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Bleach Bypass
BLEACH BYPASS, also known as SKIP BLEACH or SILVER RETENTION, is an optical effect which entails either the partial or complete skipping of the bleaching function during the processing of a color film. By doing this, the silver is retained in the emulsion along with the color dyes. The result is a black-and-white image over a color image. The images usually have reduced saturation and exposure latitude , along with increased contrast and graininess. It usually is used to maximum effect in conjunction with a one-stop underexposure. CONTENTS * 1 Technique * 2 Use in movies * 3 References * 4 External links TECHNIQUE Bleach bypass can be done to any photochemical step in the process, be it original camera negative , interpositive , internegative , or release print . For motion pictures, it is usually applied at the internegative stage, as insurance companies usually are reluctant to have the camera negative bleach bypassed, or the interpositive (a "protection"/"preservation" element), in the event that the look is agreed to be too extreme, and the cost of the process for each individual release print is most often cost-prohibitive. The effect, however, will render slightly differently at each stage, especially between the camera negative and interpositive stages. Bleach bypass generally refers to a complete circumvention of the bleach stage of development, and is the most commonly offered service among labs
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Alternative Process
The term ALTERNATIVE PROCESS refers to any non-traditional or non-commercial photographic printing process. Currently the standard analog photographic printing process is the gelatin silver process , and standard digital processes include the pigment print, and digital laser exposures on traditional color photographic paper. Alternative processes are often called historical, or non-silver processes. Most of these processes were invented over 100 years ago and were used by early photographers. Many contemporary photographers are revisiting alternative processes and applying new technologies (the digital negative ) and practices to these techniques
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Cross Processing
CROSS PROCESSING (sometimes abbreviated to XPRO) is the deliberate processing of photographic film in a chemical solution intended for a different type of film. The effect was discovered independently by many different photographers often by mistake in the days of C-22 and E-4 . Color
Color
cross processed photographs are often characterized by unnatural colors and high contrast. The results of cross processing differ from case to case, as the results are determined by many factors such as the make and type of the film used, the amount of light exposed onto the film and the chemical used to develop the film. Similar effects can also be achieved with digital filter effects. CONTENTS* 1 Processes * 1.1 Gallery * 2 See also * 3 References PROCESSES Cross processing
Cross processing
usually involves one of the two following methods. * Processing positive color reversal film in C-41 chemicals, resulting in a negative image on a colorless base. * Processing negative color print film in E-6 chemicals, resulting in a positive image but with the orange base of a normally processed color negative .However, cross processing can take other forms, such as negative color print film or positive color reversal film in black and white developer
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Cyanotype
CYANOTYPE is a photographic printing process that produces a cyan-blue print. Engineers used the process well into the 20th century as a simple and low-cost process to produce copies of drawings, referred to as blueprints . The process uses two chemicals: ammonium iron(III) citrate and potassium ferricyanide . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Process * 3 Toning * 4 Long-term preservation * 5 Largest cyanotype * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe English scientist and astronomer Sir John Herschel discovered the procedure in 1842. Though the process was developed by Herschel, he considered it as mainly a means of reproducing notes and diagrams, as in blueprints . Anna Atkins created a series of cyanotype limited-edition books that documented ferns and other plant life from her extensive seaweed collection, placing specimens directly onto coated paper and allowing the action of light to create a silhouette effect. By using this photogram process, Anna Atkins is sometimes considered the first female photographer. Numerous contemporary artists employ the cyanotype process in their art: Christian Marclay , Marco Breuer , Kate Cordsen , Hugh Scott-Douglas and WuChi-Tsung. PROCESS _ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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Double Exposure
