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Bishop Of Nebbio
The DIOCESE OF NEBBIO (Latin: Dioecesis Nebiensis) was a Roman Catholic diocese located in the town of Saint-Florent in Corsica
Corsica
. The Cathedral is on a low hill one mile from the port of Saint-Florent. In the Medieval period the Bishop of Nebbio was also the temporal lord of nearly all the lands in his diocese. In 1667, Nebbio was completely abandoned and the bishop lived in Saint-Florent, a town of about 200 inhabitants, under the dominion of the Republic of Genoa. The diocese had some 22 places. The Cathedral Chapter had two dignities, the Archdeacon and the Provost, and three Canons. In 1770 the diocese was under the dominion of the King of France, and Saint-Fleur had about 600 inhabitants. The Chapter of the Cathedral still existed, with two dignities and six Canons. The diocese of Nebbio was suppressed by the National Constituent Assembly through the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1790. In 1801, under the Consulate, it was suppressed through the Concordat of 1801 , which was given effect by a bull of Pope Pius VII of 29 November 1801. The diocese of Nebbio and its territory were assigned to the Diocese of Ajaccio . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Bishops * 2.1 Diocese of Nebbio * 3 References * 4 Books HISTORYThe mythical founding of the five cities of Corsica, in which Nebbino was a nephew of the founder, Corso, is retailed by Anton-Pietro Filippini (1594)
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Saint-Florent, Haute-Corse
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. SAINT-FLORENT (Corsican : San Fiurenzu, Italian : San Fiorenzo) is a commune in Haute-Corse department of France
France
on the island of Corsica
Corsica
. Originally a fishing port located in the gulf of the same name, nowadays pleasure boats have largely taken the place of fishing vessels. Today, it is a popular summer vacation spot for many tourists because of its proximity to the Patrimonio vineyards and the Saleccia beach. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Population * 3 Climate * 4 Sights * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYSaint-Florent was created by the Genoese in the 16th century as a base to carry out repressive operations against the Corsican patriots in the surrounding villages. France
France
later used it to disembark hordes of mercenaries and colonists during August 1764 in order to subject the independent Corsican people. After the defeat at Ponte Novu Bridge, the army of Pasquale Paoli , sometimes called "the Father of Corsica", helped by the fleet of Horatio Nelson
Horatio Nelson
, reconquered Saint-Florent in 1794 during the brief Anglo-Corsican rule
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Corsica
CORSICA (/ˈkɔːrsɪkə/ ; French: _Corse_ ; Corsican and Italian : _Corsica_ ) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France . It is located west of the Italian Peninsula , southeast of the French mainland , and north of the Italian island of Sardinia . A single chain of mountains makes up two-thirds of the island. While being part of France, Corsica is also designated as a territorial collectivity (_collectivité territoriale_) by law. As a territorial collectivity, Corsica enjoys a greater degree of autonomy than other French regions; for example, the Corsican Assembly is able to exercise limited executive powers. The island formed a single department until it was split in 1975 into two departments: Haute-Corse (Upper Corsica) and Corse-du-Sud (Southern Corsica), with its regional capital in Ajaccio , the prefecture city of Corse-du-Sud. Bastia , the prefecture city of Haute-Corse, is the second-largest settlement in Corsica. After being ruled by the Republic of Genoa since 1284, Corsica was briefly an independent Corsican Republic from 1755 until it was conquered by France in 1769. Due to Corsica's historical ties with the Italian peninsula, the island retains to this day many elements of the culture of Italy
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National Constituent Assembly (France)
The NATIONAL CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY (French : Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789 during the first stages of the French Revolution . It dissolved on 30 September 1791 and was succeeded by the Legislative Assembly . CONTENTS* 1 Background * 1.1 Estates-General * 1.2 Tennis Court Oath * 2 Structure in summer 1789 * 3 Proceedings * 4 Restoration of king * 5 Dissolution * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 7.1 Primary sources BACKGROUNDESTATES-GENERALThe Estates-General of 1789 , made up of representatives of the three estates (clergy, aristocracy, and commoners), which had not been convoked since 1614, convened on 5 May 1789. The Estates-General reached a deadlock in its deliberations by 6 May. The representatives of the Third Estate attempted to make the whole body more effective and so met separately from 11 May as the Communes. On 12 June, the Communes invited the other Estates to join them: some members of the First Estate did so the following day. On 17 June 1789, the Communes approved the motion made by Sieyès that declared themselves the National Assembly by a vote of 490 to 90. The Third Estate now believed themselves to be a legitimate authority equal to that of the King
