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Bison
B. bison B. bonasus †B. antiquus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. palaeosinensis †B. priscus †B.schoetensacki BISON are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison
Bison
within the subfamily Bovinae
Bovinae
. Two extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct species, five went extinct in the Quaternary extinction event . Bison palaeosinensis evolved in the Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
in South Asia
South Asia
, and was the evolutionary ancestor of B. priscus (steppe bison ), which was the ancestor of all other Bison
Bison
species. From 2 MYA to 6,000 BCE , steppe bison ranged across the mammoth steppe , inhabiting Europe and northern Asia with B. schoetensacki (woodland bison), and North America with B. antiquus , B. latifrons , and B. occidentalis . The last species to go extinct, B
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Mammal
MAMMALS are any vertebrates within the class MAMMALIA (/məˈmeɪli.ə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds ) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair , three middle ear bones and mammary glands . Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the biggest animals on the planet, the great whales . The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs . The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale . With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Charles Hamilton Smith
Lieutenant-Colonel CHARLES HAMILTON SMITH, KH (26 December 1776 in East Flanders
East Flanders
, Belgium
Belgium
– 21 September 1859 in Plymouth
Plymouth
) was an English artist , naturalist , antiquary , illustrator , soldier , and spy . CONTENTS * 1 Military service * 2 Antiquary, naturalist and illustrator * 3 The Natural History of the Human Species * 4 References MILITARY SERVICEHis military career began in 1787, when he studied at the Austrian academy for artillery and engineers at Mechelen and Leuven
Leuven
in Belgium . Although his military service, which ended in 1820 and included the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, saw him travel extensively (including the West Indies , Canada
Canada
, and United States
United States
), much of his time was spent at a desk job in Britain
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Synapsid
Theropsida Seeley , 1895 SYNAPSIDS (Greek , 'fused arch'), synonymous with THEROPSIDS (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes . They are easily separated from other amniotes by having a temporal fenestra , an opening low in the skull roof behind each eye, leaving a bony arch beneath each; this accounts for their name. Primitive synapsids are usually called pelycosaurs or pelycosaur-grade synapsids; more advanced mammal-like ones, therapsids . The non-mammalian members are described as MAMMAL-LIKE REPTILES in classical systematics; they can also be called STEM MAMMALS or PROTO-MAMMALS. Synapsids evolved from basal amniotes and are one of the two major groups of the later amniotes; the other is the sauropsids , a group that includes modern reptiles and birds
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata
Vertebrata
, which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata
Cephalochordata
, comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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South Asia
SOUTH ASIA or SOUTHERN ASIA is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent , which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC
SAARC
countries and, for some authorities , adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate , which rises above sea level as Nepal
Nepal
and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Hindu Kush
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Taxon
In biology , a TAXON (plural TAXA; back-formation from taxonomy ) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking , especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion. If a taxon is given a formal scientific name , its use is then governed by one of the nomenclature codes specifying which scientific name is correct for a particular grouping
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30th Century BC
The 30TH CENTURY BC is a century which lasted from the year 3000 BC to 2901 BC. CONTENTS * 1 Events * 2 Significant people * 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions * 4 Fiction * 5 References EVENTS Stele bearing the name of Djet * Before 3000 BC: Image of a deity, detail from a cong recovered from Tomb 12, Fanshan, Yuyao
Yuyao
, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, is made. Neolithic period
Neolithic period
. Liangzhu culture
Liangzhu culture
. It is now kept at Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Provincial Museum , Hangzhou
Hangzhou
. * c. 3000 BC: Early agriculture in North Africa
North Africa
. * 3000 BC – 2600 BC: Early Harappan period continues in the Indus Valley * c. 3000 BC: Neolithic period
Neolithic period
ends. * c
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Gelasian
The GELASIAN is an age in the international geologic timescale or a stage in chronostratigraphy , being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary period/system and Pleistocene epoch/series. It spans the time between 2.588 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago) and 1.806 ± 0.005 Ma. It follows the Piacenzian stage (part of the Pliocene
Pliocene
) and is followed by the Calabrian stage. During the Gelasian the Red Crag of Butley and Newbourn and the Norwich and Weybourne Crags, all from East Anglia (England) were deposited. The Gelasian is an equivalent of the Praetiglian and Tiglian stages as defined in the Netherlands
Netherlands
, which are commonly used in northwestern Europe. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 References * 2.1 Notes * 2.2 Literature DEFINITIONThe Gelasian was introduced in the geologic timescale in 1998
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Early Pleistocene
The EARLY PLEISTOCENE (also known as the LOWER PLEISTOCENE) is a subepoch in the international geologic timescale or a subseries in chronostratigraphy , being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary period/system and Pleistocene epoch/series. It spans the time between 2.588 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago) and 0.781 ± 0.005 Ma. The Early Pleistocene consists of the Gelasian and the Calabrian ages
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Extinction
In biology and ecology , EXTINCTION is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon ), normally a species . The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa , where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record ) after a period of apparent absence. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described
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Extant Taxon
NEONTOLOGY is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology , deals with living or recently extinct organisms . It is the study of living species , genera , families and other taxa with members still alive, as opposed to being all dead or extinct . For example, the moose is an extant species, while the Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
is a long extinct one. In the group of molluscs known as the cephalopods , as of 1987 , there were approximately 600 extant species and 7,500 extinct species. A taxon can be classified as extinct if it is broadly agreed or certified that no members of the group are still alive. Conversely, an extinct taxon can be reclassified as existing if there are new discoveries of living species ("Lazarus species" ), or if previously-known existing species are reclassified as members of the taxon. The term neontologist is used largely by paleontologists referring to nonpaleontologists
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6th Millennium BC
During the 6TH MILLENNIUM BC, agriculture spread from the Balkans
Balkans
to Italy
Italy
and Eastern Europe , and also from Mesopotamia to Egypt . World population was essentially stable at numbers ranging between approximately 5 and 7 million. CONTENTS * 1 Events * 2 Environmental changes * 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions * 4 Cultural landmarks * 5 References EVENTS Byzantine Calendar illustrating 1 September 5509 BC (the calendar is from the 12th century CE). Yangshao culture * A massive volcanic landslide off Mount Etna
Mount Etna
, Sicily , caused a megatsunami that devastated the eastern Mediterranean coastline on the continents of Asia, Africa
Africa
and Europe. * c. 6000 BC: The entire