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Black Fly
GENERA * Araucnephia * Araucnephioides * Archicnephia * Austrosimulium * Baisomyia * Cnephia * Cnesia * Cnesiamima * Crozetia * Ectemnia * Gigantodax * Greniera * Gydarina * Gymnopais * Kovalevimyia * Levitinia * Lutzsimulium * Mayacnephia * Metacnephia * Paracnephia * Parasimulium * Paraustrosimulium * Pedrowygomyia * Prosimulium * Simuliites * Simulimima * Simulium
Simulium
* Stegopterna * Sulcicnephia * Titanopteryx * Tlalocomyia * Twinnia Data related to Black fly
Black fly
at Wikispecies A BLACK FLY (sometimes called a BLANDFORD FLY, BUFFALO GNAT , TURKEY GNAT, or WHITE SOCKS) is any member of the family SIMULIIDAE of the Culicomorpha infraorder
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South America
SOUTH AMERICA is a continent located in the western hemisphere , mostly in the southern hemisphere , with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere . It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas
Americas
, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil). It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Egg (biology)
An EGG is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches. An egg results from fertilization of an ovum . Most arthropods , vertebrates , and mollusks lay eggs, although some, such as scorpions and most mammals , do not. Reptile
Reptile
eggs, bird eggs , and monotreme eggs are laid out of water, and are surrounded by a protective shell , either flexible or inflexible. Eggs laid on land or in nests are usually kept within a warm and favorable temperature range while the embryo grows. When the embryo is adequately developed it hatches, i.e. breaks out of the egg's shell. Some embryos have a temporary egg tooth they use to crack, pip, or break the eggshell or covering. The largest recorded egg is from a whale shark , and was 30 cm × 14 cm × 9 cm (11.8 in × 5.5 in × 3.5 in) in size
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Larva
A LARVA (plural larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/ ) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults . Animals with indirect development such as insects , amphibians , or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle . The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies ). A larva often has unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs . By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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Phoretic
In biology , the term PHORESIS, also called PHORESY, is an inter-species biological interaction in ecology and refers to a form of symbiosis where the symbiont , termed the phoront, is mechanically transported by its host . It is a type of commensalism ; neither organism is physiologically dependent on the other. Examples may be found in the arthropods associated with sloths . The coprophagous sloth moths such as Bradipodicola hahneli and Cryptoses choloepi , are unusual in that they are exclusively found inhabiting the fur of the sloths , mammals found in central and South America . The sloth provides transport to the moths whose females oviposit in the droppings of sloths, larvae feed on it and newly hatched moths move into the forest canopy in search of a new sloth host. REFERENCES * ^ Sherman, Lee. ""An OSU scientist braves an uncharted rainforest in a search for rare and endangered species" in "Expedition to the Edge"". Terra, Spring 2008. Oregon State University
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Lotic
The ecosystem of a river is the river viewed as a system operating in its natural environment , and includes biotic (living) interactions amongst plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic (nonliving) physical and chemical interactions. A pensive Cooplacurripa River, NSW
NSW
RIVERWater flow is the key factor in lotic systems influencing their ecology. The strength of water flow can vary between systems, ranging from torrential rapids to slow backwaters that almost seem like lentic systems. The speed of the water flow can also vary within a system and is subject to chaotic turbulence. This turbulence results in divergences of flow from the mean downslope flow vector as typified by eddy currents. The mean flow rate vector is based on variability of friction with the bottom or sides of the channel, sinuosity , obstructions, and the incline gradient
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Gnat
GNAT
GNAT
Pro 7.4 (2016-02-23) OPERATING SYSTEM FreeBSD
FreeBSD
, GNU/ Linux
Linux
, Solaris / SPARC
SPARC
, Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
, Mac OS X
Mac OS X
, plus others as supported by FSF GNAT
GNAT
within GCC TYPE Compiler
Compiler
LICENSE GNU GPL 3+ with GCC Runtime Library Exception WEBSITE www.getadanow.com - FSF GNAT www.adacore.com/home/gnatpro/ GNAT
GNAT
Pro GNAT
GNAT
is a free-software compiler for the Ada programming language which forms part of the GNU Compiler
Compiler
Collection . It supports all versions of the language, i.e. Ada 2012, Ada 2005, Ada 95 and Ada 83. Originally its name was an acronym that stood for GNU NYU Ada Translator, but that name no longer applies
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Infraorder
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Nectar
NECTAR is a sugar -rich liquid produced by plants in glands called NECTARIES, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by EXTRAFLORAL NECTARIES, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists , which in turn provide antiherbivore protection . Common nectar-consuming pollinators include mosquitoes , hoverflies , wasps , bees , butterflies and moths , hummingbirds , and bats . Nectar
Nectar
plays an important role in the foraging economics and overall evolution of nectar-eating species; for example, nectar and its properties are responsible for the differential evolution of the African honey bee, A. m. scutellata and the western honey bee . Nectar
Nectar
is an ecologically important item, the sugar source for honey . It is also useful in agriculture and horticulture because the adult stages of some predatory insects feed on nectar
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Arthropod Leg
The ARTHROPOD LEG is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods , usually used for walking . Many of the terms used for arthropod leg segments (called PODOMERES) are of Latin
Latin
origin, and may be confused with terms for bones: coxa (meaning hip , plural coxae), trochanter (compare trochanter ), femur (plural femora), tibia (plural tibiae), tarsus (plural tarsi), ischium (plural ischia), metatarsus , carpus , dactylus (meaning finger ), patella (plural patellae). Homologies of leg segments between groups are difficult to prove and are the source of much argument. Some authors posit up to eleven segments per leg for the most recent common ancestor of extant arthropods but modern arthropods have eight or fewer. It has been argued that the ancestral leg need not have been so complex, and that other events, such as successive loss of function of a Hox-gene , could result in parallel gains of leg segments
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Blood
BLOOD is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates , it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma . Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume), and contains dissipated proteins , glucose , mineral ions , hormones , carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells
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Africa
AFRICA is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth\'s total surface area and 20.4% of its total land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population . The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Central America
CENTRAL AMERICA (Spanish : América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent , which connects with the South American continent on the southeast. Central America is bordered by Mexico
Mexico
to the north, Colombia
Colombia
to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
to the east, and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the west. Central America
Central America
consists of seven countries: Belize
Belize
, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, El Salvador , Guatemala
Guatemala
, Honduras
Honduras
, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, and Panama
Panama

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Americas
Largest metropolitan areas Largest cities List * São Paulo * Lima
Lima
* Mexico City * New York City
New York City
* Bogotá * Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
* Santiago
Santiago
* Los Angeles
Los Angeles
* Caracas * Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
CIA political map of the Americas
Americas
in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection The AMERICAS (also collectively called AMERICA) encompass the totality of the continents of North and South America
South America
. Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere and comprise the New World
New World

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U.S. State
A STATE is a constituent political entity of the United States
United States
. There are currently 50 states, which are bound together in a union with each other. Each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the United States
United States
federal government . Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans
Americans
are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside . State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states , except for persons covered by certain types of court orders (e.g., paroled convicts and children of divorced spouses who are sharing custody )
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