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Black Paintings
The Black Paintings
Black Paintings
(Spanish: Pinturas negras) is the name given to a group of fourteen paintings by Francisco Goya
Francisco Goya
from the later years of his life, likely between 1819 and 1823. They portray intense, haunting themes, reflective of both his fear of insanity and his bleak outlook on humanity. In 1819, at the age of 72, Goya
Goya
moved into a two-story house outside Madrid
Madrid
that was called Quinta del Sordo
Quinta del Sordo
(Deaf Man's Villa). Although the house had been named after the previous owner, who was deaf, Goya
Goya
too was nearly deaf at the time as a result of an illness he had suffered when he was 46
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Cannibalism
Cannibalism
Cannibalism
is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food. To consume the same species or show cannibalistic behavior is a common ecological interaction in the animal kingdom and has been recorded for more than 1,500 species.[1] Human cannibalism
Human cannibalism
is well-documented, both in ancient and recent times.[2] Cannibalism, however, does not—as once believed—occur only as a result of extreme food shortage or artificial/unnatural conditions, but could also occur under natural conditions in a variety of species.[1][3][4] Cannibalism
Cannibalism
seems to be especially prevalent in aquatic ecosystems, in which up to approximately 90% of the organisms engage in cannibalistic activity at some point in their life cycle
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Trienio Liberal
The Trienio Liberal
Trienio Liberal
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈtɾjenjo liβeˈɾal], "Liberal Triennium") is a period of 3 years in the modern history of Spain between 1820 and 1823, when a liberal government ruled Spain after a military uprising in January 1820 by the lieutenant-colonel Rafael de Riego
Rafael de Riego
against the absolutist rule of King Ferdinand VII. It ended in 1823 when, with the approval of the crowned heads of Europe, a French army invaded Spain and reinstated the King's absolute power. This invasion is known in France
France
as the "Spanish Expedition" (expédition d’Espagne), and in Spain as "The Hundred Thousand Sons of St
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Transfer Of Panel Paintings
The practice of conserving an unstable painting on panel by transferring it from its original decayed, worm-eaten, cracked or distorted wood support to canvas or a new panel has been practised since the eighteenth century. It has now been largely superseded by improved methods of wood conservation.[2] The practice evolved in Naples
Naples
and Cremona
Cremona
in 1711-1725, and reached France by the middle of the eighteenth century.[3] It was especially widely practiced in the second half of the 19th century. Similar techniques are used to transfer frescos. Oil paintings on canvas often receive additional support or are transferred to a new backing. Methods[edit] The process is described by Henry Mogford in his Handbook for the Preservation of Pictures. Smooth sheets of paper were pasted over the painted surface of the panel, and a layer of muslin over that
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Frédéric Émile D'Erlanger
Frédéric Émile, Baron
Baron
d’Erlanger (born June 19, 1832 in Frankfurt am Main; died May 22, 1911 in Versailles) born as Friedrich Emil Erlanger, was a German banker and Consul.Contents1 Biography1.1 First marriage 1.2 Second marriage 1.3 Career2 See also 3 External linksBiography[edit] Frédéric Émile Baron
Baron
d'Erlanger was born to banker Raphael Erlanger and his young wife, Margarete Helene Albert (1800–1834). Just prior the birth of his eldest sister Susanne Adolphine (1829–1873), his father converted from Judaism to Christianity for his wife's sake. Susanne eventually married the Frankfurt merchant Franz Josef Carl Langenberger (1821–1878). As the eldest son, Friedrich Emil Erlanger became involved in extensive banking and bill transactions early in life
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Scale Model
A scale model is most generally a physical representation of an object, which maintains accurate relationships between all important aspects of the model, although absolute values of the original properties need not be preserved. This enables it to demonstrate some behavior or property of the original object without examining the original object itself. The most familiar scale models represent the physical appearance of an object in miniature, but there are many other kinds. Scale models are used in many fields including engineering, architecture, film making, military command, salesmanship, and hobby model building. While each field may use a scale model for a different purpose, all scale models are based on the same principles and must meet the same general requirements to be functional
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River Manzanares
The Manzanares (Spanish pronunciation: [manθaˈnaɾes]) is a river in central Spain, which flows from the Sierra de Guadarrama, passes through Madrid, and eventually empties into the Jarama
Jarama
river, which in turn is a tributary to the Tagus. In its urban section, the Manzanares River