In photography and cinematography , a MULTIPLE EXPOSURE is the superimposition of two or more exposures to create a single image, and DOUBLE EXPOSURE has a corresponding meaning in respect of two images. The exposure values may or may not be identical to each other. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Double exposure * 2.1 Analogue * 2.2 Digital * 3 Long exposures * 4 Scanning film with multiple exposure * 5 See also * 6 References OVERVIEW Look up MULTIPLE EXPOSURE in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.Ordinarily, cameras have a sensitivity to light that is a function of time. For example, a one-second exposure is an exposure in which the camera image is equally responsive to light over the exposure time of one second. The criterion for determining that something is a double exposure is that the sensitivity goes up and then back down. The simplest example of a multiple exposure is a double exposure without flash, i.e. two partial exposures are made and then combined into one complete exposure. Some single exposures, such as "flash and blur" use a combination of electronic flash and ambient exposure. This effect can be approximated by a Dirac delta measure (flash) and a constant finite rectangular window, in combination. For example, a sensitivity window comprising a Dirac comb
Dirac comb
combined with a rectangular pulse, is considered a multiple exposure, even though the sensitivity never goes to zero during the exposure
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Gum Bichromate
GUM BICHROMATE is a 19th-century photographic printing process based on the light sensitivity of dichromates . It is capable of rendering painterly images from photographic negatives. Gum printing is traditionally a multi-layered printing process, but satisfactory results may be obtained from a single pass. Any color can be used for gum printing, so natural-color photographs are also possible by using this technique in layers. CONTENTS * 1 History and process overview * 2 Darkroom technique * 2.1 Materials and equipment * 2.2 Recipe I * 2.3 Recipe II * 2.4 Stretching and sizing paper * 2.5 Sensitizing paper * 2.6 Printing in one color * 2.7 Printing in three colors * 2.8 Printing in four colors * 2.9 Archival wash * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORY AND PROCESS OVERVIEWGUM BICHROMATE, or gum dichromate as it is also known, is a photographic printing process invented in the early days of photography when, in 1839, Mungo Ponton discovered that dichromates are light sensitive. William Henry Fox Talbot later found that colloids such as gelatin and gum arabic became insoluble in water after exposure to light. Alphonse Poitevin
Alphonse Poitevin
added carbon pigment to the colloids in 1855, creating the first carbon print . In 1858, John Pouncy used colored pigment with gum arabic to create the first color images
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Infrared Photography
Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range. Bottom: same tree in the visible part of the spectrum . Infrared
Infrared
image of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
crossed by a bridge and a dam, between red foliage on left, and blue parking lots and buildings on right Visible vs. Infrared
Infrared
(900 nm LP) Aerial Photography of Old Hickory Lake , Tennessee
Tennessee
. Taken from a passenger airplane within seconds apart using SONY
SONY
H-9 Digital camera. In INFRARED PHOTOGRAPHY, the film or image sensor used is sensitive to infrared light. The part of the spectrum used is referred to as near-infrared to distinguish it from far-infrared, which is the domain of thermal imaging . Wavelengths used for photography range from about 700 nm to about 900 nm
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Oil Print Process
The OIL PRINT PROCESS is a photographic printmaking process that dates back to the mid 19th century. Oil prints are made on paper on which a thick gelatin layer has been sensitized to light using dichromate salts. After the paper is exposed to light through a negative, the gelatin emulsion is treated in such a way that highly exposed areas take up an oil-based paint, forming the photographic image. A significant drawback to the oil print process is that it requires the negative to be the same size as the final print because the medium isn't sensitive enough to light to make use of an enlarger . A subtype of the oil print process, the BROMOIL PROCESS, was developed in the early 20th century to solve this problem. The oil print and bromoil processes create soft images reminiscent of paint or pastels but with the distinctive indexicality of a photograph. For this reason, they were popular with the Pictorialists during the first half of the twentieth century. The painterly qualities of the prints continue to appeal to artists and have recently led some contemporary art photographers to take up these processes again. CONTENTS* 1 Oil print techniques * 1.1 Bromoil process * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading OIL PRINT TECHNIQUESThe origins of the oil print process go back to experiments by Alphonse Louis Poitevin