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Civil Constitution Of The Clergy
The CIVIL CONSTITUTION OF THE CLERGY (French : _"CONSTITUTION CIVILE DU CLERGé"_) was a law passed on 12 July 1790 during the French Revolution , that caused the immediate subordination of the Catholic Church in France
France
to the French government. Earlier legislation had already arranged the confiscation of the Catholic Church's French land holdings and banned monastic vows . This new law completed the destruction of the monastic orders, outlawing "all regular and secular chapters for either sex, abbacies and priorships, both regular and _in commendam _, for either sex", etc. It also sought to settle the chaos caused by the earlier confiscation of Church lands and the abolition of the tithe. Additionally, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy regulated the current dioceses so that they could become more uniform and aligned with the administrative districts that had recently been created. It emphasised that officials of the church could not provide commitment to anything outside of France, specifically the Pope (due to his power and the influence he had) which was outside of France. Lastly, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy made Bishops and Priest elected. By having members of the Clergy elected the church lost much of the authority it had to govern itself and it was now subject to the people since they would vote on the Priest and Bishops as opposed to these individuals being appointed by the church and the hierarchy within
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Concordat Of 1801
The CONCORDAT OF 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon
Napoleon
and Pope Pius VII , signed on 15 July 1801 in Paris. It remained in effect until 1905. It sought national reconciliation between revolutionaries and Catholics and solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France, with most of its civil status restored. The hostility of devout Catholics against the state had then largely been resolved. It did not restore the vast church lands and endowments that had been seized upon during the revolution and sold off. Catholic clergy returned from exile, or from hiding, and resumed their traditional positions in their traditional churches. Very few parishes continued to employ the priests who had accepted the Civil Constitution of the Clergy of the Revolutionary regime. While the Concordat
Concordat
restored much power to the papacy, the balance of church-state relations tilted firmly in Napoleon's favour. He selected the bishops and supervised church finances. Napoleon
Napoleon
and the pope both found the Concordat
Concordat
useful. Similar arrangements were made with the Church in territories controlled by Napoleon, especially Italy and Germany
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Pope Pius VII
POPE PIUS VII (14 August 1742 – 20 August 1823), born BARNABA NICCOLò MARIA LUIGI CHIARAMONTI, reigned as Pope
Pope
from 14 March 1800 to his death in 1823. Chiaramonti was also a monk of the Order of Saint Benedict in addition to being a well known theologian and bishop throughout his life. Chiaramonti was made Bishop of Tivoli in 1782, and resigned that position upon his appointment as Bishop of Imola in 1785. That same year, he was made a cardinal . In 1789, the French Revolution took place, and as a result a series of anti-clerical governments came into power in the country. In 1796, during the French Revolutionary Wars , French troops under Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte invaded Rome
Rome
and took as prisoner Pope Pius VI . He was taken as prisoner to France, where he died in 1799. The following year, after a _sede vacante_ period lasting approximately six months, Chiaramonti was elected to the papacy, taking the name Pius VII. Pius at first attempted to take a cautious approach in dealing with Napoleon. With him he signed the Concordat of 1801
Concordat of 1801
, through which he succeeded in guaranteeing religious freedom for Catholics living in France, and was present at his coronation as Emperor of the French in 1804
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Diocese Of Ajaccio
The ROMAN CATHOLIC DIOCESE OF AJACCIO ( Latin
Latin
: Dioecesis Adiacensis; French : Diocèse d'Ajaccio) is a diocese of the Latin
Latin
Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France
France
. The diocese comprises the whole of the island of Corsica
Corsica
. Erected in the 3rd century, the diocese was formerly a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Pisa
Archdiocese of Pisa
. After the French Concordat of 1801, the diocese became a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Aix-en-Provence and Arles , until 2002 when it was attached to the archidiocesan province of Marseille . In 2012 in the diocese of Ajaccio there was one priest for every 3,636 Catholics. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 The Cathedral * 2 Bishops * 2.1 before 1200 * 2.2 1200 to 1400 * 2.3 1400 to 1600 * 2.4 1600 to 1800 * 2.5 1800 to 2000 * 2.6 since 2000 * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Books * 5.1 Acknowledgment * 6 External links HISTORYIts first bishop known to history was Evandrus, who assisted at the Council of Rome in 313. In 1077 Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII
granted the sovereignty of the island of Corsica
