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Blast Wall
A BLAST WALL is a barrier designed to protect vulnerable buildings or other structures and the people inside them from the effects of a nearby explosion , whether caused by industrial accident , military action or terrorism . CONTENTS * 1 Effectiveness * 2 Types * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links EFFECTIVENESSResearch by Cranfield University Defence Academy , building on earlier work, has shown that blast walls have the following properties: * A non-deforming upright wall will significantly reduce the peak blast overpressure and impulse in an area between 4 and 6 wall heights behind it * Similar protection occurs at greater distances behind the wall, but to a diminishing extent * Blast walls perform best if the explosion is relatively close to the front of the wall * "Canopied" walls (with a top section overhanging the front face) show some improved blast protection over plane walls * A 90-degree canopy is more effective than a 45-degree one * Walls containing sand or water work well, and cause little damage if they fail * A wall has to stay intact long enough to "interact" with the blast in order to have any effect TYPES Damage to Bremer wall concrete barriers in Afghanistan, 2012 Permanent blast walls can be made from pre-cast reinforced concrete , or steel sheeting. Various types of moveable blast wall have been manufactured
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Hesco Bastion
The HESCO BASTION is a modern gabion primarily used for flood control and military fortifications . It is made of a collapsible wire mesh container and heavy duty fabric liner, and used as a temporary to semi-permanent levee or blast wall against explosions or small-arms . It has seen considerable use in Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. It was developed in the late 1980s by a British company of the same name. Originally designed for use on beaches and marshes for erosion and flood control, the HESCO Bastion
Bastion
quickly became a popular security device in the 1990s. HESCO barriers continue to be used for their original purpose. They were used in 2005 to reinforce levees around New Orleans in the few days between Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita . During the June 2008 Midwest floods 8,200 metres (9,000 yd) of HESCO barrier wall were shipped to Iowa. In late March, 2009, 10,700 metres (11,700 yd) of HESCO barrier were delivered to Fargo, North Dakota to protect against floods. In late September, 2016, 10 miles of HESCO barriers were used in Cedar Rapids, Iowa , for the fall flood of 2016. Specifically, the brand name for the barrier is "Concertainer" (a portmanteau of "concertina " and "container"), with HESCO Bastion being the company that produces it
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Afghanistan
Coordinates : 33°N 65°E / 33°N 65°E / 33; 65 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan * _د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت_ ( Pashto ) * _Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat_ * _جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان_ (Dari ) * _Jomhūrīyyeh Eslāmīyyeh Afġānestān_ Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله "Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh" "There is no god but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God
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Explosion
An EXPLOSION is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases . Supersonic
Supersonic
explosions created by high explosives are known as detonations and travel via supersonic shock waves . Subsonic explosions are created by low explosives through a slower burning process known as deflagration . When caused by a human-made device such as an exploding rocket or firework, the audible component of an explosion is referred to as its "report" (which can also be used as a verb, e.g., "the rocket reported loudly upon impact"). CONTENTS* 1 Causes * 1.1 Natural * 1.1.1 Astronomical * 1.2 Chemical * 1.3 Electrical and magnetic * 1.4 Mechanical and vapor * 1.5 Nuclear * 2 Properties of explosions * 2.1 Force * 2.2 Velocity * 2.3 Evolution of heat * 2.4 Initiation of reaction * 2.5 Fragmentation * 3 Notable explosions * 3.1 Chemical explosions * 3.2 Nuclear testing * 3.3 Use in war * 3.4 Volcanic eruptions * 4 Etymology * 5 See also * 6 References CAUSESNATURALExplosions can occur in nature. Most natural explosions arise from volcanic processes of various sorts. Explosive volcanic eruptions occur when magma rising from below has much-dissolved gas in it; the reduction of pressure as the magma rises causes the gas to bubble out of solution, resulting in a rapid increase in volume
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Industrial Accident
A WORK ACCIDENT, WORKPLACE ACCIDENT, OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENT, or ACCIDENT AT WORK is a "discrete occurrence in the course of work" leading to physical or mental occupational injury . According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), more than 337 million accidents happen on the job each year, resulting, together with occupational diseases , in more than 2.3 million deaths annually. The phrase "in the course of work" can include work-related accidents happening off the company's premises, and can include accidents caused by third parties, according to Eurostat . The definition of work accident includes accidents occurring "while engaged in an economic activity, or at work, or carrying on the business of the employer" according to the ILO. The phrase "physical or mental harm" means any injury , disease , or death. Occupational accidents differ from occupational diseases as accidents are unexpected and unplanned occurrences (e.g., mine collapse ), while occupational diseases are "contracted as a result of an exposure over a period of time to risk factors arising from work activity" (e.g., miner\'s lung ). Incidents that fall within the definition of occupational accidents include cases of acute poisoning , attacks by humans and animals, insects etc., slips and falls on pavements or staircases, traffic collisions , and accidents on board means of transportation in the course of work, accidents in airports, stations and so on