Alphonse Louis Poitevin
with bichromated gelatin in the 1850s
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Pinhole Camera
A PINHOLE CAMERA is a simple camera without a lens but with a tiny aperture , a _pinhole _ – effectively a light-proof box with a small hole in one side. Light from a scene passes through the aperture and projects an inverted image on the opposite side of the box, which is known as the camera obscura effect. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Camera obscura * 1.2 Early pinhole photography * 1.3 Film and integral photography experiments * 2 Usage * 3 Characteristics of pinhole camera photography * 4 Construction * 5 Selection of pinhole size * 6 Calculating the f-number "> A home-made pinhole camera (on the left), wrapped in black plastic to prevent light leaks, and related developing supplies Pinhole cameras can be handmade by the photographer for a particular purpose. In its simplest form, the photographic pinhole camera can consist of a light-tight box with a pinhole in one end, and a piece of film or photographic paper wedged or taped into the other end. A flap of cardboard with a tape hinge can be used as a shutter. The pinhole may be punched or drilled using a sewing needle or small diameter bit through a piece of tinfoil or thin aluminum or brass sheet. This piece is then taped to the inside of the light-tight box behind a hole cut through the box. A cylindrical oatmeal container may be made into a pinhole camera
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Platinum Print
PLATINUM PRINTS, also called platinotypes, are photographic prints made by a monochrome printing process. The platinum tones range from warm black, to reddish brown, to expanded mid-tone grays that are unobtainable in silver prints. Unlike the silver print process, platinum lies on the paper surface, while silver lies in a gelatin or albumen emulsion that coats the paper. As a result, since no gelatin emulsion is used, the final platinum image is absolutely matte with a deposit of platinum (and/or palladium , its sister element which is also used in most platinum photographs) absorbed slightly into the paper. Platinum
Platinum
prints are the most durable of all photographic processes. The platinum group metals are very stable against chemical reactions that might degrade the print—even more stable than gold. It is estimated that a platinum image, properly made, can last thousands of years. Some of the desirable characteristics of a platinum print include: * The reflective quality of the print is much more diffuse in nature compared to glossy prints that typically have specular reflections. * A very delicate, large tonal range. * Not being coated with gelatin , the prints do not exhibit the tendency to curl. * The darkest possible tones in the prints are lighter than silver-based prints
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Polaroid Art
Some POLAROID instant films are suitable for various forms of alternative processing leading to artistic effects. One form was the manipulation of SX-70 using various tools before the emulsion dried to create an oil painting effect. However, SX-70 is no longer in production and similar films by the Impossible Project do not have the same manipulable qualities. Emulsion lifting can be achieved by soaking Polaroid, Fuji peel-apart, and some Impossible Project's films in water and then transferring the emulsion to a new surface like wood, metal or paper. Image Transfers are another method of transferring the image from instant peel-apart film to a new surface. Image Transfers are done by peeling the negative positive sandwich apart early in development and pushing the wet negative side down firmly onto a sheet of print-making paper and applying an even pressure with a roller transferring it to the new surface
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Redscale
REDSCALE is a technique of shooting photographic film where the film is exposed from the wrong side, i.e. the emulsion is exposed through the base of the film. Normally, this is done by winding the film upside-down into an empty film canister. The name "redscale" comes because there is a strong color shift to red due to the red-sensitive layer of the film being exposed first, rather than last . All layers are sensitive to blue light, so normally the blue layer is on top, followed by a filter. In this technique, blue light exposes the layers containing red and green dyes, but the layer containing blue dye is left unexposed due to the filter. E-6 (color slide) film has also been used for this technique. Depending on the type of film used, the resulting colors seem to range from maroon, to red, to orange, to yellow. The technique seems to have been discovered accidentally. Some people shooting large format color film would load the individual negatives backwards. This phenomenon is likely as old as color film itself. However, it has only recently gained popularity as an effect intentionally sought. The technique is considered by some to be part of the lo-fi photography movement, along with use of toy cameras , pinhole cameras , instant cameras , and sprocket hole photography
