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Bitter Orange
BITTER ORANGE, SEVILLE ORANGE, SOUR ORANGE, BIGARADE ORANGE, or MARMALADE ORANGE refers to a citrus tree (_CITRUS_ × _AURANTIUM_) and its fruit. It is native to southeast Asia, and has been spread by humans to many parts of the world. Wild trees are found near small streams in generally secluded and wooded parts of Florida and The Bahamas after it was introduced to the area from Spain where it had been introduced and cultivated heavily beginning in the 10th century by the Moors . It is a hybrid between _ Citrus maxima _ (pomelo) and _Citrus reticulata _ (mandarin). Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their essential oil , and are found in perfume , used as a flavoring or as a solvent . The Seville orange variety is used in the production of marmalade . Bitter orange is also employed in herbal medicine as a stimulant and appetite suppressant , due to its active ingredient, synephrine . Bitter orange supplements have been linked to a number of serious side effects and deaths, and consumer groups advocate that people avoid using the fruit medically. CONTENTS * 1 Varieties * 2 Cooking * 3 Herbal stimulant * 3.1 Similarities to ephedra * 3.2 Drug interactions * 4 Other uses * 5 References * 6 External links VARIETIES See also: Citrus taxonomy § Oranges * _ Citrus × aurantium_ subsp
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Trifoliate Orange
The TRIFOLIATE ORANGE, CITRUS TRIFOLIATA or PONCIRUS TRIFOLIATA, is a member of the family Rutaceae in the Citrus genus . Whether the species should be considered to belong to its own genus, Poncirus or included in the genus Citrus is debated. The species is unusual in Citrus for having deciduous , compound leaves and pubescent (downy) fruit. It is native to northern China and Korea , and is also known as the JAPANESE BITTER-ORANGE, HARDY ORANGE or CHINESE BITTER ORANGE. The plant is a fairly cold-hardy citrus (USDA zone 6) and will tolerate moderate frost and snow, making a large shrub or small tree 4–8 m tall. Because of its relative hardiness, citrus grafted onto Citrus trifoliata are usually hardier than when grown on their own roots. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Uses * 2.1 Cultivation * 2.2 As food * 2.3 Medicine * 2.3.1 Traditional medicine * 3 References DESCRIPTION Citrus trifoliata is recognizable by the large 3–5 cm (1.2–2.0 in) thorns on the shoots, and its deciduous leaves with three (or rarely, five) leaflets, typically with the middle leaflet 3–5 cm (1.2–2.0 in) long, and the two side leaflets 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) long
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land
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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales * Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek composite word (_angeion_, "case" or "casing", and _sperma_, "seed") meaning "enclosed seeds", after the enclosed condition of the seeds. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , during the range 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous , became widespread by 120 mya, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been widely adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting over 70% of the angiosperm species), monocots being the other. The remaining angiosperms are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been widely or consistently adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is TRICOLPATES, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen
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Rosids
The ROSIDS are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants , containing about 70,000 species , more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders , depending upon circumscription and classification . These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families . Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Relationships * 3 Classification * 3.1 Orders * 4 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
* 5 References * 6 External links NAMEThe name is based upon the name " Rosidae ", which had usually been understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan
Armen Takhtajan
showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
. The clade was later renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN . The rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Three different definitions of the rosids were used
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Sapindales
See text SAPINDALES /sæpᵻnˈdeɪliːz/ is an order of flowering plants . Well-known members of Sapindales
Sapindales
include citrus ; maples , horse-chestnuts , lychees and rambutans ; mangos and cashews ; frankincense and myrrh ; mahogany and neem . Phylogeny of the Sapindales
Sapindales
based on the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV system (2016) The APG III system of 2009 includes it in the clade malvids (in rosids , in eudicots ) with the following nine families: _ Trichostetha bicolor _ beetles feeding on flowers of _Agathosma capensis _ (Rutaceae) _ Chloroxylon swietenia _ from Rutaceae * Anacardiaceae * Biebersteiniaceae * Burseraceae * Kirkiaceae * Meliaceae * Nitrariaceae (including Peganaceae and Tetradiclidaceae ) * Rutaceae * Sapindaceae * Simaroubaceae The APG II system of 2003 allowed the optional segregation of families now included in the Nitrariaceae
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Rutaceae
Rutoideae Spathelioideae Dictyolomatoideae Toddalioideae Flindersioideae
Flindersioideae
Aurantioideae DIVERSITY About 160 genera, totaling over 1600 species. Range of subfamily Cneoroideae Range of subfamily RutoideaeThe RUTACEAE are a family , commonly known as the rue or citrus family, of flowering plants , usually placed in the order Sapindales . Species of the family generally have flowers that divide into four or five parts, usually with strong scents. They range in form and size from herbs to shrubs and small trees . The most economically important genus in the family is Citrus
Citrus
, which includes the orange (C. × sinensis), lemon (C. × limon), grapefruit (C. × paradisi), and lime (various, mostly C. aurantifolia, the key lime ). Boronia is a large Australian genus, some members of which are plants with highly fragrant flowers and are used in commercial oil production. Other large genera include Zanthoxylum
Zanthoxylum
, Melicope , and Agathosma
Agathosma
. About 160 genera are in the family Rutaceae: List of Rutaceae
Rutaceae
genera
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Citrus
Important species: _ Citrus maxima_ – Pomelo _ Citrus medica_ – Citron _ Citrus micrantha_ – Papeda _ Citrus reticulata_ – Mandarin orange -------------------------Important hybrids: _ Citrus × aurantiifolia_ – Key lime _ Citrus × aurantium_ – Bitter orange _ Citrus × latifolia_ – Persian lime _ Citrus × limon_ – Lemon _ Citrus × limonia_ – Rangpur _ Citrus × paradisi_ – Grapefruit _ Citrus × sinensis_ – Sweet orange _ Citrus × tangerina_ – Tangerine See also below for other species and hybrids. SYNONYMS _Eremocitrus_ _Microcitrus_ and see text _CITRUS_ is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae . Plants in the genus produce CITRUS FRUITS, including important crops like oranges , lemons , grapefruit , pomelo and limes . The most recent research indicates an origin in Australia , New Caledonia and New Guinea
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce , which he called _Pinus abies_. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is _Picea abies_. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature ). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and _vice versa_). Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently
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Florida
FLORIDA /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ ( listen ) (Spanish for "land of flowers") is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States . It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico , to the north by Alabama and Georgia , to the east by the Atlantic Ocean , and to the south by the Straits of Florida and Cuba . Florida is the 22nd-most extensive , the 3rd-most populous , and the 8th-most densely populated of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States . The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area . The city of Tallahassee is the state capital. A peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Straits of Florida , it has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States , approximately 1,350 miles (2,170 km), and is the only state that borders both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south. The American alligator , American crocodile , Florida panther , and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park