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Terrorism
TERRORISM, in its broadest sense, describes the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror or fear , in order to achieve a political, religious or ideological aim. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence against peacetime targets or in war against non-combatants . The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" have been used since the late 18th century, have gained popularity during the U.S. Presidency of Ronald Reagan (1981–89) after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings and again after the attacks on New York City
New York City
and Washington, D.C. in September 2001 and on Bali in October 2002 . Nevertheless, there is no commonly accepted definition of 'terrorism'. Having the moral charge in our vocabulary of 'something morally wrong', the term 'terrorism' is often being used, both by governments and non-state-groups, to abuse or denounce opposite groups. Broad categories of political organisations have been claimed to have been involved in terrorism in order to further their objectives, including right-wing and left-wing political organisations, nationalist groups , religious groups , revolutionaries and ruling governments . Terrorism-related legislation has been adopted in various states , regarding "terrorism" as a crime. Debates are held over whether "terrorism" in some definition should be regarded as a war crime
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Cranfield University
CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY is a British postgraduate and research-based public university specialising in science, engineering, technology and management. It contains two campuses : the main campus is at Cranfield , Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
, and the second is at the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
at Shrivenham
Shrivenham
, southwest Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
. The main campus is unique in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
for having a semi-operational airport ( Cranfield
Cranfield
Airport ) on campus. The airport facilities are used by Cranfield
Cranfield
University's own aircraft in the course of aerospace teaching and research. Cranfield
Cranfield
was founded as the COLLEGE OF AERONAUTICS in 1946, gained degree awarding powers as the CRANFIELD INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY in 1969 and became a university in its own right under its current name in 1993
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Defence College Of Management And Technology
The ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE OF SCIENCE (RMCS) was a British postgraduate school , research institution and training provider with origins dating back to 1772. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Amalgamations * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe college traced its history to a school founded in Woolwich in 1772 to provide technical training for the military. In 1840 the ROYAL ARTILLERY INSTITUTION was founded to train artillery officers "for the study of science and languages". It was established as a response to the technological advances brought on by the Industrial Revolution . During the 1880s, the institution expanded and a commandant was appointed; it moved into Red Barracks, Woolwich becoming the ORDNANCE COLLEGE (renamed the ARTILLERY COLLEGE in 1918). In 1927 it became the MILITARY COLLEGE OF SCIENCE. At the start of the Second World War the college was moved from Woolwich, which was vulnerable to aerial bombing . It moved, initially to the artillery ranges at Lydd in Kent, then scattering to various locations until after the war, when the college was reconstituted and reopened at Beckett Hall in Shrivenham . In 1953, the college was granted its "Royal" title and became the ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE OF SCIENCE ('RMCS'). In 1984 Cranfield University became the main academic provider of the college
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Overpressure
OVERPRESSURE (or BLAST OVERPRESSURE) is the pressure caused by a shock wave over and above normal atmospheric pressure . The shock wave may be caused by sonic boom or by explosion , and the resulting overpressure receives particular attention when measuring the effects of nuclear weapons or thermobaric bombs . CONTENTS * 1 Effects of overpressure * 2 Overpressure calculation for an enclosed space * 3 See also * 4 References EFFECTS OF OVERPRESSUREAccording to an article in the journal Toxicological Sciences , "Blast overpressure (BOP), also known as high energy impulse noise, is a damaging outcome of explosive detonations and firing of weapons. Exposure to BOP shock waves alone results in injury predominantly to the hollow organ systems such as auditory, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems." An EOD suit worn by bomb disposal experts can protect against the deadly effects of BOP
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Bremer Wall