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Solarisation
PSEUDO-SOLARISATION (or PSEUDO-SOLARIZATION) is a phenomenon in photography in which the image recorded on a negative or on a photographic print is wholly or partially reversed in tone. Dark areas appear light or light areas appear dark. The term is synonymous with the SABATIER EFFECT when referring to negatives. Solarisation
Solarisation
and pseudo-solarisation are quite distinct effects. In short, the mechanism is due to halogen ions released within the halide grain by exposure diffusing to the grain surface in amounts sufficient to destroy the latent image. CONTENTS * 1 The Sabatier effect * 2 In the darkroom * 2.1 Agfacontour Professional Film
Film
* 3 In digital media * 4 References * 5 External links THE SABATIER EFFECTInitially, the term solarisation was used to describe the effect observed in cases of extreme overexposure of the negative in the camera. Most likely, the effect was first observed in scenery photographs including the sun (e.q. sol, sun). The sun, instead of being the whitest spot in the image, turned black or grey. Minor White 's photograph of a winter scene, The Black Sun 1955, was a result of the shutter of his camera freezing in the open position, resulting in partial overexposure. Ansel Adams created an image titled Black Sun, Owens Valley, California (1939) by overexposure solarisation
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Sprocket Hole Photography
SPROCKET HOLE PHOTOGRAPHY is a style of photography that exposes the full width of 35 mm film , creating a photograph punctuated by the "sprocket holes" (perforations) along the edges of the film
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Through The Viewfinder Photography
THROUGH THE VIEWFINDER photography (TtV) is a photographic or videographic technique in which a photograph or video or motion picture film is shot with one camera through the viewfinder of a second camera. The viewfinder thus acts as a kind of lens filter. The most popular method involves using a digital camera as the image taking camera and an intact twin-lens reflex camera (TLR) or pseudo-TLR as the "viewfinder" camera. TLRs typically have square waist-level viewfinders , with the viewfinder plane at 90 degrees to the image plane. The image in a TLR viewfinder is laterally reversed, i.e. it is a mirror image. Most photographers use a cardboard tube or similar 'contraption' to connect the two cameras. This serves to eliminate stray light and prevent reflections appearing on the viewfinder glass or on the lens of the imaging camera. Set-up for through the viewfinder photography. The photograph is taken by a digital camera, top, through the viewfinder of a Kodak Duaflex box camera. The two cameras are linked by a cardboard tube to block out excess light and avoid reflections from the Duaflex glass. Public exhibit on THROUGH THE VIEWFINDER VIDEOGRAPHY, by S. Mann, LVAC (List Visual Arts Center), October 1997. The video is taken by EyeTap Generation-2 Glass (shown here worn by the mannequin) through the viewfinder of a hand-held video camera
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Optical Effect
COMPOSITING is the combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images, often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene. Live-action shooting for compositing is variously called "chroma key ", "blue screen", "green screen" and other names. Today, most, though not all, compositing is achieved through digital image manipulation. Pre-digital compositing techniques, however, go back as far as the trick films of Georges Méliès in the late 19th century, and some are still in use. CONTENTS * 1 Basic procedure * 2 Typical applications * 3 Physical compositing * 4 Multiple exposure
Multiple exposure
* 5 Background projection * 6 Matting * 7 Advantages of digital mattes * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links BASIC PROCEDUREAll compositing involves the replacement of selected parts of an image with other material, usually, but not always, from another image. In the digital method of compositing, software commands designate a narrowly defined color as the part of an image to be replaced. Then the software replaces every pixel within the designated color range with a pixel from another image, aligned to appear as part of the original. For example, one could record a television weather presenter positioned in front of a plain blue or green background, while compositing software replaces only the designated blue or green color with weather maps
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