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Bisbee Riot
The BISBEE RIOT, or the BATTLE OF BREWERY GULCH, refers to a conflict during the Red Summer on July 3, 1919, between Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry and members of local police forces in Bisbee , Arizona
Arizona
. Following an incident between a military policeman and some of the Buffalo Soldiers, the situation escalated into a street battle in Bisbee's historic Brewery Gulch. At least eight people were seriously injured, and fifty soldiers were arrested, although the consequences of this skirmish were relatively minor compared to others during the summer of 1919. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Riot * 3 Aftermath * 4 See also * 5 References BACKGROUNDIn 1919, Bisbee had a population 20,000 and was home to white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native Americans. Although a busy place, it was described by author Cameron McWhirter as a "remote... dusty frontier town," ten miles north of the Mexican border
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Bisbee, Arizona
BISBEE is a city in Cochise County , Arizona
Arizona
, United States
United States
, 92 miles (148 km) southeast of Tucson . According to the 2010 census , the population of the city was 5,575. The city is the county seat of Cochise County
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " (
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Red Summer (1919)
The RED SUMMER refers to the summer and early autumn of 1919, which was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the United States, as a result of race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities and one rural county. In most instances, whites attacked African Americans . In some cases many black people fought back, notably in Chicago and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
The highest number of fatalities occurred in the rural area around Elaine, Arkansas
Elaine, Arkansas
, where five whites and an estimated 100–240 black people were killed; Chicago and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
had 38 and 15 deaths, respectively, and many more injured, with extensive property damage in Chicago
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Longview Race Riot
The LONGVIEW RACE RIOT refers to a series of violent incidents in Longview , Texas
Texas
, between July 10 and July 12, 1919, when whites attacked black areas of town, killed one black man, and burned down several properties, including the houses of a black teacher and a doctor. It was the second of 25 race riots in 1919 in the United States during what became known as Red Summer , a period after World War I known for numerous riots occurring mostly in urban areas. The riot is notable for local and state officials taking actions to impose military authority and quell further violence. After ignoring early rumors of planned unrest, local officials appealed to the governor for forces to quell the violence. In a short time, the Texas National Guard and Texas
Texas
Rangers sent forces to the town, where the Guard organized an occupation and curfew
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Chicago Race Riot Of 1919
The CHICAGO RACE RIOT OF 1919 was a major racial conflict that began in Chicago
Chicago
, Illinois, on July 27, 1919, and ended on August 3. During the riot, thirty-eight people died (23 black and 15 white) and over five hundred were injured. It is considered the worst of the approximately 25 riots during the Red Summer , so named because of the violence and fatalities across the nation. The combination of prolonged arson , looting , and murder made it the worst race riot in the history of Illinois
Illinois
. The sociopolitical atmosphere of Chicago
Chicago
was one of ethnic tension caused by competition among many new groups. With the Great Migration , thousands of African Americans
African Americans
from the South had settled next to neighborhoods of European immigrants on Chicago's South Side , near jobs in the stockyards and meatpacking plants
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Knoxville Riot Of 1919
The KNOXVILLE RIOT OF 1919 was a race riot that took place in Knoxville, Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee
, United States, on August 30–31, 1919. The riot began when a lynch mob stormed the county jail in search of Maurice Mays, a mulatto man who had been accused of murdering a white woman. Unable to find Mays, the rioters looted the jail and fought a pitched gun battle with the residents of a predominantly black neighborhood. The Tennessee National Guard
Tennessee National Guard
, which at one point fired two machine guns indiscriminately into this neighborhood, eventually dispersed the rioters. Newspapers placed the death toll at just two, though eyewitness accounts suggest it was much higher. The Riot of 1919 was one of several violent racial incidents that occurred during the so-called Red Summer , when race riots plagued cities across the United States
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Omaha Race Riot Of 1919
The OMAHA RACE RIOT occurred in Omaha , Nebraska
Nebraska
