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Black Fly
GeneraAraucnephia Araucnephioides Archicnephia Austrosimulium Baisomyia Cnephia Cnesia Cnesiamima Crozetia Ectemnia Gigantodax Greniera Gydarina Gymnopais Kovalevimyia Levitinia Lutzsimulium Mayacnephia Metacnephia Paracnephia Parasimulium Paraustrosimulium Pedrowygomyia Prosimulium Simuliites Simulimima Simulium Stegopterna Sulcicnephia Titanopteryx Tlalocomyia Twinnia Data related to Black fly
Black fly
at WikispeciesA black fly (sometimes called a buffalo gnat, turkey gnat, or white socks) is any member of the family Simuliidae of the Culicomorpha infraorder. They are related to the Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, and Thaumaleidae. Over 2,200 species of black flies have been formally named, of which 15 are extinct.[1] They are divided into two subfamilies: Parasimuliinae contains only one genus and four species; Simuliinae
Simuliinae
contains all the rest
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Backpacking (wilderness)
Backpacking is the outdoor recreation of carrying gear on one's back, while hiking for more than a day. It is often but not always an extended journey,[1] and may or may not involve camping outdoors. In North America tenting is common, where simple shelters and mountain huts found widely in Europe are rare. In New Zealand, tramping is term applied though overnight huts are frequently used.[2] Hill walking
Hill walking
is an equivalent in Britain (but this can also refer to a day walk), though backpackers make use of all kinds of accommodation, in addition to camping
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Egg (biology)
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches. An egg results from fertilization of an ovum. Most arthropods, vertebrates, and mollusks lay eggs, although some, such as scorpions and most mammals, do not. Reptile
Reptile
eggs, bird eggs, and monotreme eggs are laid out of water, and are surrounded by a protective shell, either flexible or inflexible. Eggs laid on land or in nests are usually kept within a warm and favorable temperature range while the embryo grows. When the embryo is adequately developed it hatches, i.e
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Infraorder
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Blood
Blood
Blood
is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.[1] In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),[2] and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells
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Nectar
Nectar
Nectar
is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection. Common nectar-consuming pollinators include mosquitoes, hoverflies, wasps, bees, butterflies and moths, hummingbirds, and bats. Nectar
Nectar
plays an important role in the foraging economics and overall evolution of nectar-eating species; for example, nectar and its properties are responsible for the differential evolution of the African honey bee, A. m. scutellata and the western honey bee. Nectar
Nectar
is an ecologically important item, the sugar source for honey. It is also useful in agriculture and horticulture because the adult stages of some predatory insects feed on nectar
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Arthropod Leg
The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. Many of the terms used for arthropod leg segments (called podomeres) are of Latin
Latin
origin, and may be confused with terms for bones: coxa (meaning hip, plural coxae), trochanter (compare trochanter), femur (plural femora), tibia (plural tibiae), tarsus (plural tarsi), ischium (plural ischia), metatarsus, carpus, dactylus (meaning finger), patella (plural patellae). Homologies of leg segments between groups are difficult to prove and are the source of much argument. Some authors posit up to eleven segments per leg for the most recent common ancestor of extant arthropods[1] but modern arthropods have eight or fewer
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Antenna (biology)
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods. Antennae are connected to the first one or two segments of the arthropod head. They vary widely in form, but are always made of one or more jointed segments. While they are typically sensory organs, the exact nature of what they sense and how they sense it is not the same in all groups. Functions may variously include sensing touch, air motion, heat, vibration (sound), and especially smell or taste.[1][2] Antennae are sometimes modified for other purposes, such as mating, brooding, swimming, and even anchoring the arthropod to a substrate.[2] Larval arthropods have antennae that differ from those of the adult. Many crustaceans, for example, have free-swimming larvae that use their antennae for swimming
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Minnesota
Minnesota
Minnesota
(/ˌmɪnɪˈsoʊtə/ ( listen)) is a state in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota
Minnesota
was admitted as the 32nd U.S. state
U.S. state
on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota
Minnesota
Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, and is known by the slogan "Land of 10,000 Lakes". Its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord
L'Étoile du Nord
(French: Star of the North). Minnesota
Minnesota
is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U.S
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Larva
A larva (plural: larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle. The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies) including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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New England
New England
New England
is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut.[a] It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec
Quebec
to the northeast and north, respectively. The Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
is to the south. Boston
Boston
is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts
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Lotic
The ecosystem of a river is the river viewed as a system operating in its natural environment, and includes biotic (living) interactions amongst plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic (nonliving) physical and chemical interactions.[1][2] River
River
ecosystems are prime examples of lotic ecosystems. Lotic refers to flowing water, from the Latin
Latin
lotus, washed. Lotic waters range from springs only a few centimeters wide to major rivers kilometers in width.[3] Much of this article applies to lotic ecosystems in general, including related lotic systems such as streams and springs. Lotic ecosystems can be contrasted with lentic ecosystems, which involve relatively still terrestrial waters such as lakes and ponds
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Phoretic
In biology, the term phoresis, also called phoresy, is an inter-species biological interaction in ecology and refers to a form of symbiosis where the symbiont, termed the phoront, is mechanically transported by its host. It is a type of commensalism; neither organism is physiologically dependent on the other.[citation needed] Examples may be found in the arthropods associated with sloths. The coprophagous sloth moths such as Bradipodicola hahneli and Cryptoses choloepi, are unusual in that they are exclusively found inhabiting the fur of the sloths, mammals found in central and South America.[1][2] The sloth provides transport to the moths whose females oviposit in the droppings of sloths, larvae feed on it and newly hatched moths move into the forest canopy in search of a new sloth host. References[edit]^ Sherman, Lee. ""An OSU scientist braves an uncharted rainforest in a search for rare and endangered species" in "Expedition to the Edge"". Terra, Spring 2008
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Univoltine
Voltinism is a term used in biology to indicate the number of broods or generations of an organism in a year. The term is most often applied to insects, and is particularly in use in sericulture, where silkworm varieties vary in their voltinism.Univoltine – (adjective) referring to organisms having one brood or generation per year Bivoltine – (adjective) referring to organisms having two broods or generations per year Multivoltine – (adjective) referring to organisms having more than two broods or generations per year Semivoltine – (adjective) referring to organisms whose generation time is more than one yearContents1 Examples1.1 Partial voltinism2 Evolution 3 See also 4 ReferencesExamples[edit] The speckled wood butterfly is univoltine in the northern part of its range, e.g. northern Scandinavia
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Multivoltine
Voltinism is a term used in biology to indicate the number of broods or generations of an organism in a year. The term is most often applied to insects, and is particularly in use in sericulture, where silkworm varieties vary in their voltinism.Univoltine – (adjective) referring to organisms having one brood or generation per year Bivoltine – (adjective) referring to organisms having two broods or generations per year Multivoltine – (adjective) referring to organisms having more than two broods or generations per year Semivoltine – (adjective) referring to organisms whose generation time is more than one yearContents1 Examples1.1 Partial voltinism2 Evolution 3 See also 4 ReferencesExamples[edit] The speckled wood butterfly is univoltine in the northern part of its range, e.g. northern Scandinavia
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