A BREMER WALL, or T-WALL, is a twelve-foot-high (3.7 m) portable, steel-reinforced concrete blast wall of the type used for blast protection throughout Iraq and Afghanistan . The name is believed to have originated from L. Paul Bremer of the Coalition Provisional Authority , who was the Director of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance for post-war Iraq, following the Iraq War of 2003, in the early years of the Iraq War. The Bremer barrier resembles the smaller 3-foot-tall (0.91 m) Jersey barrier , which has been used widely for vehicle traffic control on coalition military bases in Iraq and Afghanistan. To indicate that the Bremer barrier is similar but larger, the 12-foot-tall (3.7 m), intermediate-sized Bremer barriers are usually referred to as TEXAS BARRIERS, but not to be confused with the 3.5-foot (1.1 m) Texas constant-slope barrier . Similarly, the largest barriers, which stand around 20-foot-tall (6.1 m), are called ALASKA BARRIERS. Unlike the Jersey barrier, which has sloped sides at the base, some Texas and Alaska barriers have a rectangular ledge base, usable as a bench for sitting or resting and approximately knee-high for a typical adult. Alaska barriers are typically used as perimeter fortifications of well-established bases in Iraq and Afghanistan. These T-shaped walls were originally developed by the Israelis in the Israeli West Bank barrier
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Reinforced Concrete
REINFORCED CONCRETE (RC) is a composite material in which concrete 's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar ) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete
Reinforced concrete
may also be permanently stressed (in tension), so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning
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Iraq
Coordinates : 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic of Iraq * جمهورية العـراق ( Arabic ) * كۆماريى عێراق (Kurdish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: الله أكبر ( Arabic ) "Allahu Akbar " (transliteration ) "God is the Greatest" ANTHEM: "_ Mawtini _" "موطني" "My Homeland" Capital and largest city Baghdad 33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333°N 44.433°E / 33.333; 44.433 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Arabic * Kurdish RELIGION Islam


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US Armed Forces
American Revolutionary War Whiskey Rebellion Indian Wars Barbary Wars War of 1812 Patriot War Mexican–American War Utah War Cortina Troubles Reform War
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British Armed Forces
The BRITISH ARMED FORCES , also known as _Her Majesty's Armed Forces_ and the _Armed Forces of the Crown_, are the military services which are tasked with the defence of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, its overseas territories , and the Crown dependencies . They also promote Britain's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts, and provide humanitarian aid . Since the formation of a Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
in 1707 (later succeeded by the United Kingdom), the armed forces have seen action in a number of major wars involving the world's great powers , including the Seven Years\' War , the Napoleonic Wars , the Crimean War , the First World War , and the Second World War . Repeatedly emerging victorious from conflicts has allowed Britain to establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers
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Blast Shelter
A BLAST SHELTER is a place where people can go to protect themselves from bomb blasts. It differs from a fallout shelter , in that its main purpose is to protect from shock waves and overpressure instead of from radioactive precipitation , as a fallout shelter does. It is also possible for a shelter to protect from both blasts and fallout . Blast shelters are a vital form of protection from nuclear attack and are employed in civil defense . There are above-ground, below-ground, dedicated, dual-purpose, and potential blast shelters. Dedicated blast shelters are built specifically for the purpose of blast protection (see bunker ). Dual-purpose blast shelters are existing structures with blast-protective properties that have been modified to accommodate people seeking protection from blasts. Potential blast shelters are existing structures or geological features exhibiting blast-protective properties that have potential to be used for protection from blasts. CONTENTS * 1 Design * 2 Subways * 3 Further reading * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DESIGN Blast doors in a missile control bunker at Minot Air Force Base , North Dakota
North Dakota
. The 25-ton blast door in the Cheyenne Mountain nuclear bunker is the main entrance to another blast door (background) beyond which the side tunnel branches into access tunnels to the main chambers
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Shockwave
In physics, a SHOCK WAVE (also spelled SHOCKWAVE), or SHOCK, is a type of propagating disturbance. When a wave moves faster than the local speed of sound in a fluid , it is a shock wave. Like an ordinary wave, a shock wave carries energy and can propagate through a medium; however, it is characterized by an abrupt, nearly discontinuous change in pressure , temperature and density of the medium. In supersonic flows, expansion is achieved through an expansion fan , also known as a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan . Unlike solitons (another kind of nonlinear wave), the energy of a shock wave dissipates relatively quickly with distance. Also, the accompanying expansion wave approaches and eventually merges with the shock wave, partially cancelling it out. Thu