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Blood Flow
Hemodynamics
Hemodynamics
or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow. The circulatory system is controlled by homeostatic mechanisms, much as hydraulic circuits are controlled by control systems. Hemodynamic response continuously monitors and adjusts to conditions in the body and its environment. Thus hemodynamics explains the physical laws that govern the flow of blood in the blood vessels. Blood
Blood
flow ensures the transportation of nutrients, hormones, metabolic wastes, O2 and CO2
CO2
throughout the body to maintain cell-level metabolism, the regulation of the pH, osmotic pressure and temperature of the whole body, and the protection from microbial and mechanical harms.[1] Blood
Blood
is a non-Newtonian fluid, best studied using rheology rather than hydrodynamics
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Fluid Dynamics
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases. It has several subdisciplines, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion). Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on aircraft, determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines, predicting weather patterns, understanding nebulae in interstellar space and modelling fission weapon detonation. Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure—which underlies these practical disciplines—that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems
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Egyptians
Egyptians
Egyptians
(Egyptian Arabic: مَصريين‎  IPA: [mɑsˤɾɪjˈjiːn]; Maṣreyyīn; Arabic: مِصريّون‎; Coptic: ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt
Egypt
and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian identity
Egyptian identity
is closely tied to geography. The population of Egypt
Egypt
is concentrated in the lower Nile
Nile
Valley, the small strip of cultivable land stretching from the First Cataract to the Mediterranean and enclosed by desert both to the east and to the west. This unique geography has been the basis of the development of Egyptian society since antiquity. The daily language of the Egyptians
Egyptians
is the local variety of Arabic, known as Egyptian Arabic or Masri
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Young's Modulus
Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material. It is a mechanical property of linear elastic solid materials. It defines the relationship between stress (force per unit area) and strain (proportional deformation) in a material. Young's modulus
Young's modulus
is named after the 19th-century British scientist Thomas Young. However, the concept was developed in 1727 by Leonhard Euler, and the first experiments that used the concept of Young's modulus
Young's modulus
in its current form were performed by the Italian scientist Giordano Riccati
Giordano Riccati
in 1782, pre-dating Young's work by 25 years.[1] The term modulus is the diminutive of the Latin term modus which means measure. A solid material will deform when a load is applied to it. If it returns to its original shape after the load is removed, this is called elastic deformation
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Pascal (unit)
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus
Young's modulus
and ultimate tensile strength
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Inertia
Inertia
Inertia
is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its state of motion. This includes changes to the object's speed, direction, or state of rest. Inertia
Inertia
is also defined as the tendency of objects to keep moving in a straight line at a constant velocity. The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental principles in classical physics that are still used to describe the motion of objects and how they are affected by the applied forces on them. Inertia
Inertia
comes from the Latin word, iners, meaning idle, sluggish. Inertia
Inertia
is one of the primary manifestations of mass, which is a quantitative property of physical systems
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Gravitational
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another, including objects ranging from atoms and photons, to planets and stars. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy (including light) cause gravitation and are under the influence of it. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, and the Moon's gravity causes the ocean tides. The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe
Universe
caused it to begin coalescing, forming stars – and for the stars to group together into galaxies – so gravity is responsible for many of the large scale structures in the Universe
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Stokes' Law
In 1851, George Gabriel Stokes
George Gabriel Stokes
derived an expression, now known as Stokes's law, for the frictional force – also called drag force – exerted on spherical objects with very small Reynolds numbers in a viscous fluid
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Sedimentation Velocity
A svedberg' unit (symbol S, sometimes Sv) is a non-metric unit for sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate for a particle of a given size and shape measures how fast the particle 'settles', the sedimentation
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Fluid
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress. Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquids, gases, plasmas, and to some extent, plastic solids. Fluids are substances that have zero shear modulus, or, in simpler terms, a fluid is a substance which cannot resist any shear force applied to it. Although the term "fluid" includes both the liquid and gas phases, in common usage, "fluid" is often used as a synonym for "liquid", with no implication that gas could also be present. For example, "brake fluid" is hydraulic oil and will not perform its required incompressible function if there is gas in it. This colloquial usage of the term is also common in medicine and in nutrition ("take plenty of fluids"). Liquids form a free surface (that is, a surface not created by the container) while gases do not. The distinction between solids and fluid is not entirely obvious
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Therapeutic
Therapy
Therapy
(often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis. In the medical field, it is usually synonymous with treatment (also abbreviated tx or Tx). Among psychologists and other mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, counselors, and clinical social workers, the term may refer specifically to psychotherapy (sometimes dubbed 'talking therapy')
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Colloid
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance. Sometimes the dispersed substance alone is called the colloid;[1] the term colloidal suspension refers unambiguously to the overall mixture (although a narrower sense of the word suspension is distinguished from colloids by larger particle size). Unlike a solution, whose solute and solvent constitute only one phase, a colloid has a dispersed phase (the suspended particles) and a continuous phase (the medium of suspension)
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Red Blood Cell
Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.[1] RBCs take up oxygen in the lungs, or gills of fish, and release it into tissues while squeezing through the body's capillaries. The cytoplasm of erythrocytes is rich in hemoglobin, an iron-containing biomolecule that can bind oxygen and is responsible for the red color of the cells. The cell membrane is composed of proteins and lipids, and this structure provides properties essential for physiological cell function such as deformability and stability while traversing the circulatory system and specifically the capillary network. In humans, mature red blood cells are flexible and oval biconcave disks
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Volume Expander
A volume expander is a type of intravenous therapy that has the function of providing volume for the circulatory system. It may be used for fluid replacement.Contents1 Physiology 2 Types2.1 Crystalloids2.1.1 Normal saline 2.1.2 Ringer's solution 2.1.3 1/3 NS 2/3D5 2.1.4 Glucose
Glucose
(dextrose) 2.1.5 Comparison table2.2 Colloids2.2.1 Hydroxyethyl starch 2.2.2 Gelofusine3 ReferencesPhysiology[edit] When blood is lost, the greatest immediate need is to stop further blood loss. The second greatest need is replacing the lost volume. This way remaining red blood cells can still oxygenate body tissue. Normal human blood has a significant excess oxygen transport capability, only used in cases of great physical exertion
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Blood Transfusion
Blood
Blood
transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously. Transfusions
Transfusions
are used for various medical conditions to replace lost components of the blood
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Arterioles
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.[1] Arterioles have muscular walls (usually only one to two layers of smooth muscle) and are the primary site of vascular resistance. The greatest change in blood pressure and velocity of blood flow occurs at the transition of arterioles to capillaries.Contents1 Structure1.1 Microanatomy2 Physiology2.1 Blood pressure 2.2 Stretch3 Clinical significance3.1 Disease3.1.1 Arteriosclerosis 3.1.2 Arteritis3.2 Medication4 Metarterioles 5 See also 6 ReferencesStructure[edit] Microanatomy[edit] In a healthy vascular system the endothelium lines all blood-contacting surfaces, including arterioles, arteries, veins, capillaries, and heart chambers
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