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Bitter Orange
BITTER ORANGE, SEVILLE ORANGE, SOUR ORANGE, BIGARADE ORANGE, or MARMALADE ORANGE refers to a citrus tree (CITRUS × AURANTIUM) and its fruit. It is native to southeast Asia, and has been spread by humans to many parts of the world. Wild trees are found near small streams in generally secluded and wooded parts of Florida
Florida
and The Bahamas after it was introduced to the area from Spain
Spain
where it had been introduced and cultivated heavily beginning in the 10th century by the Moors
Moors
. It is a hybrid between Citrus
Citrus
maxima (pomelo) and Citrus
Citrus
reticulata (mandarin). Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their essential oil , and are found in perfume , used as a flavoring or as a solvent . The Seville
Seville
orange variety is used in the production of marmalade
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Dietary Supplement
A dietary supplement is either intended to provide nutrients in order to increase the quantity of their consumption, or to provide non-nutrient chemicals which are claimed to have a biologically beneficial effect. Supplements as generally understood include vitamins , minerals , fiber , fatty acids , or amino acids , among other substances. U.S. authorities define dietary supplements as foods, while elsewhere they may be classified as drugs or other products. There are more than 50,000 dietary supplements available. More than half of the U.S. adult population (53% – 55%) consume dietary supplements with most common ones being multivitamins. These products are not intended to prevent or treat any disease and in some circumstances are dangerous, according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health
Health

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Thorns, Spines, And Prickles
In plant morphology , THORNS, SPINES, and PRICKLES, and in general SPINOSE STRUCTURES (sometimes called spinose teeth or spinose apical processes), are hard, rigid extensions or modifications of leaves , roots , stems or buds with sharp, stiff ends, and generally serve the same function: physically deterring animals from eating the plant material
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Evergreen
In botany , an EVERGREEN is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season
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Vietnam
Coordinates : 16°10′N 107°50′E / 16.167°N 107.833°E / 16.167; 107.833 Socialist Republic of Vietnam Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam (Vietnamese ) Flag Emblem MOTTO: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc "Independence – Freedom – Happiness" ANTHEM: Tiến Quân Ca (English: "Army March") Location of Vietnam (green) in ASEAN
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Synephrine
SYNEPHRINE, or, more specifically, P-SYNEPHRINE, is an alkaloid , occurring naturally in some plants and animals, and also in approved drugs products as its m-substituted analog known as neo-synephrine. p- Synephrine
Synephrine
(or formerly SYMPATOL and OXEDRINE ) and m-synephrine are known for their longer acting adrenergic effects compared to norepinephrine . This substance is present at very low concentrations in common foodstuffs such as orange juice and other orange (Citrus species) products, both of the "sweet" and "bitter" variety. The preparations used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), also known as Zhi Shi, are the immature and dried whole oranges from Citrus aurantium (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus). Extracts of the same material or purified synephrine are also marketed in the US, sometimes in combination with caffeine , as a weight-loss-promoting dietary supplement for oral consumption
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Appetite Suppressant
An ANORECTIC or ANOREXIC (from the Greek an- = "without" and orexis = "appetite"), also known as ANOREXIGENIC, ANOREXIANT, or APPETITE SUPPRESSANT, is a dietary supplement or drug which reduces appetite , resulting in lower food consumption, leading to weight loss . By contrast, an appetite stimulant is referred to as orexigenic . CONTENTS * 1 List of anorectics * 2 Public health concerns * 2.1 Non-pharmacological alternatives * 3 History * 4 References * 5 External links LIST OF ANORECTICSNumerous pharmaceutical compounds are marketed as appetite suppressants
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Flavoring
FLAVOR ( American English
American English
) or FLAVOUR ( British English
British English
; see spelling differences ) is the sensory impression of food or other substance , and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell . The "trigeminal senses ", which detect chemical irritants in the mouth and throat , as well as temperature and texture, are also important to the overall gestalt of flavor perception. The flavor of the food, as such, can be altered with natural or artificial flavorants which affect these senses. A "flavorant" is defined as a substance that gives another substance flavor, altering the characteristics of the solute, causing it to become sweet, sour, tangy, etc.. A flavor is a quality of something that affects the sense of taste. Of the three chemical senses, smell is the main determinant of a food item's flavor
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Solvent
A SOLVENT (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution . A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid . The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature . Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene ), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene , turpentine ), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone , methyl acetate , ethyl acetate ), in spot removers (e.g. hexane , petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes ) and in perfumes (ethanol ). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell. Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical , oil, and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes
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Herbalism
HERBALISM (also HERBAL MEDICINE or PHYTOTHERAPY) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet. Plants have been the basis for medical treatments through much of human history, and such traditional medicine is still widely practiced today. Modern medicine recognizes herbalism as a form of alternative medicine , as the practice of herbalism is not strictly based on evidence gathered using the scientific method . Modern medicine makes use of many plant-derived compounds as the basis for evidence-based pharmaceutical drugs . Although phytotherapy may apply modern standards of effectiveness testing to herbs and medicines derived from natural sources, few high-quality clinical trials and standards for purity or dosage exist. The scope of herbal medicine is sometimes extended to include fungal and bee products, as well as minerals , shells and certain animal parts
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Grafting
GRAFTING or GRAFTAGE is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. The upper part of the combined plant is called the scion (/ˈsaɪən/ ) while the lower part is called the rootstock. The success of this joining requires that the vascular tissue grow together and such joining is called inosculation . The technique is most commonly used in asexual propagation of commercially grown plants for the horticultural and agricultural trades. In most cases, one plant is selected for its roots and this is called the STOCK or rootstock . The other plant is selected for its stems , leaves , flowers , or fruits and is called the SCION or CION. The scion contains the desired genes to be duplicated in future production by the stock/scion plant. In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a shoot of a selected, desired plant cultivar is grafted onto the stock of another type
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Rootstock
A ROOTSTOCK is part of a plant, often an underground part, from which new above-ground growth can be produced. It can refer to a rhizome or underground stem. In grafting , it refers to a plant, sometimes just a stump, which already has an established, healthy root system , onto which a cutting or a bud from another plant is grafted. In some cases, such as vines of grapes and other berries, cuttings may be used for rootstocks, the roots being established in nursery conditions before planting them out. The plant part grafted onto the rootstock is usually called the SCION. The scion is the plant that has the properties that propagator desires above ground, including the photosynthetic activity and the fruit or decorative properties. The rootstock is selected for its interaction with the soil , providing the roots and the stem to support the new plant, obtaining the necessary soil water and minerals, and resisting the relevant pests and diseases
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Japanese New Year
The JAPANESE NEW YEAR (正月, Shōgatsu) is an annual festival with its own customs. Since 1873, the official Japanese New Year
New Year
has been celebrated according to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
, on January 1 of each year, New Year\'s Day (元日, Ganjitsu). However, the celebration of the traditional Japanese New Year
New Year
is still marked on the same day as the contemporary Chinese , Korean , and Vietnamese New Years
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Italy
Coordinates : 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12 Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana (Italian ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Il Canto degli Italiani (Italian ) "The Song of the Italians" Location of Italy
Italy
(dark green) – in Europe
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Tea
TEA is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis
Camellia sinensis
, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia. After water, it is the most widely consumed drink in the world. There are many different types of tea; some, like Darjeeling
Darjeeling
and Chinese greens , have a cooling, slightly bitter, and astringent flavour, while others have vastly different profiles that include sweet, nutty, floral or grassy notes. Tea
Tea
originated in Southwest China , where it was used as a medicinal drink . It was popularized as a recreational drink during the Chinese Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
, and tea drinking spread to other East Asian countries. Portuguese priests and merchants introduced it to Europe during the 16th century
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Traditional Chinese Medicine
TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM; simplified Chinese : 中医; traditional Chinese : 中醫; pinyin : Zhōngyī) is a style of traditional medicine informed by modern medicine but built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine , acupuncture , massage (tui na) , exercise (qigong) , and dietary therapy. It is primarily used as a complementary alternative medicine approach. TCM is widely used in China and is becoming increasingly available in Europe and North America. One of the basic tenets of TCM "holds that the body's vital energy (chi or qi) circulates through channels, called meridians , that have branches connected to bodily organs and functions." Concepts of the body and of disease used in TCM reflect its ancient origins and its emphasis on dynamic processes over material structure, similar to European humoral theory
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