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Blocked Sewer
A drain cleaner is a chemical-based consumer product that unblocks sewer pipes or helps to prevent the occurrence of clogged drains. The term may also refer to the individual who performs the activity with chemical drain cleaners or devices known as plumber's snake. Drain cleaners can be classified in two categories: either chemical or mechanical.If a single sink, toilet, or tub or shower drain is clogged, the first choice is normally a drain cleaner that can remove soft obstructions such as hair and grease clogs that can accumulate close to interior drain openings
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Chemical
A chemical substance[1], also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.[2] It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds.[3] Chemical substances can be chemical elements, chemical compounds, ions or alloys. Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory. Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold, table salt (sodium chloride) and refined sugar (sucrose)
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Drain Rods
Drain rods are plumbing equipment used to attempt to unblock drains and sewers. The set normally consists of several stiff, but flexible, rods, each approximately one meter long, which may be screwed together end-to-end. The material is often polypropylene heavy gauge tubing. Jointing of the plastic to metal is done in hydraulic presses and these joints are the achilles heel of this rod type. Often, when subjected to force, the joint breaks. Better quality ends have securing pins through the differing materials. More expensive rods are high tensile steel. End connections are often brass or steel, the better steel type having cadmium plating for corrosion resistance. Two types of threaded end can be purchased. Cheaper ones simply screw together, male to female but have the disadvantage of needing one-way rotation in use to prevent unscrewing. Better quality rods have their ends formed into a square peg, mating in a matching square hole in the adjacent rod
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Acid Hydrolysis
In organic chemistry, acid hydrolysis is a process in which a protic acid is used to catalyze the cleavage of a chemical bond via a nucleophilic substitution reaction, with the addition of the elements of water (H2O). For example, in the conversion of cellulose or starch to glucose. For the case of esters and amides, it can be defined as an acid catalyzed nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction. The term is also applied to certain nucleophilic addition reactions, such as in the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of nitriles to amides
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Dehydration Reaction
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule. Dehydration reactions are a subset of condensation reactions. Because the hydroxyl group (–OH) is a poor leaving group, having a Brønsted acid catalyst often helps by protonating the hydroxyl group to give the better leaving group, –OH2+. The reverse of a dehydration reaction is a hydration reaction. Common dehydrating agents used in organic synthesis include concentrated sulfuric acid, concentrated phosphoric acid, hot aluminium oxide and hot ceramic. Dehydration reactions and dehydration synthesis have the same meaning, and are often used interchangeably. Two monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, can be joined together (to form sucrose) using dehydration synthesis
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Carbohydrates
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n).[1] This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,[2] has the empirical formula C5H10O4.[3] The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon;[4] structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketoses .[5] The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
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Tissue Paper
Tissue paper
Tissue paper
or simply tissue is a lightweight paper or, light crêpe paper. Tissue can be made from recycled paper pulp. Tissue paper
Tissue paper
sheetContents1 Properties 2 Production 3 Applications3.1 Hygienic tissue paper 3.2 Facial tissues 3.3 Paper
Paper
towels 3.4 Wrapping tissue 3.5 Toilet tissue 3.6 Table napkins 3.7 Acoustic disrupter 3.8 Road repair 3.9 Packing industry4 The industry4.1 Companies5 Sustainability5.1 Types of eco-labels6 See also 7 ReferencesProperties[edit] Key properties are absorbency, basis weight, thickness, bulk (specific volume), brightness, stretch, appearance and comfort. Production[edit] Main article: Fourdrinier machine Tissue paper
Tissue paper
is produced on a paper machine that has a single large steam heated drying cylinder (yankee dryer) fitted with a hot air hood. The raw material is paper pulp
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Cellulose
Cellulose
Cellulose
is an organic compound with the formula (C 6H 10O 5) n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.[3][4] Cellulose
Cellulose
is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms.[5] Cellulose
Cellulose
is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth.[6] The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%.[7][8][9] Cellulose
Cellulose
is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper. Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under investigation as an alternative fuel source
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Aluminium Oxide
Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula Al2O3. It is the most commonly occurring of several aluminium oxides, and specifically identified as aluminium(III) oxide. It is commonly called alumina (regardless of whether the element is spelled aluminum or aluminium), and may also be called aloxide, aloxite, or alundum depending on particular forms or applications. It occurs naturally in its crystalline polymorphic phase α-Al2O3 as the mineral corundum, varieties of which form the precious gemstones ruby and sapphire
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Closet Auger
A plumber's snake is a slender, flexible auger used to dislodge clogs in plumbing. The plumber's snake is often reserved for difficult clogs that cannot be loosened with a plunger. It is also sometimes called a toilet jack.Contents1 Auger varieties1.1 Hand auger / hand spinner 1.2 Closet auger / toilet auger 1.3 Drum augers 1.4 Roto-Rooter2 See also 3 External linksAuger varieties[edit] Plumber's snakes have a coiled (helix-shaped) metal wire with a broader gap between the coils at the terminal end. The operator turns a crank to rotate the helix as it moves through the pipe. If the clog is caused by a dense, but shreddable obstacle, such as tree roots or glass wool, the auger might break it up enough to enable flow. A small, lightweight obstruction might be snagged or corkscrewed by the auger, enabling the operator to pull it away
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Water Closet
A flush toilet (also known as a flushing toilet, flush lavatory or water closet (WC)) is a toilet that disposes of human excreta (urine and feces) by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location for disposal, thus maintaining a separation between humans and their excreta. Flush toilets can be designed for sitting (in which case they are also called "Western" toilets) or for squatting, in the case of squat toilets. The opposite of a flush toilet is a dry toilet, which uses no water for flushing. Flush toilets usually incorporate an "S", "U", "J", or "P" shaped bend (called a trap, such as P trap or S trap) that causes the water in the toilet bowl to collect and act as a seal against sewer gases (trapping the gases). Since flush toilets are typically not designed to handle waste on site, their drain pipes must be connected to waste conveyance and waste treatment systems
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Soap
Soap
Soap
is both a salt of a fatty acid[1] and the term for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from it. Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying[2] oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry, they are used as thickeners, components of some lubricants, and precursors to catalysts.Contents1 Kinds of soaps1.1 Non-toilet soaps1.1.1 Production of metallic soaps1.2 Toilet soaps1.2.1 Production of toilet soaps 1.2.2 History1.2.2.1 Ancient Middle East 1.2.2.2 Roman Empire 1.2.2.3 Ancient China 1.2.2.4 Islamic Middle East 1.2.2.5 Medieval Europe 1.2.2.6 15th–19th centuries 1.2.2.7 Liquid soap1.2.3 Soap-making for hobbyists2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksKinds of soaps Since they are salt of fatty acids, soaps have the general formula (RCO2−)nMn+ (R = alkyl)
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Consumer Product
In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good. Consumer
Consumer
goods are goods that are ultimately consumed rather than used in the production of another good. For example, a microwave oven or a bicycle which is sold to a consumer is a final good or consumer good, whereas the components which are sold to be used in those goods are called intermediate goods. For example, textiles or transistors which can be used to make some further goods. When used in measures of national income and output, the term "final goods" only includes new goods. For instance, the GDP excludes items counted in an earlier year to prevent double counting of production based on resales of the same item second and third hand
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Vicat
Vicat
Vicat
SA is a French company manufacturing cement, aggregates and ready-mix concrete in four continents.Contents1 History 2 Operations 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit]World locations of Vicat.The company was established in 1853 by Joseph Vicat
Vicat
(1821-1902), son of Louis Vicat, who invented artificial cement in 1817. His cement plant was at Genevrey-de-Vif south of Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère). It used an argillaceous limestone that Joseph Vicat
Vicat
had established as suitable by chemical analysis. The company expanded in 1922 with the construction of a plant at Montalieu nearby. In 1968, Heidelberg Cement
Cement
bought a stake in the company, which eventually grew to 35%. Major expansion began in 1968 with the construction of another plant in the Grenoble
Grenoble
area and with a program of acquisitions throughout France
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Pressure Washer
Pressure washing
Pressure washing
or power washing is the use of high-pressure water spray to remove loose paint, mold, grime, dust, mud, chewing gum and dirt from surfaces and objects such as buildings, vehicles and concrete surfaces. The volume of a mechanical pressure washer is expressed in gallons or litres per minute, often designed into the pump and not variable. The pressure, expressed in pounds per square inch, pascals, or bar, is designed into the pump but can be varied by adjusting the unloader valve. Machines that produce pressures from 750 to 30,000 psi (5 to 200 MPa) or more are available. Hydro-jet cleaning is a more powerful form of power washing, employed to remove buildup and debris in tanks and lines.[1]Contents1 See also 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksSee also[edit]Briggs & Stratton Kärcher Nilfisk Reverse graffitiReferences[edit]^ Blaxter & Russell; J. H. S. Blaxter; Frederick S. Russell (1984)
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