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Biplane
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other. The first powered, controlled aeroplane to fly, the Wright Flyer, used a biplane wing arrangement, as did many aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage over a monoplane, it produces more drag than a similar unbraced or cantilever monoplane wing. Improved structural techniques, better materials and the quest for greater speed made the biplane configuration obsolete for most purposes by the late 1930s. Biplanes offer several advantages over conventional cantilever monoplane designs: they permit lighter wing structures, low wing loading and smaller span for a given wing area
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Nieuport 23
The Nieuport
Nieuport
17 C.1 was a French sesquiplane[fn 1] fighter designed and manufactured by the Nieuport
Nieuport
company. During its service in the First World War, the type's outstanding manoeuvrability and excellent rate of climb gave it a significant advantage over its contemporaries. The Nieuport
Nieuport
17 was an enlarged and reengined development of the earlier Nieuport
Nieuport
11, being more powerful and slightly larger than its ancestor. It also incorporated a number of recent innovations, such as the newly-developed Alkan-Hamy synchronization gear, which permitted the use of a fuselage-mounted synchronised Vickers gun, which could safely fire directly through the propeller
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World War I
Allied victory Central Powers
Central Powers
victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of all continental empires in Europe
Europe
(including Germany, Russia, Turkey and Austria-Hu
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World War One
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Wing Loading
In aerodynamics, wing loading is the total mass of an aircraft divided by the area of its wing.[1] The stalling speed of an aircraft in straight, level flight is partly determined by its wing loading. An aircraft with a low wing loading has a larger wing area relative to its mass, as compared to an aircraft with a high wing loading. The faster an aircraft flies, the more lift can be produced by each unit of wing area, so a smaller wing can carry the same mass in level flight. Consequently, faster aircraft generally have higher wing loadings than slower aircraft. This increased wing loading also increases takeoff and landing distances. A higher wing loading also decreases maneuverability
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Stall (fluid Mechanics)
In fluid dynamics, a stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases.[1] This occurs when the critical angle of attack of the foil is exceeded. The critical angle of attack is typically about 15 degrees, but it may vary significantly depending on the fluid, foil, and Reynolds number. Stalls in fixed-wing flight are often experienced as a sudden reduction in lift as the pilot increases the wing's angle of attack and exceeds its critical angle of attack (which may be due to slowing down below stall speed in level flight). A stall does not mean that the engine(s) have stopped working, or that the aircraft has stopped moving — the effect is the same even in an unpowered glider aircraft
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Waco Custom Cabin Series
The Waco Custom Cabins were a series of up-market single-engined four-to-five-seat cabin sesquiplanes of the late 1930s produced by the Waco Aircraft Company
Waco Aircraft Company
of the United States. "Custom Cabin" was Waco's own description of the aircraft which despite minor differences, were all fabric-covered biplanes.Contents1 Design 2 Designation clarification 3 Operational history 4 Variants4.1 1935 OC Series (54+ built) 4.2 1935 UC Series (30+ built) 4.3 1936 QC Series (C-6) (120 built) 4.4 1937–38 GC Series (C-7 and C-8) (96+ built) 4.5 1938 VN Series (N-8) (20 ca
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Tension Member
Tension members are structural elements that are subjected to axial tensile forces. Examples of tension members are bracing for buildings and bridges, truss members, and cables in suspended roof systems.Contents1 Calculation 2 Design 3 See also 4 ReferencesCalculation[edit] In an axially loaded tension member, the stress is given by: F = P/A where P is the magnitude of the load and A is the cross-sectional area. The stress given by this equation is exact, knowing that the cross section is not adjacent to the point of application of the load nor having holes for bolts or other discontinuities
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Sopwith Dolphin
The Sopwith 5F.1 Dolphin was a British fighter aircraft manufactured by the Sopwith Aviation Company. It was used by the Royal Flying Corps and its successor, the Royal Air Force, during the First World War. The Dolphin entered service on the Western Front in early 1918 and proved to be a formidable fighter
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Fuselage
The fuselage (/ˈfjuːzəlɑːʒ/; from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section. It holds crew, passengers, and cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, as well, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage, which in turn is used as a floating hull
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Ultralight Aviation
Ultralight aviation
Ultralight aviation
(called microlight aviation in some countries) is the flying of lightweight, 1- or 2-seat fixed-wing aircraft. Some countries differentiate between weight-shift control and conventional 3-axis control aircraft with ailerons, elevator and rudder, calling the former "microlight" and the latter "ultralight". During the late 1970s and early 1980s, mostly stimulated by the hang gliding movement, many people sought affordable powered flight. As a result, many aviation authorities set up definitions of lightweight, slow-flying aeroplanes that could be subject to minimum regulations. The resulting aeroplanes are commonly called "ultralight aircraft" or "microlights", although the weight and speed limits differ from country to country
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Chord (aircraft)
In aeronautics, chord refers to the imaginary straight line joining the leading and trailing edges of an aerofoil. The chord length is the distance between the trailing edge and the point on the leading edge where the chord intersects the leading edge.[1][2] The point on the leading edge that is used to define the chord can be defined as either the surface point of minimum radius,[2] or the surface point that will yield maximum chord length[citation needed]. The wing, horizontal stabilizer, vertical stabilizer and propeller of an aircraft are all based on aerofoil sections, and the term chord or chord length is also used to describe their width
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Aspect Ratio (wing)
In aeronautics, the aspect ratio of a wing is the ratio of its span to its mean chord. It is equal to the square of the wingspan divided by the wing area
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Flying And Gliding Animals
A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding. Flying and gliding animals
Flying and gliding animals
(volant animals) have evolved separately many times, without any single ancestor. Flight
Flight
has evolved at least four times, in the insects, pterosaurs, birds, and bats. Gliding has evolved on many more occasions. Usually the development is to aid canopy animals in getting from tree to tree, although there are other possibilities. Gliding, in particular, has evolved among rainforest animals, especially in the rainforests in Asia
Asia
(most especially Borneo) where the trees are tall and widely spaced
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Biology
Biology
Biology
is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution.[1] Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology
Biology
recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species
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First World War
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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