Corsica
to Pisa. In 1347 Pisa
Pisa
was forced to cede its control over the island of Corsica
Corsica
to Genoa. Pope Eugene IV tried to reestablish papal sovereignty, but he failed
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Pope Martin I
POPE MARTIN I (Latin : Martinus I; born between 590 and 600, died 16 September 655) reigned from 21 July 649 to his death in 655. He succeeded Pope Theodore I on 5 July 649. He was the only pope during the Byzantine Papacy whose election was not approved by a iussio from Constantinople. Martin I was abducted by Emperor Constans II and died at Cherson. He is considered a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church . CONTENTS * 1 Apokrisiariat * 2 Papacy (649–653) * 3 Abduction and exile (653–655) * 4 Place in the calendar of saints * 5 Papal Reference * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links APOKRISIARIAT Main article: Apocrisiarius He was born near Todi
Todi
, Umbria, in the place now named after him (Pian di San Martino). According to his biographer Theodore, Martin was of noble birth, of commanding intelligence, and of great charity to the poor. Piazza states that he belonged to the order of St. Basil. He had acted as papal apocrisiarius or legate at Constantinople
Constantinople
, and was held in high repute for his learning and virtue. Martin I was the last Constantinopolitan apocrisiarius to be elected pope. Other envoys under the title nuncio have been elected since then, like Pius XII
Pius XII

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Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
HENRY V (German : Heinrich V.; 11 August 1081/86 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
(from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. Henry's reign coincided with the final phase of the great Investiture Controversy , which had pitted pope against emperor. By the settlement of the Concordat of Worms , he surrendered to the demands of the second generation of Gregorian reformers . CONTENTS * 1 Assumption of power * 2 First Italian expedition * 3 Return to Germany
Germany
* 3.1 War with Cologne
Cologne
* 4 Second Italian expedition * 5 Concordat of Worms * 6 Death * 7 Ancestry * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Sources ASSUMPTION OF POWERHenry's parents were Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
, and Bertha of Savoy . On 6 January 1099, his father had him crowned King of Germany at Aachen
Aachen
in place of his older brother, the rebel Conrad . Henry took an oath to take no part in the business of the Empire during his father's lifetime, but he was induced by his father's enemies to revolt in 1104, securing a dispensation from the oath by Pope Paschal II , and some of the princes did homage to him at Mainz
Mainz
in January 1105
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Pope Innocent II
POPE INNOCENT II (Latin : _Innocentius II_; died 23 September 1143), born GREGORIO PAPARESCHI, was Pope from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143. His election was controversial and the first eight years of his reign were marked by a struggle for recognition against the supporters of Antipope Anacletus II . He reached an understanding with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor who supported him against Anacletus and whom he crowned King of the Romans . Innocent went on to preside over the Second Lateran council . CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Election as Pope * 3 Papacy * 3.1 Second Lateran Council * 3.2 Treaty of Mignano * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY YEARSPapareschi came from a Roman family, probably of the _rione_ Trastevere . He was probably one of the clergy in personal attendance on the Antipope Clement III (Guibert of Ravenna). Pope Paschal II made him a cardinal deacon . In this capacity, he accompanied Pope Gelasius II when he was driven into France. He was selected by Pope Callixtus II for various important and difficult missions, such as the one to Worms for the conclusion of the Concordat of Worms , the peace accord made with Holy Roman Emperor Henry V in 1122, and also the one to France in 1123 that made peace with King Louis VI
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Agostino Giustiniani
AGOSTINO GIUSTINIANI (born PANTALEONE GIUSTINIANI; 1470 - 1536) was an Italian Catholic bishop, linguist and geographer. BIOGRAPHYGiustiniani was born at Genoa
Genoa
into a noble family. His father had been ambassador of the Republic of Genoa
Genoa
at Milan , while his grandfather had been governor of Chios . Giustiniani spent some years in Valencia , Spain
Spain
, before joining the Dominican order in 1487. He studied Greek , Hebrew , Chaldee
Chaldee
and Arabic , and in 1514 began the preparation of a polyglot edition of the Bible. As Bishop of Nebbio in Corsica
Corsica
, he took part in some of the earlier sittings of the Lateran council (1516–1517), but, in consequence of party complications, withdrew to his diocese , and ultimately to France, where he became a pensioner of Francis I , and was the first to occupy a chair of Hebrew and Arabic in the University of Paris . After an absence from Corsica
Corsica
for a period of five years, during which he visited England and the Low Countries , and became acquainted with Erasmus
Erasmus