, September 28–29, 1919. The race riot resulted in the brutal lynching of Will Brown, a black worker; the death of two white men; the attempted hanging of Mayor Edward Parsons Smith ; and a public rampage by thousands of whites who set fire to the Douglas County Courthouse in downtown Omaha
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Elaine Race Riot
The ELAINE RACE RIOT, also called the ELAINE MASSACRE, began on September 30–October 1, 1919 at Hoop Spur in the vicinity of Elaine in rural Phillips County, Arkansas
Phillips County, Arkansas
. With an estimated 100 to 237 blacks killed, along with five white men, it is considered the deadliest race riot in the state and one of the deadliest racial conflicts in all of United States history. Due to the widespread white mob attacks, in 2015 the Equal Justice Institute classified the black deaths as lynchings in their report on lynchings in the United States . Located in the Arkansas Delta
Arkansas Delta
, the county had been developed for cotton plantations , worked by African-American
African-American
slaves. In the early 20th century the population was still overwhelmingly black: African Americans outnumbered whites in the area around Elaine by a ten-to-one ratio, and by three-to-one in the county overall
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Buffalo Soldier
BUFFALO SOLDIERS originally were members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States
United States
Army , formed on September 21, 1866, at Fort Leavenworth
Fort Leavenworth
, Kansas
Kansas
. This nickname was given to the "Negro Cavalry
Cavalry
" by the Native American tribes they fought in the Indian Wars
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10th Cavalry Regiment (United States)
The 10TH CAVALRY REGIMENT is a unit of the United States
United States
Army . Formed as a segregated African-American unit, the 10th Cavalry was one of the original " Buffalo Soldier " regiments in the post-Civil War Regular Army. It served in combat during the Indian Wars in the western United States, the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
in Cuba
Cuba
and in the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
. The regiment was trained as a combat unit but later relegated to non-combat duty and served in that capacity in World War II
World War II
until its deactivation in 1944. The 10th Cavalry was reactivated as an integrated combat unit in 1958
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Police
A POLICE force is a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law , protect property, and limit civil disorder . Their powers include the legitimized use of force . The term is most commonly associated with police services of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are often defined as being separate from military or other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however, gendarmerie are military units charged with civil policing
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Arizona
As of 2010 * English 74.1% * Spanish 19.5% * Navajo 1.9% * Other 4.5 % DEMONYM Arizonan CAPITAL Phoenix LARGEST CITY Phoenix LARGEST METRO Phoenix metropolitan area AREA Ranked 6th • TOTAL 113,990 sq mi (295,234 km2) • WIDTH 310 miles (500 km) • LENGTH 400 miles (645 km) • % WATER 0.35 • LATITUDE 31°  20′ N to 37° N • LONGITUDE 109°  03′ W to 114°  49′ W POPULATION Ranked 14th • TOTAL 6,931,071 (2016 est.) • DENSITY 57/sq mi (22/km2) Ranked 33rd • MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME $52,248 (33rd) ELEVATION • HIGHEST POINT
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Military Police
MILITARY POLICE (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Americas * 2.1 Brazil * 2.2 Canada * 2.3 Colombia * 2.4 United States * 2.4.1 Combat roles of the U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force and U.S
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Urban Combat
URBAN WARFARE is combat conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities . Urban combat is very different from combat in the open at both the operational and tactical level. Complicating factors in urban warfare include the presence of civilians and the complexity of the urban terrain . Urban combat operations may be conducted in order to capitalize on the strategic or tactical advantages with which possession or control of a particular urban area gives or to deny these advantages to the enemy. Fighting in urban areas negates the advantages that one side may have over the other in armour, heavy artillery, or air support
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American Frontier
Currently the United States , historically in order of their assimilation: * Indigenous Lands * Thirteen Colonies * New Sweden * New Netherland * Vermont Republic * Louisiana territory * Spanish Florida * Republic of Texas * Oregon Country * California * New Mexico * Russian America (Alaska) * Republic of Hawaii The AMERICAN FRONTIER comprises the geography , history , folklore , and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912. "Frontier" refers to a contrasting region at the edge of a European-American line of settlement
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