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Black Sox Scandal
The BLACK SOX SCANDAL was a Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
match fixing incident in which eight members of the Chicago White Sox
Chicago White Sox
were accused of intentionally losing the 1919 World Series against the Cincinnati Reds in exchange for money from gamblers (see Arnold Rothstein
Arnold Rothstein
). The fallout from the scandal resulted in the appointment of Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as the first Commissioner of Baseball , granting him absolute control over the sport in order to restore its integrity. Despite acquittals in a public trial in 1921, Judge Landis permanently banned all eight men from professional baseball, which includes banishment from post-career honors such as consideration for the Baseball Hall of Fame
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Philadelphia Bulletin
THE PHILADELPHIA BULLETIN was a daily evening newspaper published from 1847 to 1982 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
. It was the largest circulation newspaper in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
for 76 years and was once the largest evening newspaper in the United States
United States
. Its widely known slogan was: "In Philadelphia, nearly everybody reads The Bulletin." Describing the Bulletin's style, publisher William L. McLean once said: "I think the Bulletin operates on a principle which in the long run is unbeatable. This is that it enters the reader's home as a guest. Therefore, it should behave as a guest, telling the news rather than shouting it." As Time magazine later noted: "In its news columns, the Bulletin was solid if unspectacular. Local affairs were covered extensively, but politely
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Hit By Pitch
In baseball , HIT BY PITCH (HBP) is a situation in which a batter or his clothing or equipment (other than his bat) is struck directly by a pitch from the pitcher ; the batter is called a HIT BATSMAN (HB). A hit batsman is awarded first base, provided that (in the plate umpire's judgment) he made an honest effort to avoid the pitch, although failure to do so is rarely called by an umpire. Being hit by a pitch is often caused by a batter standing too close to, or "crowding", home plate. CONTENTS * 1 Official rule * 2 Tactical use * 3 Records * 4 Dangers * 5 Legal consequences * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links OFFICIAL RULEPer baseball official rule 5.05(b), a batter becomes a baserunner and is awarded first base when he or his equipment (except for his bat): * is touched by a pitched ball outside the strike zone , * and he attempts to avoid it (or had no opportunity to avoid it), * and he did not swing at the pitch
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American League
The AMERICAN LEAGUE OF PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL CLUBS, or simply the AMERICAN LEAGUE (AL), is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball
Baseball
(MLB) in the United States and Canada. It developed from the Western League , a minor league based in the Great Lakes states , which eventually aspired to major league status. It is sometimes called the JUNIOR CIRCUIT because it claimed Major League status for the 1901 season, 25 years after the formation of the National League (the "Senior Circuit"). At the end of every season, the American League
American League
champion plays in the World Series against the National League
National League
champion; two seasons did not end in playing a World Series
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Chicago Herald And Examiner
The CHICAGO AMERICAN, an afternoon newspaper published in Chicago
Chicago
, Illinois
Illinois
under various names until 1974, was the last full flowering of the aggressive journalistic tradition depicted in the play and movie The Front Page . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Notable people * 3 The American\'s predecessor and successor newspapers * 4 See also * 5 Footnotes * 6 External links HISTORYThe paper's first edition came out on July 4, 1900 as Hearst 's Chicago
Chicago
American. It became the Morning American in 1902 with the appearance of an afternoon edition. The morning and Sunday papers were renamed as the Examiner in 1904. James Keeley bought the Chicago Record-Herald and Chicago
Chicago
Inter-Ocean in 1914, merging them into a single newspaper known as the Herald. William Randolph Hearst purchased the paper from Keeley in 1918
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American Negro League
The AMERICAN NEGRO LEAGUE (ANL) was one of several Negro leagues established during the period in the United States in which organized baseball was segregated. The ANL operated on the East Coast of the United States in 1929. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 1929 season * 3 Demise * 4 Statistics * 5 References HISTORYThe Eastern Colored League (ECL) had been the eastern of two major Negro leagues from 1923 through 1927 until its collapse during the 1928 season. Next winter the American Negro League was established by five former ECL teams— the Bacharach Giants of Atlantic City
Atlantic City
, the Baltimore Black Sox , the traveling Cuban Stars , the Hilldale Club of Darby, Pennsylvania , and the Lincoln Giants of New York City—along with the Homestead Grays , an important independent club
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Red Faber
URBAN CLARENCE "RED" FABER (September 6, 1888 – September 25, 1976) was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
from 1914 through 1933 , playing his entire career for the Chicago
Chicago
White Sox . He was a member of the 1919 team but was not involved in the Black Sox scandal
Black Sox scandal
because he missed the World Series
World Series
due to injury and illness. Faber won 254 games over his 20-year career, a total which ranked 17th-highest in history upon his retirement. At the time of his retirement, he was the last legal spitballer in the American League
American League
; another legal spitballer, Burleigh Grimes , would later be traded to the AL and appear in 10 games for the Yankees in 1934. Faber was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame
Baseball Hall of Fame
in 1964
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Infielder
