veins that take deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava.Contents1 Structure1.1 Internal 1.2 External2 Clinical significance2.1 Pressure3 Society and culture3.1 Idiom4 See also 5 ReferencesStructure[edit] There are two sets of jugular veins: external and internal. The left and right external jugular veins drain into the subclavian veins. The internal jugular veins join with the subclavian veins more medially to form the brachiocephalic veins. Finally, the left and right brachiocephalic veins join to form the superior vena cava, which delivers deoxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart.[1] Internal[edit] Main article: Internal jugular vein The internal jugular vein is formed by the anastomosis of blood from the sigmoid sinus of the dura mater and the common facial vein. The internal jugular runs with the common carotid artery and vagus nerve inside the carotid sheath
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Iliac Vein
In human anatomy, iliac vein refers to several anatomical structures located in the pelvis:Common iliac vein, formed by the external and internal iliac veins, drains into the inferior vena cava Deep circumflex iliac vein, formed by the union of the venae comitantes of the deep iliac circumflex artery, and joins the external iliac vein External iliac vein, terminates at the common iliac vein, drains the femoral vein Internal iliac vein, terminates at the common iliac vein, drains pelvic organs and perineumv t eVeins of the abdomen and pelvisTo azygos systemascending lumbarsubcostalIVC (Systemic)To IVC or left renal veininferior phrenic hepaticcentral veins of liver liver sinusoidsuprarenal renal gonadalovarian ♀/testicular ♂ pampiniform plexus ♂lumbar common iliacCommon iliacUnpairedmedian sacral veinInternal iliacposterior:iliolumbar superior glutea
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Venae Cavae
The venae cavae (/ˈviːni ˈkeɪvi/;[1] from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava" /ˈviːnə ˈkeɪvə/)[2] are two large veins (venous trunks) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart. In humans there are the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava, and both empty into the right atrium.[3] They are located slightly off-center, toward the right side of the body. The inferior vena cava (or caudal vena cava in some animals) travels up alongside the abdominal aorta with blood from the lower part of the body. It is the largest vein in the human body.[4] The superior vena cava (or cranial vena cava in animals) is above the heart, and forms from a convergence of the left and right brachiocephalic veins, which contain blood from the head and the arms. References[edit]^ Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Merriam-Webster.  ^ Cambridge Dictionary, Cambridge Dictionary, Cambridge Dictionary.  ^ vena cava. Dictionary.com
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Pulmonary Artery
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs. The largest pulmonary artery is the main pulmonary artery. or pulmonary trunk from the heart, and the smallest ones are the arterioles which lead to the capillaries that surround the pulmonary alveoli.Contents1 Pulmonary arterial tree 2 Development 3 Function3.1 Pressure4 Clinical significance 5 Additional images 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksPulmonary arterial tree[edit] Volume rendering
Volume rendering
of a high resolution CT scan
CT scan
of the thorax. The anterior thoracic wall, the airways and the pulmonary vessels anterior to the root of the lung have been digitally removed in order to visualize the different levels of the pulmonary circulation.In order of blood flow, the pulmonary arteries start as the pulmonary trunk or main pulmonary artery
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Nerve
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts.[1][2] Neurons are sometimes called nerve cells, though this term is potentially misleading since many neurons do not form nerves, and nerves also include non-neuronal Schwann cells
Schwann cells
that coat the axons in myelin. Each nerve is a cordlike structure containing bundles of axons. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium. The axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, and each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium
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Pulmonary Vein
The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart. The largest pulmonary veins are the four main pulmonary veins, two from each lung that drain into the left atrium of the heart. The pulmonary veins are part of the pulmonary circulation.Contents1 Structure1.1 Variation2 Function 3 Clinical significance 4 Additional images 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] Two main pulmonary veins emerge from each lung hilum, receiving blood from three or four bronchial veins apiece and draining into the left atrium. An inferior and superior main vein drains each lung, so there are four main veins in total.[1] At the root of the lung, the right superior pulmonary vein lies in front of and a little below the pulmonary artery; the inferior is situated at the lowest part of the lung hilum
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