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Bison
B. bison B. bonasus †B. antiquus †B. hanaizumiensis †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. palaeosinensis †B. priscus †B. schoetensacki Bison
Bison
are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison
Bison
within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct species, five went extinct in the Quaternary extinction event. Bison palaeosinensis evolved in the Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
in South Asia, and was the evolutionary ancestor of B. priscus (steppe bison), which was the ancestor of all other Bison
Bison
species. From 2 MYA to 6,000 BC, steppe bison ranged across the mammoth steppe, inhabiting Europe and northern Asia with B. schoetensacki (woodland bison), and North America with B. antiquus, B. latifrons, and B. occidentalis. The last species to go extinct, B. occidentalis, was succeeded at 3,000 BC by B
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Magdalenian
The Magdalenian
Magdalenian
(also Madelenian; French: Magdalénien) refers to one of the later cultures of the Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
in western Europe, dating from around 17,000
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Taxon
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking, especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion
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6th Millennium BC
The 6th millennium BC spanned the years 6000 through 5001 BC. During this time, agriculture spread from the Balkans
Balkans
to Italy
Italy
and Eastern Europe, and also from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
to Egypt. World population
World population
was essentially stable at numbers ranging between approximately 5 and 7 million.Contents1 Events 2 Environmental changes 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Cultural landmarks 5 ReferencesEvents[edit]Byzantine Calendar illustrating 1 September 5509 BC (the calendar is from the 12th century CE).Yangshao cultureA massive volcanic landslide off Mount Etna, Sicily, caused a megatsunami that devastated the eastern Mediterranean coastline on the continents of Asia, Africa
Africa
and Europe.[1] c
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Gelasian
The Gelasian is an age in the international geologic timescale or a stage in chronostratigraphy, being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period/system and Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch/series. It spans the time between 2.588 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago) and 1.806 ± 0.005 Ma.[2] It follows the Piacenzian stage (part of the Pliocene) and is followed by the Calabrian stage. During the Gelasian the Red Crag of Butley and Newbourn and the Norwich and Weybourne Crags, all from East Anglia
East Anglia
(England) were deposited
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South Asia
South
South
Asia
Asia
or Southern Asia
Asia
(also known as Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC
SAARC
countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal
Nepal
and all parts of India
India
situated south of the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Hindu
Hindu
Kush
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Early Pleistocene
The Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(also known as the Lower Pleistocene) is a subepoch in the international geologic timescale or a subseries in chronostratigraphy, being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period/system and Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch/series. It spans the time between 2.588 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago) and 0.781 ± 0.005 Ma.[2] The Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
consists of the Gelasian and the Calabrian ages.[3] Notes[edit]^ Fan, Junxuan; Hou, Xudong. "International Chronostratigraphic Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy
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Extinction
In biology and ecology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively
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Extant Taxon
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms. It is the study of extant taxa (singular: extant taxon): taxa (such as species, genera and families) with members still alive, as opposed to (all) being extinct. For example:The moose (Alces alces) is an extant species, and the dodo is an extinct species. In the group of molluscs known as the cephalopods, as of 1987[update] there were approximately 600 extant species and 7,500 extinct species.[1]A taxon can be classified as extinct if it is broadly agreed or certified that no members of the group are still alive. Conversely, an extinct taxon can be reclassified as extant if there are new discoveries of extant species ("Lazarus species"), or if previously-known extant species are reclassified as members of the taxon. The term neontologist is used largely by paleontologists referring to nonpaleontologists
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Mammal
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands. Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees, underground or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Chordate
And see textA chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates with metameric segmentation and a circulatory system. In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development. Taxonomically, the phylum includes the following subphyla: the Vertebrata, which includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; the Tunicata, which includes salps and sea squirts; and the Cephalochordata, which include the lancelets. There are also additional extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Charles Hamilton Smith
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Hamilton Smith, KH (26 December 1776 in East Flanders, Belgium
Belgium
– 21 September 1859 in Plymouth) was an English artist, naturalist, antiquary, illustrator, soldier, and spy.Contents1 Military service 2 Antiquary, naturalist and illustrator 3 The Natural History of the Human Species 4 ReferencesMilitary service[edit] His military career began in 1787, when he studied at the Austrian academy for artillery and engineers at Mechelen
Mechelen
and Leuven
Leuven
in Belgium. Although his military service, which ended in 1820 and included the Napoleonic Wars, saw him travel extensively (including the West Indies, Canada, and United States), much of his time was spent at a desk job in Britain. One of his noteworthy achievements was an 1800 experiment to determine which colour should be used for military uniforms
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