An INFIELDER is a baseball player stationed at one of four defensive "infield" positions on the baseball field. CONTENTS * 1 Standard arrangement of positions * 2 Positions * 3 Roles * 3.1 Middle infielders * 3.2 Corner infielders STANDARD ARRANGEMENT OF POSITIONSIn a game of baseball, two teams of nine players take turns playing offensive and defensive roles. Although there are many rules to baseball, in general the team playing offense tries to score runs by batting balls into the field that enable runners to make a complete circuit of the four bases. The team playing in the field tries to prevent runs by catching the ball before it hits the ground, by tagging runners with the ball while they are not touching a base, or by throwing the ball to first base before the batter who hit the ball can run from home plate to first base. There are nine defensive positions on a baseball field
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Pennant (sports)
A PENNANT is a commemorative flag typically used to show support for a particular athletic team . Pennants have been historically used in all types of athletic levels: high school, collegiate, professional etc. Traditionally, pennants were made of felt and fashioned in the official colors of a particular team. Often graphics, usually the mascot symbol, as well as the team name were displayed on pennants. The images displayed on pennants were either stitched on with contrasting colored felt or had screen-printing . Today, vintage pennants with rare images or honoring special victories have become prized collectibles for sporting enthusiasts. While pennants are typically associated with athletic teams, pennants have also been made to honor institutions and vacation spots, often acting as souvenirs
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Grand Jury
A GRAND JURY is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct , and determine whether criminal charges should be brought. A grand jury may compel the production of documents and compel sworn testimony of witnesses to appear before it. A grand jury is separate from the courts , which do not preside over its functioning. The United States
United States
and Liberia
Liberia
are the only countries that retain grand juries, though other common law jurisdictions formerly employed them, and most others now employ some other form of preliminary hearing . Grand juries perform both accusatory and investigatory functions
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Federal Judge
FEDERAL JUDGES are judges appointed by a federal level of government as opposed to the state / provincial / local level. CONTENTS * 1 Spain * 2 Canada
Canada
* 3 United States * 4 See also SPAINIn Spain, federal judges of first instance are chosen exclusively by public contest . Judges of Federal Courts of Appeal
Appeal
or Higher Courts are appointed according to specific rules. Appeal
Appeal
judges of second instance are called Desembargador (es). CANADA Main article: Judicial appointments in Canada Canada
Canada
is a federation composed of a federal (central) government and of ten provinces and three territories. There are two levels of courts in each province or territory (except Nunavut): superior (upper level) courts appointed by the federal government, and a provincial or territorial court appointed by the province or territory
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Babe Borton
WILLIAM BAKER "BABE" BORTON (August 14, 1888 – July 29, 1954) was a Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
first baseman . Borton played for the Chicago White Sox , New York Yankees
New York Yankees
, St. Louis Terriers , and St. Louis Browns from 1912 to 1916. He stood 6 ft 0 in (1.83 m). CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYBorton was born in Marion, Illinois in 1888. He started his professional baseball career in 1910, at the age of 21. In 1912, he was hitting .369 in the Western League when he was acquired by the White Sox late in the season. He played one season for them before being traded to the Yankees for Hal Chase . He hit just .130 in New York and was released. In 1914, he played in the Pacific Coast League . 1915 was Borton's only full major league campaign, and he made it count. With the St
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Acquittal
In the common law tradition, an ACQUITTAL formally certifies that the accused is free from the charge of an offense, as far as the criminal law is concerned. This is so even where the prosecution is abandoned nolle prosequi . The finality of an acquittal is dependent on the jurisdiction. In some countries, such as the United States, under the rules of double jeopardy and autrefois acquit , an acquittal operates to bar the retrial of the accused for the same offense, even if new evidence surfaces that further implicates the accused. The effect of an acquittal on criminal proceedings is the same whether it results from a jury verdict , or whether it results from the operation of some other rule that discharges the accused. In other countries, the prosecuting authority may appeal an acquittal similar to how a defendant may appeal a conviction
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St. Louis Browns
The Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
team now known as the Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles originated in Milwaukee
Milwaukee
as the Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Brewers, and then moved to St. Louis
St. Louis
, Missouri
Missouri
, where they played for more than 50 years as the ST. LOUIS BROWNS. This article covers the franchise's history in St. Louis, which began when the team moved from Milwaukee
Milwaukee
after the 1901 season and ended with the team's move to Baltimore
Baltimore
after the 1953 season . As of April 6, 2017, there are only 14 living former St. Louis Browns players
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Conspiracy To Defraud
CONSPIRACY TO DEFRAUD is an offence under the common law of England and Wales and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
. CONTENTS* 1 England and Wales
England and Wales
* 1.1 Relationship to statutory conspiracy etc * 1.2 Incitement to conspire * 1.3 Indictment * 1.4 Mode of trial and sentence * 1.5 Jurisdiction * 2 Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
* 3 See also * 4 References ENGLAND AND WALESThe standard definition of a conspiracy to defraud was provided by Lord Dilhorne in Scott v Metropolitan Police Commissioner , when he said that it is clearly the law that an agreement by two or more by dishonesty to deprive a person of something which is his or to which he is or would be entitled and an agreement by two or more by dishonesty to injure some proprietary right of his, suffices to constitute the offence of conspiracy to defraud
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