and Sir Thomas More , he returned to Nebbio, about 1522, and there remained, with comparatively little intermission, until in 1536, when, while returning from a visit to Genoa, he perished in a storm at sea
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Girolamo Doria
GIROLAMO DORIA (1495 – March 25, 1558) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal . BIOGRAPHY Girolamo Doria was born in Genoa in 1495, the son of Andrea Doria . Early in his life, he married Luisa Spinola and had several children. He entered the ecclesiastical state after his wife died, becoming a cleric in Genoa. Pope Clement VII made him a cardinal deacon in the consistory of January 1529. He received the red hat and the deaconry of San Tommaso in Parione on November 15, 1529. In 1530, he attended the coronation of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor by the pope in Bologna
Bologna
. He was the administrator of the see of Elne from January 12, 1530 until October 2, 1532; administrator of the see of Huesca y Jaca from October 2, 1532 until May 8, 1533; administrator of the see of Tarragona from May 8, 1533; and administrator of the see of Noli from April 13, 1534 until February 25, 1549. He participated in the papal conclave of 1534 that elected Pope Paul III . From November 15, 1536 until June 28, 1538, he was administrator of the see of Nebbio . He participated in the papal conclave of 1549-50 that elected Pope Julius III ; the papal conclave of April 1555 that elected Pope Marcellus II ; and the papal conclave of May 1555 that elected Pope Paul IV . On May 29, 1555, he opted for the title of Santa Maria in Campitelli . He died in Genoa on March 25, 1558
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Bishop Of Sagone
The DIOCESE OF SAGONE was a Roman Catholic diocese in France , located in the city of Sagone , Corsica . In 1801, it was suppressed to the Archdiocese of Ajaccio . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Bishops * 2.1 Diocese of Sagone * 2.2 Titular Bishops * 3 References * 4 Books HISTORY Cathedral of S. Appianu, Sagone The islands of Corsica, Sardina, and the Balearics suffered severely in the depradations of the Vandals in the second half of the fifth century. Appianu, the eponymous saint of the Cathedral of Sagone, is said to have died in exile. Archaeology indicates that only the inland town of Castellu in Upper Corse survived. There were no Corsican representatives at the Council of Carthage in 484. Belisarius appears to have done nothing for Corsica, and the Lombard invasions had a negative impact. It is only in the time of Pope Gregory I (590-604) that information becomes available. Having heard of the terrible state of Christianity on the island of Corsica, Gregory sent a bishop, a certain Leo, to the island, with the license to ordain priests and deacons in a diocese not his own, the diocese of Sagone. Gregory remarks that the diocese had been without a bishop for many years: ... Ecclesiam Saonensem ante annos plurimos, obejunte eius pontifice, omnino destitutam agnovimus
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Giuliano Castagnola
GIULIANO CASTAGNOLA (1572 – 21 December 1620) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Nebbio (1612–1620). BIOGRAPHY Giuliano Castagnola was born in La Spezia , Italy in 1572. He was Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law), and was Rector of the Parish of San Lorenzo in montibus in Rome. On 19 November 1612, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Paul V as Bishop of Nebbio . On 30 November 1612, he was consecrated bishop by Giovanni Garzia Mellini , Cardinal-Priest of Santi Quattro Coronati with Giovanni Battista Salvago , Bishop of Luni e Sarzana , and Antonio Seneca , Bishop of Anagni , serving as co-consecrators. He served as Bishop of Nebbio until his death on 21 December 1620. REFERENCES * ^ A B C Gauchat, Patritius (Patrice) (1935). HIERARCHIA CATHOLICA MEDII ET RECENTIORIS AEVI Vol IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. p. 255. Castagnola was born in the town of Spedia in the diocese of Luni-Sarzana. He was Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law), and was Rector of the Parish of San Lorenzo in montibus in Rome. He was consecrated a bishop in Rome by Cardinal Giovanni Garzia Millini on 30 November 1612. Gauchat, IV, p. 255 note 3 (in Latin) * ^ A B C D E "Bishop Giuliano Castagnola" Catholic-Hierarchy.org . David M. Cheney
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Giovanni Mascardi
GIOVANNI MASCARDI (died 1646) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Nebbio (1621–1646). BIOGRAPHYOn 19 April 1621, Giovanni Mascardi was appointed during the papacy of Pope Gregory XV
Pope Gregory XV
as Bishop of Nebbio . He served as Canon of the Cathedral of Mariana. On 25 April 1621, he was consecrated bishop by Maffeo Barberini , Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
of Sant\'Onofrio , with Diofebo Farnese , Titular Patriarch of Jerusalem , and Ulpiano Volpi , Bishop of Novara , serving as co-consecrators . He served as Bishop of Nebbio until his death in 1646. REFERENCES * ^ A B C D Gauchat, Patritius (Patrice) (1935). HIERARCHIA CATHOLICA MEDII ET RECENTIORIS AEVI Vol IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. p. 255. Mascardi had been Canon of the Cathedral of Mariana. He was consecrated in Rome by Cardinal Maffeo Barberini on 25 April 1621. (in Latin) * ^ A B C D "Bishop Giovanni Mascardi"