River
as it appears today, with a section of water several meters deep, in some parts navigable by canoes, is the result and the product of the work of dozens of years of channeling and damming.Contents1 Course 2 Historical importance 3 See also 4 ReferencesCourse[edit] The river Manzanares has its source near the Navacerrada
Navacerrada
mountain pass in the Guadarrama mountain range. The upper river basin is protected as the Parque Regional de la Cuenca Alta del Manzanares, a nature reserve which is recognised as a biosphere reserve by UNESCO
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Segovia
Segovia
Segovia
(/sɪˈɡoʊviə/; Spanish pronunciation: [seˈɣoβja][1]) is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain, famous for its magnificent Roman aqueduct and for its cathedral, one of the last Gothic temples to be built in Europe. It is the capital of Province of Segovia.Contents1 Etymology 2 Geography2.1 Location 2.2 Climate 2.3 Population centers3 History 4 Demographics 5 Heritage5.1 World Heritage City 5.2 Religious architecture5.2.1 Churches and chapels 5.2.2 Monasteries and convents5.3 Civil architecture 5.4 Urban sculpture 5.5 Parks and gardens6 Economy 7 Education 8 Culture8.1 Museums 8.2 MUCES 8.3 Festivities8.3.1 Holy Week9 Notable people 10 Twin towns – sister cities 11 Antipode 12 References 13 External linksEtymology[edit] The name of Segovia
Segovia
is of Celtiberian origin
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Stanley Moss
Stanley Moss (born June 21, 1925) is an American poet, publisher, and art dealer. Moss was born in Woodhaven, New York on June 21, 1925. He was educated at Trinity College and Yale University. His first book of poems, The Wrong Angel, was published in 1966. He is the author of five other books of poems: The Skull of Adam (1979), The Intelligence of Clouds (1989), Asleep in the Garden (1997), A History of Color [1] (2003), New & Selected Poems 2006 [2], and God Breaketh Not All Men's Hearts Alike: New & Later Collected Poems (2011) [3]. In 1977 Moss founded Sheep Meadow Press, a non-profit publishing company that publishes poetry and belles-lettres, with a special focus on international poets in translation. Sheep Meadow Press has published the works of Yehuda Amichai, Peter Cole, and many other renowned poets. Moss makes his living as a private art dealer, largely in Spanish and Italian Old Masters
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New York City
Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island)Historic colonies New Netherland Province of New YorkSettled 1624Consolidated 1898Named for James, Duke of YorkGovernment[2] • Type Mayor–Council • Body New York City
New York City
Council • Mayor Bill de Blasio
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Bordeaux
www.bordeaux.frUNESCO World Heritage SiteOfficial name Bordeaux, Port of the MoonCriteria Cultural: ii, ivReference 1256Inscription 2007 (31st Session)Area 1,731 haBuffer zone 11,974 ha1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(French pronunciation: ​[bɔʁdo]; Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne
Garonne
River in the Gironde
Gironde
department in southwestern France. The municipality (commune) of Bordeaux
Bordeaux
proper has a population of 246,586 (2014)
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Fernando VII Of Spain
Ferdinand VII (Spanish: Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as the Desired (el Deseado) and to his detractors as the Felon King (el Rey Felón). After being overthrown by Napoleon
Napoleon
in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left. Back in power in 1814, he reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. He suppressed the liberal press 1814–33 and jailed many of its editors and writers. Under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death. His reputation among historians is very low. Historian Stanley Payne says:He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history
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Rafael Riego
Rafael del Riego y Flórez (9 April 1784 – 7 November 1823) was a Spanish general and liberal politician, who played a key role in the outbreak of the Liberal Triennium (Trienio liberal in Spanish).Contents1 Early life 2 Peninsular War 3 1820 revolt 4 Later life 5 Memory 6 NotesEarly life[edit] Riego was born on 9 April 1784[1] (according to other sources 24 November 1785) in Tineo in Asturias. After graduating from the University of Oviedo in 1807, he moved to Madrid, where he joined the army. Peninsular War[edit] In 1808, during the Spanish War of Independence he was taken captive by the French and imprisoned in El Escorial, from where he eventually escaped. On 10 November he took part in the Battle of Espinosa de los Monteros, after which he once again was taken prisoner. Three days later he was sent to France, and after he changed his name to "Riego" (without the "del"), was eventually released
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José De Salamanca, 1st Count Of Los Llanos
José de Salamanca y Mayol, 1st Marquis of Salamanca and Grandee of Spain (23 May 1811, Málaga
Málaga
– 21 January 1883, Madrid) was a Spanish nobleman, politician and businessman
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