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Bit
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit)[1] is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications. A binary digit can have only one of two values, and may be physically represented with a two-state device. These state values are most commonly represented as either a 0or1. The two values of a binary digit can also be interpreted as logical values (true/false, yes/no), algebraic signs (+/−), activation states (on/off), or any other two-valued attribute. The correspondence between these values and the physical states of the underlying storage or device is a matter of convention, and different assignments may be used even within the same device or program
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Hermann Hollerith
Herman Hollerith
Herman Hollerith
(February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an American inventor who developed an electromechanical punched card tabulator to assist in summarizing information and, later, accounting. He was the founder of the Tabulating Machine Company that was amalgamated (via stock acquisition) in 1911 with three other companies to form a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company later renamed IBM
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Portmanteau
A portmanteau (/pɔːrtˈmæntoʊ/ ( listen), /ˌpɔːrtmænˈtoʊ/[a][b]) or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,[1] in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word,[1][2][3] as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog,[2][4] or motel, from motor and hotel.[5] In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph that represents two or more morphemes.[6][7][8][9] The definition overlaps with the grammatical term contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept. A portmanteau also differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words
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Classical Mechanics
Classical mechanics
Classical mechanics
describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies. If the present state of an object is known it is possible to predict by the laws of classical mechanics how it will move in the future (determinism) and how it has moved in the past (reversibility) The earliest development of classical mechanics is often referred to as Newtonian mechanics. It consists of the physical concepts employed by and the mathematical methods invented by Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and others in the 17th century to describe the motion of bodies under the influence of a system of forces. Later, more abstract methods were developed, leading to the reformulations of classical mechanics known as Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics
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Quantum Superposition
Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics. It states that, much like waves in classical physics, any two (or more) quantum states can be added together ("superposed") and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states
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Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.[2] Classical physics
Classical physics
(the physics existing before quantum mechanics) is a set of fundamental theories which describes nature at ordinary (macroscopic) scale
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Teletype
The Teletype Corporation, a part of American Telephone and Telegraph Company's Western Electric
Western Electric
manufacturing arm since 1930, came into being in 1928 when the Morkrum-Kleinschmidt
Morkrum-Kleinschmidt
Company changed its name to the name of its trademark equipment.[1] Teletype Corporation, of Skokie, Illinois, was responsible for the research, development and manufacture of data and record communications equipment, but it is primarily remembered for the manufacture of electromechanical teleprinters. Because of the nature of its business, as stated in the corporate charter, Teletype Corporation
Teletype Corporation
was allowed a unique mode of operation within Western Electric
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Units Of Measurement
A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.[1] Any other quantity of that kind can be expressed as a multiple of the unit of measurement. For example, a length is a physical quantity. The metre is a unit of length that represents a definite predetermined length. When we say 10 metres (or 10 m), we actually mean 10 times the definite predetermined length called "metre". Measurement
Measurement
is a process of determining how large or small a physical quantity is as compared to a basic reference quantity of the same kind. The definition, agreement, and practical use of units of measurement have played a crucial role in human endeavour from early ages up to the present
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Stock Ticker Machine
Ticker tape
Ticker tape
was the earliest digital electronic communications medium, transmitting stock price information over telegraph lines, in use between around 1870 through 1970. It consisted of a paper strip that ran through a machine called a stock ticker, which printed abbreviated company names as alphabetic symbols followed by numeric stock transaction price and volume information
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Data Storage Device
Data
Data
storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium. Recording is accomplished by virtually any form of energy. DNA
DNA
and RNA, handwriting, phonographic recording, magnetic tape, and optical discs are all examples of storage media. Electronic data storage requires electrical power to store and retrieve data. Data
Data
storage in a digital, machine-readable medium is sometimes called digital data. Computer data storage
Computer data storage
is one of the core functions of a general purpose computer
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Truth Value
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.[1]Contents1 Classical logic 2 Intuitionistic and constructive logic 3 Multi-valued logic 4 Algebraic semantics 5 In other theories 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksClassical logic[edit] ⊤ true  ·∧· conjunction¬↕↕ ⊥ false·∨· disjunction Negation interchanges true with false and conjunction with disjunctionIn classical logic, with its intended semantics, the truth values are true (1 or T), and untrue or false (0 or ⊥); that is, classical logic is a two-valued logic. This set of two values is also called the Boolean domain
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Value (computer Science)
In computer science, a value is the representation of some entity that can be manipulated by a program. The members of a type are the values of that type.[1] The "value of a variable" is given by the corresponding mapping in the environment.[citation needed] In languages with assignable variables it becomes necessary to distinguish between the r-value (or contents) and the l-value (or location) of a variable.[2] In declarative (high-level) languages, values have to be referentially transparent. This means that the resulting value is independent of the location in which a (sub-)expression needed to compute the value is stored
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Communication
Communication
Communication
(from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share"[1]) is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: [2]The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message
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Computing
Computing
Computing
is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Computing
Computing
includes designing, developing and building hardware and software systems; designing a mathematical sequence of steps known as an algorithm; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; and creating and using communications and entertainment media
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Joseph Marie Jacquard
Joseph Marie Charles dit (called or nicknamed) Jacquard (French: [ʒakaʁ]; 7 July 1752 – 7 August 1834), was a French weaver and merchant. He played an important role in the development of the earliest programmable loom (the "Jacquard loom"), which in turn played an important role in the development of other programmable machines, such as an early version of digital compiler used by IBM
IBM
to develop the modern day computer.Contents1 Biography 2 Jacquard machine 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Joseph Marie Charles’ family surname was “Jacquard”. In his grandfather’s generation, several branches of the Charles family lived in Lyon’s Couzon-Au-Mont d’Or suburb (on ”Lyon’s north side, along the Saône
Saône
River). To distinguish the various branches, the community gave them nicknames; Joseph’s branch was called “Jacquard” Charles
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Ralph Hartley
Ralph Vinton Lyon Hartley (November 30, 1888 – May 1, 1970) was an electronics researcher. He invented the Hartley oscillator
Hartley oscillator
and the Hartley transform, and contributed to the foundations of information theory.Contents1 Biography 2 Awards 3 Publications 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesBiography[edit] Hartley was born in Sprucemont, Nevada and attended the University of Utah, receiving an A.B. degree in 1909. He became a Rhodes Scholar at St Johns, Oxford University, in 1910 and received a B.A. degree in 1912 and a B.Sc. degree in 1913. He married Florence Vail of Brooklyn on March 21, 1916.[1] The Hartleys had no children. He returned to the United States
United States
and was employed at the Research Laboratory of the Western Electric
Western Electric
Company
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